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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#1
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346751/the-brain-compass-a-perspective-on-how-self-motion-updates-the-head-direction-cell-attractor
#2
REVIEW
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Head direction cells form an internal compass signaling head azimuth orientation even without visual landmarks. This property is generated by a neuronal ring attractor that is updated using rotation velocity cues. The properties and origin of this velocity drive remain, however, unknown. We propose a quantitative framework whereby this drive represents a multisensory self-motion estimate computed through an internal model that uses sensory prediction errors of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory cues to improve on-line motor drive...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346107/brain-mr-image-restoration-using-an-automatic-trilateral-filter-with-gpu-based-acceleration
#3
Herng-Hua Chang, Cheng-Yuan Li, Audrey Haihong Gallogly
OBJECTIVE: Noise reduction in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images has been a challenging and demanding task. This study develops a new trilateral filter that aims to achieve robust and efficient image restoration. METHODS: Extended from the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm contains one additional intensity similarity funct-ion, which compensates for the unique characteristics of noise in brain MR images. An entropy function adaptive to intensity variations is introduced to regulate the contributions of the weighting components...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345288/downregulation-of-mir%C3%A2-205-is-associated-with-glioblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-zeb1-via-the-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#4
Wei Chen, Kuan-Kei Kong, Xin-Ke Xu, Cheng Chen, Hui Li, Fang-Yu Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Zhan Zhang, Ping Li, Jun-Liang Li, Fang-Cheng Li
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of malignant brain tumor. In spite of recent advancements in surgical techniques, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, patients with GBM often face a dire prognosis. MicroRNAs have been shown to modulate the aggressiveness of various cancers, and have emerged as possible therapeutic agents for the management of GBM. miR‑205 is dysregulated in glioma and act as a prognostic indicator. However, the role of miR‑205 in the development of GBM has not been elucidated...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344985/probing-the-microscopic-environment-of-23-na-ions-in-brain-tissue-by-mri-on-the-accuracy-of-different-sampling-schemes-for-the-determination-of-rapid-biexponential-t2-decay-at-low-signal-to-noise-ratio
#5
Jonathan M Lommen, Sebastian Flassbeck, Nicolas G R Behl, Sebastian Niesporek, Peter Bachert, Mark E Ladd, Armin M Nagel
PURPOSE: To investigate and to reduce influences on the determination of the short and long apparent transverse relaxation times ( T2,s*, T2,l*) of 23 Na in vivo with respect to signal sampling. METHODS: The accuracy of T2* determination was analyzed in simulations for five different sampling schemes. The influence of noise in the parameter fit was investigated for three different models. A dedicated sampling scheme was developed for brain parenchyma by numerically optimizing the parameter estimation...
January 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344983/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-4-methylcyclopentadecanonein-rats-submitted-to-ischemic-stroke
#6
Yan Jin, Fang Wei, Xiaoli Dai, Min Qi, Yukui Ma
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of 4-methylcyclopentadecanone (4-MCPC) in rats suffering from a cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, the focal cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h, and the rats were treated with 4-MCPC (8 mg/kg) just 0.5 h before reperfusion. The ischemic infarct volume was recorded 24 h after the MCAO. In addition, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the ischemic cerebral cortex were determined by ELISA, while nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and expression of p-IκBα were investigated by western blotting...
January 18, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344889/quantitative-analysis-of-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-across-differentially-embedded-human-glioblastoma-tumors
#7
Hannah Johnson, Forest M White
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with a poor mean survival even with the current standard of care. Kinase signaling analyses of clinical glioblastoma samples provide a physiologically relevant view of oncogenic signaling networks. Here, we describe the methods that enable the quantification of protein expression profiles and phosphotyrosine signaling across flash frozen and optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound embedded tumor specimens. The data derived from these experiments can be used to identify the intra- and inter-patient heterogeneity present in these tumors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344660/purple-sweet-potato-color-attenuates-high-fat-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mouse-brain-by-inhibiting-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#8
Jian Li, Zhao Shi, Yongjie Mi
Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) is a natural anthocyanin pigment that is derived from purple sweet potato storage roots. PSPC possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and neuroprotective effects; however, the detailed effects of PSPC on high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced neuroinflammation remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSPC has a protective role in HFD‑associated neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and to provide novel insight into the mechanisms of the action...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344650/adrenomedullin-serves-a-role-in-the-humoral-pathway-of-delayed-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-via-a-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-associated-mechanism
#9
Wenpei Dong, Ping Yu, Tielong Zhang, Chenzhuang Zhu, Jun Qi, Junhao Liang
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a minimally invasive method that provides protection by reducing injury to the heart, kidneys, brain and other tissues or organs. RIPC may improve the outcome in patients undergoing surgery. Although the role of RIPC has been studied, the results remain controversial. It is difficult to confirm whether RIPC has a kidney protective effect and the understanding of the preconditioning signal pathway involved remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of RIPC in urology was evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344473/intractable-epilepsy-with-solitary-cerebral-calcification
#10
Kyoung Jin Hwang, Jiyoung Kim, Eun Yeon Joo, Seung Bong Hong, Seung-Chyul Hong, Dae Won Seo
Cerebral calcification is a common incidental finding upon brain imaging and its epileptogenicity is often underestimated. Here, we report a case of intractable epilepsy arising in conjunction with a solitary cerebral calcification. A 42-year-old male with intractable epilepsy was admitted to the epilepsy clinic for invasive epilepsy surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a slight high-intensity signal change in the right amygdala and a small, calcified lesion in the right lateral temporal region...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344156/effects-of-syndecan-1-on-the-expression-of-syntenin-and-the-migration-of-u251-glioma-cells
#11
Jun Chen, Jun Tang, Wei Chen, Yang Gao, Yang He, Qiang Zhang, Qishan Ran, Fang Cao, Shengtao Yao
Glioma is the most frequently occuring primary brain tumor. Syndecan-1 (SDC1) expression is related to poor prognosis of numerous human malignancies including glioma. Syndecan binding protein (SDCBP) is an important partner for SDC1. The present study investigated whether SDC1 and SDCBP are expressed in glioma and their functions on glioma cell migration. An immunohistochemical assay revealed that SDC1 and SDCBP were expressed and were positively related to malignant level of glioma (SDC1, rs=0.576, P=0.001; SDCBP, rs=0...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344152/regulation-of-autophagy-inhibition-and-inflammatory-response-in-glioma-by-wnt-signaling-pathway
#12
Tongxin Wang, Zhixia Chen, Wei Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the function of Wnt signaling pathway in regulating autophagy and inflammatory response in glioma cells. Human brain glioma cells U118 were selected and divided into three groups: i) the Wnt signaling inhibitor IWR-1 group (the observation group); ii) the PBS negative control group (the PBS group) and iii) the blank control group. After 24 h culture, Wnt5a/β-catenin protein, autophagy marker, microtubule-associated-proteins-1A1B-light-chain-3C (LC-3) II and Beclin I, and inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α protein expression levels were evaluated using western blotting...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343847/neural-substrates-of-purely-endogenous-self-regulatory-control-of-attention
#13
Suk Won Han, Hyunji Shin, Dahee Jeong, Shinyoung Jung, Eunhee Bae, Joo Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Man Baek, Kyoheon Kim
Stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward a novel, salient stimulus is a highly adaptive behavior. In an opposing vein, it is also crucial to endogenously redirect attention to other stimuli of behavioral significance if the attended stimulus was evaluated to be unimportant. This stimulus-driven orienting and subsequent reorienting of attention are known to be mediated by similar neural substrates. However, this might be because reorienting was triggered by a sensory transition exogenously capturing attention, such as an abrupt onset of a new stimulus...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343842/leptin-resistance-was-involved-in-susceptibility-to-overweight-in-the-striped-hamster-re-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#14
Ying Zhao, Li-Bing Chen, Si-Si Mao, Hong-Xia Min, Jing Cao
Food restriction (FR) is the most commonly used intervention to prevent the overweight. However, the lost weight is usually followed by "compensatory growth" when FR ends, resulting in overweight. The present study was aimed to examining the behavior patterns and hormones mechanisms underpinning the over-weight. Energy budget and body fat content, and several endocrine markers related to leptin signals were examined in the striped hamsters under 20% FR refed by either low-fat diet (LF group) or high-fat diet (HF group)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343801/dictionary-learning-based-reverberation-removal-enables-depth-resolved-photoacoustic-microscopy-of-cortical-microvasculature-in-the-mouse-brain
#15
Sushanth Govinahallisathyanarayana, Bo Ning, Rui Cao, Song Hu, John A Hossack
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) capitalizes on the optical absorption of blood hemoglobin to enable label-free high-contrast imaging of the cerebral microvasculature in vivo. Although time-resolved ultrasonic detection equips PAM with depth-sectioning capability, most of the data at depths are often obscured by acoustic reverberant artifacts from superficial cortical layers and thus unusable. In this paper, we present a first-of-a-kind dictionary learning algorithm to remove the reverberant signal while preserving underlying microvascular anatomy...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343707/sensory-neuronal-p2rx4-receptors-controls-bdnf-signaling-in-inflammatory-pain
#16
Sarah Lalisse, Jennifer Hua, Manon Lenoir, Nathalie Linck, François Rassendren, Lauriane Ulmann
Chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pains are major public health concerns. Potential therapeutic targets include the ATP-gated purinergic receptors (P2RX) that contribute to these pathological types of pain in several different cell types. The purinergic receptors P2RX2 and P2RX3 are expressed by a specific subset of dorsal root ganglion neurons and directly shape pain processing by primary afferents. In contrast the P2RX4 and P2RX7 are mostly expressed in myeloid cells, where activation of these receptors triggers the release of various pro-inflammatory molecules...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343650/decoder-calibration-with-ultra-small-current-sample-set-for-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#17
Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Luyao Chen, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang, Wei Li, Jiping He
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. APPROACH: Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343482/par1-biased-signaling-is-required-for-activated-protein-c-in-vivo-benefits-in-sepsis-and-stroke
#18
Ranjeet K Sinha, Yaoming Wang, Zhen Zhao, Xiao Xu, Laurent Burnier, Naveen Gupta, José A Fernandez, Greg Martin, Sergey Kupriyanov, Laurent O Mosnier, Berislav V Zlokovic, John H Griffin
Activated Protein C (APC) cleaves protease activated receptor (PAR)1 in vitro at R46 to initiate beneficial cell signaling; however, thrombin and APC can cleave at R41. To elucidate PAR1-dependent aspects of pharmacologic APC's in vivo mechanisms, we generated C57BL/6 mouse strains carrying QQ41 or QQ46 point mutations in PAR1 (F2r gene). Using these strains, we determined whether or not recombinant murine signaling-selective APC mutants would reduce septic death or provide neuroprotection against ischemic stroke when mice carried PAR1 homozygous mutations that prevent cleavage at either R41 or R46...
January 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343251/effects-of-the-isoflavone-genistein-in-early-life-stages-of-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-role-of-the-survivin-and-proliferation-versus-apoptosis-pathways
#19
Carmen Sarasquete, María Úbeda-Manzanaro, Juan B Ortiz-Delgado
BACKGROUND: Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases)...
January 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343209/mild-blast-injury-produces-acute-changes-in-basal-intracellular-calcium-levels-and-activity-patterns-in-mouse-hippocampal-neurons
#20
Kyle R Hansen, Gloria J DeWalt, Ali I Mohammed, Hua-An Tseng, Moona E Abdulkerim, Seth Bensussen, Venkatesh Saligrama, Bobak Nazer, William D Eldred, Xue Han
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a serious public health concern. While much is understood about long term changes in cell signaling and anatomical pathologies associated with mTBI, little is known about acute changes in neuronal function. Using large scale Ca2+ imaging in vivo, we characterized the intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in thousands of individual hippocampal neurons using a repetitive mild blast injury model where blasts were directed onto the cranium of unanesthetized mice on two consecutive days...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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