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Epilepsy seizure newborn review

Mehmet N Cizmeci, Liesbeth Thewissen, Alexandra Zecic, Peter A Woerdeman, Bart de Boer, Edward Baert, Paul Govaert, Jeroen Dudink, Floris Groenendaal, Maarten Lequin, Linda S de Vries
Intracranial hemorrhage is an important cause of brain injury in the neonatal population and bedside percutaneous needle aspiration has emerged as an alternative due to the major risks that can be caused by standard neurosurgical decompression. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of this minimally invasive bedside technique and conducted a retrospective analysis of all newborn infants with a large extra-axial hemorrhage associated with a parenchymal hemorrhage causing a midline shift, managed at three academic centers over a 15-year period...
April 24, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Louis T Dang, Faye S Silverstein
The mainstay of treatment of childhood epilepsy is to administer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This article provides an overview of the clinical approach to drug treatment of childhood epilepsy, focusing on general principles of therapy and properties of recently introduced medications. Initiation and cessation of therapy, adverse medication effects, drug interactions, indications for the various AEDs, and off-label use of AEDs are reviewed. The distinct challenges in treatment of epileptic spasms and neonatal seizures are addressed...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Liying Chen, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and severe neurological disorder which is often intractable. It can not only damage the normal structure and function of hippocampus, but also affect the neurogenesis in dentate gyrus (DG). It is well documented from researches on the animal models of TLE that after a latent period of several days, prolonged seizure activity leads to a dramatic increase in mitotic activity in the hippocampal DG. However, cell proliferation returns to baseline levels within 3-4 weeks after status epilepticus (SE)...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Jaume Campistol
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1000 diseases, with a global prevalence of approximately 1:2000 individuals. Approximately, 40%-60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurologic signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitochondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT-1, and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechanisms (organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders), or impairment of neurotransmission...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Chima Oluigbo, Monica S Pearl, Tammy N Tsuchida, Taeun Chang, Cheng-Ying Ho, William D Gaillard
PURPOSE: Conflicting challenges abound in the management of the newborn with intractable epilepsy related to hemimegalencephaly. Early hemispherectomy to stop seizures and prevent deleterious consequences to future neurocognitive development must be weighed against the technical and anesthetic challenges of performing major hemispheric surgery in the neonate. METHODS: We hereby present our experience with two neonates with hemimegalencephaly and intractable seizures who were managed using a strategy of initial minimally invasive embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere...
March 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Samy L Habib, Noor Y Al-Obaidi, Maciej Nowacki, Katarzyna Pietkun, Barbara Zegarska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Wojciech Zegarski, Tomasz Drewa, Edward A Medina, Zhenze Zhao, Sitai Liang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant and multi-system genetic disorder in humans. TSC affects around 25,000 to 40,000 individuals in the United States and about 1 to 2 million individuals worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of one in 6,000 newborns. TSC occurs in all races and ethnic groups, and in both genders. TSC is caused by defects or mutations in two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Loss of TSC1/TSC2 leads to dysregulation of mTOR, resulting in aberrant cell differentiation and development, and abnormal enlargement of cells...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Tristan T Sands, Tiffani L McDonough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article strives to review and summarize selected recent literature and topics contributing to a greater understanding of the diagnosis and treatments of neonatal seizures that have emerged in the past several years. RECENT FINDINGS: Continuous EEG is recommended as the gold standard for neonatal seizure monitoring as it can provide additional information that may stratify patients by etiology, as well as identify at-risk groups of newborns for neuromonitoring...
October 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Rebecca D Ganetzky, Emma Bedoukian, Matthew A Deardorff, Can Ficicioglu
Argininosuccinic acid lyase (ASL) deficiency, caused by mutations in the ASL gene (OMIM: 608310) is a urea cycle disorder that has pleiotropic presentations. On the mild end, ASL deficiency can manifest as nonspecific neurocognitive abnormalities without readily identifiable signs to differentiate it from other causes of intellectual disability or learning disabilities. Dietary management and arginine supplementation, if initiated early, may ameliorate symptoms.Because of the nonspecific nature of the symptoms and the possibility for therapeutic management, ASL deficiency is part of the recommended uniform screening panel for newborn screening in the USA...
2017: JIMD Reports
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli
The majority of neonatal seizures are of acute symptomatic origin, and their occurrence is associated with higher mortality and morbidity compared with the general population, even if there is conflicting evidence of a detrimental effect per se. Etiology is considered the main determinant of outcome, but other factors, including gestational age, brain damage severity, neonatal neurological examination, and electroencephalographically (EEG) interictal and ictal characteristics are also related to neurodevelopmental outcome or death...
January 2016: Neuropediatrics
Jaume Campistol, Barbara Plecko
About 25% of seizures in the neonatal period have causes other than asphyxia, ischaemia or intracranial bleeding. Among these are primary genetic epileptic encephalopathies with sometimes poor prognosis and high mortality. In addition, some forms of neonatal infant seizures are due to inborn errors of metabolism that do not respond to common AEDs, but are amenable to specific treatment. In this situation, early recognition can allow seizure control and will prevent neurological deterioration and long-term sequelae...
September 2015: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Facini, Elena Pavlidis, Carlotta Spagnoli, Geraldine Boylan
INTRODUCTION: Acute neonatal seizures are the most frequent neurological complication in the neonatal intensive care units and the seizing newborns have an increased risk of long-term morbidity. However, the relationship between neonatal seizures and the development of epilepsy later in life is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a literature review using the search terms "neonatal seizures AND outcome", "neonatal seizures AND epilepsy", "neonatal seizures AND post-neonatal epilepsy", including secondary sources of data such as reference lists of articles reviewed...
January 2015: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Katarzyna Kotulska, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Dorota Domańska-Pakieła, Wiesława Grajkowska, Marek Mandera, Julita Borkowska, Sergiusz Jóźwiak
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy affects up to 90% of TSC patients and majority of them have seizure at the age of 3-5 months, after a period of latent epileptogenesis, but some develop epilepsy earlier. AIMS: The aim of this work was to identify incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for neonatal onset of epilepsy in a large cohort of TSC patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical data of 421 TSC patients was performed. Patients who developed epilepsy within first 4 weeks of life were included in the study...
November 2014: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ryota Inokuchi, Kensuke Nakamura, Naoaki Mizuno, Hajime Sato, Kazuaki Shinohara, Takehiro Matsubara, Kent Doi, Takeshi Ishii, Masataka Gunshin, Susumu Nakajima, Naoki Yahagi
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of epilepsy in patients with Down syndrome (DS) is 5-13%, which is higher than the prevalence in the general population. Transient hyperammonemia is often observed following seizure, but it typically resolves within a day. Here, we describe the case a 37-year-old woman who had DS and a history of adult-onset epilepsy and was admitted to our hospital with recurrent seizures. After admission, her ammonia levels fluctuated without any apparent cause, and dynamic computed tomography revealed a portosystemic shunt...
August 2014: Brain & Development
Nicholas S Abend, Daniel H Arndt, Jessica L Carpenter, Kevin E Chapman, Karen M Cornett, William B Gallentine, Christopher C Giza, Joshua L Goldstein, Cecil D Hahn, Jason T Lerner, Tobias Loddenkemper, Joyce H Matsumoto, Kristin McBain, Kendall B Nash, Eric Payne, Sarah M Sánchez, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Justine Shults, Korwyn Williams, Amy Yang, Dennis J Dlugos
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the incidence of electrographic seizures in children in the pediatric intensive care unit who underwent EEG monitoring, risk factors for electrographic seizures, and whether electrographic seizures were associated with increased odds of mortality. METHODS: Eleven sites in North America retrospectively reviewed a total of 550 consecutive children in pediatric intensive care units who underwent EEG monitoring. We collected data on demographics, diagnoses, clinical seizures, mental status at EEG onset, EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, electrographic seizures, intensive care unit length of stay, and in-hospital mortality...
July 23, 2013: Neurology
Daniel K Arrington, Yu-Tze Ng, Matthew M Troester, John F Kerrigan, Kevin E Chapman
Prolonged video-EEG (vEEG) monitoring helps characterize paroxysmal events and epilepsy. There is limited literature in pediatrics describing the safety and utility of vEEG. We retrospectively reviewed 454 pediatric epilepsy monitoring unit admissions over two years. Final event diagnoses, duration of seizures, and medical complications were analyzed. Two hundred twenty admissions (48.4%) captured epileptic seizures, 150 (33.0%) captured nonepileptic events, and 84 (18.5%) failed to capture any events. Medical complications were seen in 4 patients (1...
May 2013: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Karen L Wilson, James M Alexander
Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage are possible medical diseases that any obstetrician may encounter. This article reviews the cause, treatment, and medical management in pregnancy for seizures and intracranial hemorrhage, and how the two can overlap into preeclampsia or eclampsia. This article also highlights some challenging management issues from the obstetrician's perspective.
March 2013: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Francisco Villarejo-Ortega, Marta García-Fernández, Concepción Fournier-Del Castillo, Martín Fabregate-Fuente, Juan Álvarez-Linera, Inmaculada De Prada-Vicente, Marcelo Budke, María-Luz Ruiz-Falcó, María-Ángeles Pérez-Jiménez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe a series of pediatric hemispherectomies, reviewing pathologic substrate, epilepsy characteristics and seizure outcome as well as developmental profiles, before and after surgery, in different domains. METHODS: Seventeen patients with full pre-surgical work-up, minimum follow-up of 12 months, and at least one post-surgical neuropsychological evaluation were selected. Three had Rasmussen encephalitis (RE), five hemispheric malformations of cortical development (MCD), and nine hemispheric vascular lesions...
March 2013: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Eboni I Lance, Aditya K Sreenivasan, T Andrew Zabel, Eric H Kossoff, Anne M Comi
Sturge-Weber syndrome is a neurocutaneous disorder with skin, eye, and brain involvement. Prior series suggest about 50% of patients have seizures/neurodeterioration. Low-dose (3-5 mg/kg/d) aspirin use in this population is controversial. This study further addresses the side effects and outcomes of low-dose aspirin usage in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Fifty-eight subjects on aspirin with brain involvement were analyzed in a retrospective chart review. Charts were evaluated for brain involvement, age at first seizure, and side effects...
February 2013: Journal of Child Neurology
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, early-onset childhood occipital epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome [PS]) and late-onset childhood occipital epilepsy (Gastaut type [LOCE-G]) are the principal pediatric focal epilepsy syndromes. They share major common characteristics: the appearance and resolution of electroclinical features are age related, there is a strong genetic predisposition, the clinical course is often mild with infrequent and easy to control seizures, interictal epileptiform activity is disproportionately abundant when compared with the clinical correlate, and tends to potentiate and generalize during sleep...
October 2012: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Katherine C Nickels, Brandon R Grossardt, Elaine C Wirrell
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a common childhood neurologic disorder, affecting 0.5-1% of children. Increased mortality occurs due to progression of underlying disease, seizure-related accidents, suicide, status epilepticus, aspiration during seizures, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Previous studies show mortality rates of 2.7-6.9 per 1,000 person-years. Potential risk factors include poor seizure control, intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures, mental retardation, and remote symptomatic cause of epilepsy...
December 2012: Epilepsia
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