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Laura A Hug, Rebecca Co
An enduring theme in microbial ecology is the interdependence of microbial community members. Interactions between community members include provision of cofactors, establishment of redox gradients, and turnover of key nutrients to drive biogeochemical cycles. Pathways canonically conducted by isolated organisms in laboratory cultures are instead collective products of diverse and interchangeable microbes in the environment. Current sequence-based methods provide unprecedented access to uncultivated microorganisms, allowing prediction of previously cryptic roles in biogeochemical cycles and interactions within communities...
March 2018: MSystems
Tania Pawade, Marie-Annick Clavel, Christophe Tribouilloy, Julien Dreyfus, Tiffany Mathieu, Lionel Tastet, Cedric Renard, Mesut Gun, William Steven Arthur Jenkins, Laurent Macron, Jacob W Sechrist, Joan M Lacomis, Virginia Nguyen, Laura Galian Gay, Hug Cuéllar Calabria, Ioannis Ntalas, Timothy Robert Graham Cartlidge, Bernard Prendergast, Ronak Rajani, Arturo Evangelista, João L Cavalcante, David E Newby, Philippe Pibarot, David Messika Zeitoun, Marc R Dweck
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography aortic valve calcium scoring (CT-AVC) holds promise for the assessment of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). We sought to establish the clinical utility of CT-AVC in an international multicenter cohort of patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with AS who underwent ECG-gated CT-AVC within 3 months of echocardiography were entered into an international, multicenter, observational registry. Optimal CT-AVC thresholds for diagnosing severe AS were determined in patients with concordant echocardiographic assessments, before being used to arbitrate disease severity in those with discordant measurements...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Cristina Hoehener, Iris Hug, Mariusz Nowacki
Dicer proteins are known to produce small RNAs (sRNAs) from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) templates. These sRNAs are bound by Argonaute proteins, which select the guide strand, often with a 5' end sequence bias. However, Dicer proteins have never been shown to have sequence cleavage preferences. In Paramecium development, two classes of sRNAs that are required for DNA elimination are produced by three Dicer-like enzymes: Dcl2, Dcl3, and Dcl5. Through in vitro cleavage assays, we demonstrate that Dcl2 has a strict size preference for 25 nt and a sequence preference for 5' U and 5' AGA, while Dcl3 has a sequence preference for 5' UNG...
March 1, 2018: Cell
Miguel A Marioni, Marcos Penedo, Mirko Baćani, Johannes Schwenk, Hans Josef Hug
Mallinson's idea that some spin textures in planar magnetic structures could produce an enhancement of the magnetic flux on one side of the plane at the expense of the other gave rise to permanent magnet configurations known as Halbach magnet arrays. Applications range from wiggler magnets in particle accelerators and free electron lasers, to motors, to magnetic levitation trains, but exploiting Halbach arrays in micro- or nanoscale spintronics devices requires solving the problem of fabrication and field metrology below 100 μm size...
March 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Anna Cavigelli-Brunner, Maja I Hug, Hitendu Dave, Oskar Baenziger, Christoph Buerki, Dominique Bettex, Vincenzo Cannizzaro, Christian Balmer
OBJECTIVES: Dobutamine and milrinone are commonly used after open-heart surgery to prevent or treat low cardiac output syndrome. We sought to compare efficacy and safety of these drugs in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, double-blinded, randomized clinical pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university children's hospital postoperative pediatric cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: After written consent, 50 consecutive patients (age, 0...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Cleo Gillet, Katharine E A Darling, Nicolas Senn, Matthias Cavassini, Olivier Hugli
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, the national HIV testing recommendations propose targeted testing. Although the emergency department (ED) is mentioned specifically as a site where HIV testing should take place, the testing rate in our ED is 1% of patients seen. The aim of this study was to use electronic tablets to offer testing to ED patients and to examine whether non-targeted screening increased testing rates compared to targeted testing. METHODS: This randomised, cross-over design study took place at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, between August and November 2015...
2018: PloS One
Lea Estermann, Pascal Ducommun, Isabelle Steurer-Dober, Urs Hug
The hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare entity of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The blunt hypothenar trauma causes a lesion of the vessel wall with a consecutive thrombosis or aneurysm of the ulnar artery at the Guyon's canal. Different risk factors are discussed such as nicotine abuse, or a muscle anomaly in the Guyon's canal. To date, there are five case reports published about muscle anomalies and HHS. We present a case of a 51-year-old shipbuilder with a unilateral HHS on his right dominant hand with a bilateral muscle anomaly...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Carlo Perrone, Andri Rauch, Hansjakob Furrer, Markus Hug, Gilles Wandeler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: AIDS
Mickaël Desvaux, Thomas Candela, Pascale Serror
The cell envelope of parietal monoderm bacteria (archetypal Gram-positive bacteria) is formed of a cytoplasmic membrane (CM) and a cell wall (CW). While the CM is composed of phospholipids, the CW is composed at least of peptidoglycan (PG) covalently linked to other biopolymers, such as teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and/or polyglutamate. Considering the CW is a porous structure with low selective permeability contrary to the CM, the bacterial cell surface hugs the molecular figure of the CW components as a well of the external side of the CM...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
W Pepke, M Brunner, R Abel, H Almansour, H J Gerner, A Hug, F Zeifang, Y Kentar, T Bruckner, M Akbar
QUESTION: Shoulder pain and rotator cuff tears are highly prevalent among wheelchair dependent individuals with paraplegia. The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors associated with the development of rotator cuff tears in this population. METHODS: A total of 217 wheelchair dependent individuals with paraplegia were included in this cross-sectional study (level of evidence III). The mean age of this population was 47.9 years and the mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 24...
February 27, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Mathieu Pasquier, Olivier Hugli, Peter Paal, Tomasz Darocha, Marc Blancher, Paul Husby, Tom Silfvast, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Valentin Rousson
AIMS: Currently, the decision to initiate extracorporeal life support for patients who suffer cardiac arrest due to accidental hypothermia is essentially based on serum potassium level. Our goal was to build a prediction score in order to determine the probability of survival following rewarming of hypothermic arrested patients based on several covariates available at admission. METHODS: We included consecutive hypothermic arrested patients who underwent rewarming with extracorporeal life support...
February 23, 2018: Resuscitation
Jörn Hülsmann, Hug Aubin, Fabian Oberle, Nicolas Schuetterle, Shahbaz T Bandesha, Makoto Iijima, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
Whole-organ engineering - based on the functional repopulation of acellular whole-organ scaffolds derived from perfusion-based in toto decellularization of the specific organ system - is one of the most promising fields in tissue engineering. However, to date, we still have hardly any insights into the process of perfusion-based scaffold generation itself, with human-scale scaffolds usually obtained by adoption of small animal decellularization models, although those organs are of decreased biomass and potentially different biological characteristics...
February 21, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Fabian Riedel, André Hennigs, Sarah Hug, Benedikt Schaefgen, Christof Sohn, Florian Schuetz, Michael Golatta, Jörg Heil
Aim: To describe and discuss the evidence for oncological safety of different procedures in oncological breast surgery, i.e. breast-conserving treatment versus mastectomy. Methods: Literature review and discussion. Results: Oncological safety in breast cancer surgery has many dimensions. Breast-conserving treatment has been established as the standard surgical procedure for primary breast cancer and fits to the preferences of most breast cancer patients concerning oncological safety and aesthetic outcome...
December 2017: Breast Care
T Franz, Q Haxhosaj, U von Wartburg, U Hug
Most extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanges (P1) of the triphalangeal fingers can be treated conservatively with good results. Prerequisites for successful fracture treatment are intact soft tissue without any lesions of the extensor hood and stable initial fracture reduction. The key to functional conservative treatment of P1 fractures is to immobilize the metacarpophalangeal joints in flexion, resulting in equilibrium of flexor and extensor forces across the fracture site, which converts these inherently unstable fractures into relatively stable fractures...
February 13, 2018: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Lutz Bornmann, Robin Haunschild, Sven E Hug
During Eugene Garfield's (EG's) lengthy career as information scientist, he published about 1500 papers. In this study, we use the impressive oeuvre of EG to introduce a new type of bibliometric networks: keyword co-occurrences networks based on the context of citations, which are referenced in a certain paper set (here: the papers published by EG). The citation context is defined by the words which are located around a specific citation. We retrieved the citation context from Microsoft Academic. To interpret and compare the results of the new network type, we generated two further networks: co-occurrence networks which are based on title and abstract keywords from (1) EG's papers and (2) the papers citing EG's publications...
2018: Scientometrics
Lucie Grécias, Julie Valentin, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate host's behaviour, which has been proposed to increase transmission to their definitive host. This behavioural change could result from the parasite actively manipulating its host, but could also be explained by a mechanical effect, where the parasite's physical presence affects host behaviour. We created an artificial internal parasite using silicone injections in the body cavity to test this mechanical effect hypothesis. We used the Schistocephalus solidus - threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) system, as this cestode can reach up to 92% of its fish host mass...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hubert Hug, M Hasan Mohajeri, Giorgio La Fata
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are powerful molecular regulators by which the immune system may "sense" the environment and protect the host from pathogens or endogenous threats. In mammalian cells, several TLRs were identified with a tissue and cell type-specific distribution. Understanding the functions of specific TLRs is crucial for the development and discovery of compounds useful to maintaining or re-establishing homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to their relevance in regulating the inflammatory response in the GIT, we will focus here on TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5...
February 13, 2018: Nutrients
Niels-Peter Brøchner Nielsen, François Hug, Arnaud Guével, Floren Colloud, Julien Lardy, Sylvain Dorel
PURPOSE: This study investigated how muscle coordination is adjusted in response to a decrease in the force-generating capacity of one muscle group during a sprint cycling task. METHODS: Fifteen participants were tested during a sprint before and after a fatigue electromyostimulation protocol was conducted on the quadriceps of one leg. Motor coordination was assessed by measuring myoelectrical activity, pedal force and joint power. RESULTS: The decrease in force-generating capacity of the quadriceps (-28...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yasser Kentar, Manuela Brunner, Thomas Bruckner, Andreas Hug, Patric Raiss, Felix Zeifang, Markus Loew, Haidara Almansour, Michael Akbar
BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of poor seated posture on the prevalence of rotator cuff tears (RCTs) among wheelchair-dependent individuals with long-standing paraplegia. METHODS: The study included 319 patients. Lateral radiographs of the spine were collected from a database and analyzed to assess the global spinopelvic alignment (SPA). Magnetic resonance images of both shoulders were obtained to detect the presence of cuff tears. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group RCT-I included all patients with cuff tears (right, left, or bilateral), whereas group RCT-II consisted exclusively of patients with bilateral cuff tears...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Bernice C Yates, Esther O Park, Amanda Hug, Kevin A Kupzyk, Sandy K Skradski
Patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are often dependent on spouses or family members for care during their recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine changes over time in spousal caregivers of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients in caregiving demand and caregiving difficulty and to identify the key demands and difficulties at each time point. Spouses (n=34) of CABG patients comprised the sample. Caregiving demand and caregiving difficulty were measured using the Caregiving Burden Scale at three time points (baseline [early hospital discharge] and 3 and 6months later) and analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
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