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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793116/patterns-of-invasive-growth-in-malignant-gliomas-the-hippocampus-emerges-as-an-invasion-spared-brain-region
#1
Awais A Mughal, Lili Zhang, Artem Fayzullin, Andres Server, Yuping Li, Yingxi Wu, Rainer Glass, Torstein Meling, Iver A Langmoen, Trygve B Leergaard, Einar O Vik-Mo
BACKGROUND: Widespread infiltration of tumor cells into surrounding brain parenchyma is a hallmark of malignant gliomas, but little data exist on the overall invasion pattern of tumor cells throughout the brain. METHODS: We have studied the invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas in two invasive mouse models and patients. Tumor invasion patterns were characterized in a patient-derived xenograft mouse model using brain-wide histological analysis and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
May 21, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#2
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#3
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793042/aminergic-neuromodulation-of-associative-visual-learning-in-harnessed-honey-bees
#4
Nino Mancini, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Aurore Avarguès-Weber
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a major insect model for studying visual cognition. Free-flying honey bees learn to associate different visual cues with a sucrose reward and may deploy sophisticated cognitive strategies to this end. Yet, the neural bases of these capacities cannot be studied in flying insects. Conversely, immobilized bees are accessible to neurobiological investigation but training them to respond appetitively to visual stimuli paired with sucrose reward is difficult. Here we succeeded in coupling visual conditioning in harnessed bees with pharmacological analyses on the role of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in visual learning...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792904/monoclonal-antibody-dl11c8-identifies-adam23-as-a-component-of-lipid-raft-microdomains
#5
Zaine L M Borgonovo, Caroline F Ribeiro, Michele D M Costa, Ingrid L M Souza, Gustavo R Rossi, Monica V Alcantara, Max Ingberman, Luciano G Braga, Adriana F Mercadante, Lia S Nakao, Silvio M Zanata
A disintegrin and metalloprotease protein 23 (ADAM23) is a transmembrane type I glycoprotein involved with the development and maintenance of the nervous system, including neurite outgrowth, neuronal adhesion and differentiation and regulation of synaptic transmission. In addition, ADAM23 seems to participate in immune response and tumor establishment through interaction with different members of integrin receptors. Here, we describe a novel monoclonal antibody (DL11C8) that specifically recognizes the cysteine-rich domain of both pre-protein (100kDa) and mature (70 kDa) forms of ADAM23 from different species, including human, rodents and avian orthologs...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792874/pet-staging-of-amyloidosis-using-striatum
#6
Bernard J Hanseeuw, Rebecca A Betensky, Elizabeth C Mormino, Aaron P Schultz, Jorge Sepulcre, John A Becker, Heidi I L Jacobs, Rachel F Buckley, Molly R LaPoint, Patrizia Vanini, Nancy J Donovan, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Gad A Marshall, Kathryn V Papp, Rebecca E Amariglio, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid PET data are commonly expressed as binary measures of cortical deposition. However, not all individuals with high cortical amyloid will experience rapid cognitive decline. Motivated by postmortem data, we evaluated a three-stage PET classification: low cortical; high cortical, low striatal; and high cortical, high striatal amyloid; hypothesizing this model could better reflect Alzheimer's dementia progression than a model based only on cortical measures. METHODS: We classified PET data from 1433 participants (646 normal, 574 mild cognitive impairment, and 213 AD), explored the successive involvement of cortex and striatum using 3-year follow-up PET data, and evaluated the associations between PET stages, hippocampal volumes, and cognition...
May 21, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792868/ah6809-decreases-production-of-inflammatory-mediators-by-pge-2-ep2-camp-signaling-pathway-in-an-experimentally-induced-pure-cerebral-concussion-in-rats
#7
Ping Li, Hongyan Jiang, Haiying Wu, Deye Wu, Hengxi Li, Jianyun Yu, Jianghua Lai
Increasing evidence suggests that PGE2 metabolic pathway is involved in pathological changes of the secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms, in particular, the correlation between various key enzymes and the brain injury, has remained to be fully explored. More specifically, it remains to be ascertained whether AH6809 (an EP2 receptor antagonist) would interfere with the downstream of the PGE2 , regulate the inflammatory mediators and improve neuronal damage in the hippocampus by PGE2 - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway...
May 21, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792727/added-value-of-including-entire-brain-on-body-imaging-with-fdg-pet-mri
#8
Ana M Franceschi, Robert Matthews, Lev Bangiyev, Nand Relan, Ammar Chaudhry, Dinko Franceschi
OBJECTIVE: FDG PET/MRI examination of the body is routinely performed from the skull base to the mid thigh. Many types of brain abnormalities potentially could be detected on PET/MRI if the head was included. The objective of this study was therefore to identify and characterize brain findings incidentally detected on PET/MRI of the body with the head included. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 269 patients with FDG PET/MRI whole-body scans that included the head...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792707/nano-scale-conductive-filament-with-alternating-rectification-as-an-artificial-synapse-building-block
#9
Dan Berco, Yu Zhou, Sankara Rao Gollu, Pranav Sairam Kalaga, Abhisek Kole, Mohamed Hassan, Diing Shenp Ang
A popular approach for resistive memory (RRAM) based hardware implementation of neural networks utilizes one (or two) device that functions as an analog synapse in a crossbar structure of perpendicular pre- and post-synaptic neurons. An ideal fully automated, large scale artificial neural network, that matches a biologic counterpart (in terms of density and energy consumption), thus requires nano sized, extremely low power devices with a wide dynamic range and multi level functionality. Unfortunately the tradeoff between these traits proves to be a serious obstacle in the realization of brain inspired computing platforms yet to be overcome...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792681/protein-based-electronic-skin-akin-to-biological-tissues
#10
Minsik Jo, Kyungtaek Min, Biswajit Roy, Sookyoung Kim, Sangmin Lee, Ji-Yong Park, Sunghwan Kim
Human skin provides an interface that transduces external stimuli into electrical signals for communication with the brain. There has been considerable effort to produce soft, flexible, and stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) devices. However, common polymers cannot imitate human skin perfectly due to their poor biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and permeability to many chemicals and biomolecules. Herein, we report on highly flexible, stretchable, conformal, molecule-permeable, and skin-adhering E-skins that combine a metallic nanowire (NW) network and silk protein hydrogel...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#11
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791849/activation-of-entorhinal-cortical-projections-to-the-dentate-gyrus-underlies-social-memory-retrieval
#12
Celeste Leung, Feng Cao, Robin Nguyen, Krutika Joshi, Afif J Aqrabawi, Shuting Xia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead, Jun Chul Kim, Zhengping Jia
Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lobe have been implicated in social memory, but the underlying mechanisms that tune these neural circuits remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that optical activation of excitatory entorhinal cortical perforant projections to the dentate gyrus (EC-DG) is necessary and sufficient for social memory retrieval. We further show that inducible disruption of p21-activated kinase (PAK) signaling, a key pathway important for cytoskeletal reorganization, in the EC-DG circuit leads to impairments in synaptic function and social recognition memory, and, importantly, optogenetic activation of the EC-DG terminals reverses the social memory deficits in the transgenic mice...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791735/practical-considerations-for-transitioning-early-childhood-interventions-to-scale-lessons-from-the-saving-brains-portfolio
#13
James M Radner, Marvin J S Ferrer, Dominique McMahon, Anuraj H Shankar, Karlee L Silver
Small pilot studies of young children have frequently shown promise, but very few have been successfully scaled to the regional or national levels. How can we ensure that these promising approaches move from a suite of pilots to full-scale implementation that can deliver sustainable impact for hundreds of millions of children? To elucidate concrete lessons learned and suggestions on accelerating the transition to impact at scale, we reviewed the Saving Brains portfolio to better understand three points: (1) the extent to which useful signals of impact could be extracted from data at the seed phase, (2) the ways in which innovators (project leaders) were approaching human resource challenges critical for scaling, and (3) the multisector diversity of the portfolio and the way innovators entered partnerships...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791485/alterations-in-the-brain-interactome-of-the-intrinsically-disordered-n-terminal-domain-of-the-cellular-prion-protein-prpc-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Sarah Ulbrich, Petra Janning, Ralf Seidel, Jakob Matschke, Anika Gonsberg, Sebastian Jung, Markus Glatzel, Martin Engelhard, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Jörg Tatzelt
The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is implicated in neuroprotective signaling and neurotoxic pathways in both prion diseases and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain (N-PrP) has been shown to interact with neurotoxic ligands, such as Aβ and Scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), and to be crucial for the neuroprotective activity of PrPC. To gain further insight into cellular pathways tied to PrP, we analyzed the brain interactome of N-PrP. As a novel approach employing recombinantly expressed PrP and intein-mediated protein ligation, we used N-PrP covalently coupled to beads as a bait for affinity purification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791299/spatial-attention-enhances-the-neural-representation-of-invisible-signals-embedded-in-noise
#15
Cooper A Smout, Jason B Mattingley
Recent evidence suggests that voluntary spatial attention can affect neural processing of visual stimuli that do not enter conscious awareness (i.e., invisible stimuli), supporting the notion that attention and awareness are dissociable processes [Wyart, V., Dehaene, S., & Tallon-Baudry, C. Early dissociation between neural signatures of endogenous spatial attention and perceptual awareness during visual masking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1-14, 2012; Watanabe, M., Cheng, K., Murayama, Y., Ueno, K...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791026/cd99l2-deficiency-inhibits-leukocyte-entry-into-the-central-nervous-system-and-ameliorates-neuroinflammation
#16
Maryna Samus, Ruth Seelige, Kerstin Schäfer, Lydia Sorokin, Dietmar Vestweber
Leukocyte entry into the CNS is a crucial step in the development of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Adhesion molecules mediating the docking of leukocytes to the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represent valuable targets for interference with the disease. However, little is known about the adhesion and signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that mediate the diapedesis through the BBB. Here, we show that conditional Tie-2-Cre driven gene inactivation of CD99L2 inhibits leukocyte entry into the CNS during active MOG35-55 -induced EAE and alleviates severity of the disease...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790946/a-microbial-endocrinology-based-simulated-small-intestinal-medium-for-the-evaluation-of-neurochemical-production-by-gut-microbiota
#17
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790749/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-8-hydroxydaidzein-in-lps-stimulated-bv2-microglial-cells-via-activation-of-nrf2-antioxidant-and-attenuation-of-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-signaling-pathways-as-well-as-inhibition-of-cox-2-activity
#18
Pei-Shan Wu, Hsiou-Yu Ding, Jui-Hung Yen, Shu-Fen Chen, Kuan-Han Lee, Ming-Jiuan Wu
It was demonstrated that isoflavones can cross the blood-brain barrier, making them desirable candidate agents for the prevention of neurological symptoms. 8-Hydroxydaidzein (8-OHD, 4',7,8-trihydoxyisoflavone) is an isoflavone found only in fermented soy food. Current results showed that 8-OHD inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, by inhibiting gene expression in BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, 8-OHD markedly quenched reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) so as to upregulate expression of Phase II enzymes, including heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), and the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789937/visual-and-auditory-steady-state-responses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Ali Khaleghi, Hadi Zarafshan, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
We designed a study to investigate the patterns of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when performing a motor response inhibition task. Thirty 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with ADHD and 30 healthy control adolescents underwent an electroencephalogram (EEG) examination during steady-state stimuli when performing a stop-signal task. Then, we calculated the amplitude and phase of the steady-state responses in both visual and auditory modalities...
May 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789927/cellular-components-and-circuitry-of-the-presubiculum-and-its-functional-role-in-the-head-direction-system
#20
REVIEW
Jean Simonnet, Desdemona Fricker
Orientation in space is a fundamental cognitive process relying on brain-wide neuronal circuits. Many neurons in the presubiculum in the parahippocampal region encode head direction and each head direction cell selectively discharges when the animal faces a specific direction. Here, we attempt to link the current knowledge of afferent and efferent connectivity of the presubiculum to the processing of the head direction signal. We describe the cytoarchitecture of the presubicular six-layered cortex and the morphological and electrophysiological intrinsic properties of principal neurons and interneurons...
May 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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