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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343333/use-of-phase-locking-value-in-sensorimotor-rhythm-based-brain-computer-interface-zero-phase-coupling-and-effects-of-spatial-filters
#1
Wenjuan Jian, Minyou Chen, Dennis J McFarland
Phase-locking value (PLV) is a potentially useful feature in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, volume conduction may cause spurious zero-phase coupling between two EEG signals and it is not clear whether PLV effects are independent of spectral amplitude. Volume conduction might be reduced by spatial filtering, but it is uncertain what impact this might have on PLV. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how it is affected by spatial filtering...
March 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343295/identification-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-1-s1p1-as-a-pathogenic-factor-in-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#2
Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Chi-Ho Lee, Arjun Sapkota, Sang Yeul Lee, Jerold Chun, Hee Jun Cho, Tae-Gyu Nam, Ji Woong Choi
Medically relevant roles of receptor-mediated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling have become a successful or promising target for multiple sclerosis or cerebral ischemia. Animal-based proof-of-concept validation for the latter is particularly through the neuroprotective efficacy of FTY720, a non-selective S1P receptor modulator, presumably via activation of S1P1. In spite of a clear link between S1P signaling and cerebral ischemia, it remains unknown whether the role of S1P1 is pathogenic or neuroprotective...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343294/neuroprotective-role-of-exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-hypoxia-hypoglycemia-induced-hippocampal-neuron-injury-via-regulating-trkb-mir134-signaling
#3
Weidong Huang, Facai Meng, Jie Cao, Xiaobin Liu, Jie Zhang, Min Li
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play a neuroprotective role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury; however, the specific effects and mechanism of BDNF on hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neuron injury remains unknown. The current study investigated the action of BDNF in regulating cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury by simulating hippocampal neuron ischemia and hypoxia. We found that BDNF, p-Trkb, and miR-134 expression levels decreased, and that exogenous BDNF increased survival and reduced apoptosis in hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neurons...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343223/sildenafil-enhances-quantity-of-immature-neurons-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-the-developing-ischemic-mouse-brain
#4
Jonas Engels, Natalie Elting, Lisa Braun, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain occurs in 1 out of 1,000 live births and remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. A large number of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae including seizures and neurological deficits. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of recovery after HI insult are not clearly understood, and preventive measures or clinical treatments are nonexistent or not sufficiently effective in the clinical setting...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#5
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#6
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343145/effects-of-tiletamine-on-the-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system
#7
Li-Xue Su, Xing-Xing Shi, Peng Yang, Hao Chen, Xin Li, Hong-Gang Fan, Hong-Bin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The dissociative anesthetic tiletamine, which acts on the central nervous system (CNS), is widely used in veterinary medicine and animal experiments. Recent studies indicate that adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the analgesic action of tiletamine. In the present study, the effects of tiletamine on the AMPK signaling pathway in rats were investigated. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with tiletamine and executed at 10, 20, 40 and 60min post injection...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342972/remodeling-the-th1-polarized-systemic-environment-contributes-to-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function-via-the-wnt7a-pathway-in-neonatal-mice
#8
YunLong Xu, Fen He, FangFang Qi, Guangqi Yang, FuXiang Zheng, JunHua Yang, Xiao Wang, JunXiu Liu, JunTao Zou
Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination results in a positive effect on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Serum cytokines are considered to be the chief culprit. In this study, serum from BCG-treated mice was identified as Th1 polarized serum. The serum showed an increased ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6. After Th1 polarized serum was injected intraperitoneally into postnatal mice, the levels of cytokines and ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 in the serum and hippocampus of postnatal mice showed a similar alteration as those in Th1 polarized serum...
March 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342971/a-novel-dual-glp-1-gip-receptor-agonist-alleviates-cognitive-decline-by-re-sensitizing-insulin-signaling-in-the-alzheimer-icv-stz-rat-model
#9
Lijuan Shi, Zhihua Zhang, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, accompanied by memory loss and cognitive impairments, and there is no effective treatment for it at present. Since type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been identified as a risk factor for AD, the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), promising antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have been tested in models of neurodegenerative disease including AD and achieved good results...
March 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342970/not-in-one-metric-neuroticism-modulates-different-resting-state-metrics-within-distinctive-brain-regions
#10
Claudio Gentili, Ioana Alina Cristea, Emiliano Ricciardi, Nicola Vanello, Cristian Popita, Daniel David, Pietro Pietrini
INTRODUCTION: Neuroticism is a complex personality trait encompassing diverse aspects. Notably, high levels of neuroticism are related to the onset of psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders. Personality traits are stable individual features; therefore, they can be expected to be associated with stable neurobiological features, including the Brain Resting State (RS) activity as measured by fMRI. Several metrics have been used to describe RS properties, yielding rather inconsistent results...
March 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342965/effects-of-i2-imidazoline-receptor-ir-alkylating-bu99006-in-the-mouse-brain-upregulation-of-nischarin-i1-ir-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-proteins-and-modulation-of-associated-signalling-pathways
#11
Benjamin Keller, Jesús A García-Sevilla
5-isothiocyanato-2-benzofuranyl-2-imidazoline (BU99006) was shown to selectively and irreversibly bind to I2-imidazoline receptors (IRs) in vitro and in vivo, but cell signalling consequences of I2-IR alkylation have not been reported previously. This study assessed by Western blot the effects of BU99006 on nischarin (candidate I1-IR), μ-OR (regulated by nischarin) and associated signalling mediators in the mouse brain. Acute treatment with BU99006 (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1-3 h) led to fast (peak at 1 h) and shortlasting (decline up to 3 h) upregulation of nischarin and μ-OR contents in the hippocampus (less or non-significant effects in cortex) and altered the expression of cytoskeletal β-actin (reduced contents at 3 h)...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342897/dose-response-effect-of-acute-phencyclidine-on-functional-connectivity-and-dopamine-levels-and-their-association-with-schizophrenia-like-symptom-classes-in-rat
#12
Jaakko Paasonen, Raimo A Salo, Jouni Ihalainen, Juuso V Leikas, Katja Savolainen, Marko Lehtonen, Markus M Forsberg, Olli Gröhn
Current drug treatments for schizophrenia (SCZ) can alleviate positive symptoms, but have little effect on the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits that are difficult to translate into preclinical models for drug development. Therefore, we aimed to determine the dose-response effects of acute phencyclidine (PCP, 1.0-5.0 mg/kg) on rat brain connectivity and detect markers for different SCZ-like symptoms. Pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and microdialysis were used to investigate PCP-induced effects on functional connectivity (FC) and dopamine levels, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342896/neuroprotective-and-axonal-outgrowth-promoting-effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-and-primary-hippocampal-neurons-exposed-to-hypoxia
#13
Tao Zhang, Jianbo Gu, Liangmiao Wu, Ning Li, Yewei Sun, Pei Yu, Yuqiang Wang, Gaoxiao Zhang, Zaijun Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is an important risk factor for vascular dementia and other brain dysfunctions, for which there are currently no effective medications available. We investigated the neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth promoting effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN) in a permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) rat model and in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). At 6th week after 2VO, TBN increased the time spent in novel arms in the Y-maze test and improved the discrimination ratio in object reorganization task...
March 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342765/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-and-altered-food-decision-making-as-players-on-obesity-risk
#14
REVIEW
Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Natasha Kim de Oliveira da Fonseca, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
There are increasing evidences that hippocampus can modulate the decision of what, when and how much to eat, in addition to its already recognized role in learning and memory processes. Insulin also has been linked to brain functions such as feeding behavior and the imbalance of its mechanism of action on hippocampus is being related to cognitive dysfunction. The discussion here is whether changes in insulin action could contribute to intake dysregulation and obesogenic behavior as a primary consequence of impairing hippocampal functioning, aside from the role of this hormone on obesity development through peripheral metabolic pathways...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342407/music-and-natural-sounds-in-an-auditory-steady-state-response-based-brain-computer-interface-to-increase-user-acceptance
#15
Jeong Heo, Hyun Jae Baek, Seunghyeok Hong, Min Hye Chang, Jeong Su Lee, Kwang Suk Park
Patients with total locked-in syndrome are conscious; however, they cannot express themselves because most of their voluntary muscles are paralyzed, and many of these patients have lost their eyesight. To improve the quality of life of these patients, there is an increasing need for communication-supporting technologies that leverage the remaining senses of the patient along with physiological signals. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an electro-physiologic response to auditory stimulation that is amplitude-modulated by a specific frequency...
March 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#16
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340449/right-hemisphere-pitch-mismatch-negativity-reduction-in-patients-with-major-depression-an-meg-study
#17
Noriaki Hirakawa, Yoji Hirano, Itta Nakamura, Shogo Hirano, Jinya Sato, Naoya Oribe, Takefumi Ueno, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshiaki Onitsuka
BACKGROUND: The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential and its magnetic counterpart, the MMNm, are generated by a mismatch between the physical features of a deviant stimulus and a neuronal sensory-memory trace produced by repetitive standard stimuli. Deficits in the MMN/MMNm have been reported in patients with major depression; however, the results are inconsistent. The present study investigated the pitch-MMNm in patients with major depression using whole-head 306-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340406/a-local-adjustment-strategy-for-the-initialization-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-to-infer-effective-connectivity-in-brain-epileptic-structures
#18
Wentao Xiang, Ahmad Karfoul, Huazhong Shu, Régine Le Bouquin Jeannès
This paper addresses the question of effective connectivity in the human cerebral cortex in the context of epilepsy. Among model based approaches to infer brain connectivity, spectral Dynamic Causal Modelling is a conventional technique for which we propose an alternative to estimate cross spectral density. The proposed strategy we investigated tackles the sub-estimation of the free energy using the well-known variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm highly sensitive to the initialization of the parameters vector by a permanent local adjustment of the initialization process...
March 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#19
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340115/cellular-senescence-in-mouse-hippocampus-after-irradiation-and-the-role-of-p53-and-p21
#20
Zoey Cheng, Yan Zhen Zheng, Yu-Qing Li, C Shun Wong
Diverse stress signals including irradiation may trigger cellular senescence. We asked whether irradiation induced senescence in mouse hippocampus, and whether p53 or p21 played a role in this response. Following whole-brain irradiation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays for senescence-associated genes showed increased expression of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p19ARF) in mouse hippocampus at 9 weeks. Upregulation of p21 and p19ARF was confirmed using real-time PCR, which also demonstrated increased CDKN2A/p16INKa expression after irradiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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