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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#1
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449392/osmotic-stress-decreases-complexity-underlying-the-electrophysiological-dynamic-in-soybean
#2
G F R Saraiva, A S Ferreira, G M Souza
Research rationale: Studies on plant electrophysiology are mostly focused on specific traits of single cells. Inspired by the complexity of the signaling network in plants and by analogies with neurons in human brains, we have sought for evidences of high complexity in the electrical dynamics of plant signaling and a likely relation with environmental cues. Central methods: An EEG-like standard protocol was adopted for high-resolution measurements of the electrical signal in Glycine max seedlings. The signals were continuously recorded in the same plants before and after the osmotic stimuli with a -2 MPa mannitol solution...
April 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449127/effects-of-emotional-valence-and-arousal-on-the-voice-perception-network
#3
Patricia E G Bestelmeyer, Sonja A Kotz, Pascal Belin
Several theories conceptualise emotions along two main dimensions: valence (a continuum from negative to positive) and arousal (a continuum that varies from low to high). These dimensions are typically treated as independent in many neuroimaging experiments, yet recent behavioural findings suggest that they are actually interdependent. This result has impact on neuroimaging design, analysis and theoretical development. We were interested in determining the extent of this interdependence both behaviourally and neuroanatomically, as well as teasing apart any activation that is specific to each dimension...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449039/polyphyllin-i-induces-g2-m-phase-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-u251-human-glioma-cells-via-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-the-jnk-signaling-pathway
#4
Jiaxin Liu, Yueting Zhang, Li Chen, Fei Yu, Xiaojin Li, Dan Tao, Jianhua Zhao, Shuai Zhou
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor, and its prognosis remains poor. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed for glioma therapy. Polyphyllin I (PPI), a bioactive constituent extracted from Paris polyphylla, was reported to have anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism for this activity remains unclear. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PPI on glioma cells and its mechanisms in vitro. U251 cells were treated with various concentrations of PPI (2-9 μM) for 24 to 72 h...
April 26, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448987/a-role-for-oxytocin-like-receptor-in-social-habituation-in-a-teleost
#5
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Tessa K Solomon-Lane, Pamela Del Valle, Zegni Triki, Bridget M Nugent, Hans A Hofmann
Oxytocin (OT) mediates social habituation in rodent model systems, but its role in mediating this effect in other vertebrates is unknown. We used males of the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to investigate two aspects of isotocin (IT; an OT homolog) signaling in social habituation. First, we examined the expression of IT receptor 2 (ITR2) as well as two immediate early genes in brain regions implicated in social recognition. Next, we examined IT neuron activity using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of gene expression in homologs of the amygdala and hippocampus implicate IT signaling in these regions in social habituation to a territorial neighbor...
April 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448947/traveling-from-the-hypothalamus-to-the-adipose-tissue-the-thermogenic-pathway
#6
REVIEW
Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Kamal Rahmouni, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue critical for non-shivering thermogenesis producing heat through mitochondrial uncoupling; whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) is responsible of energy storage in the form of triglycerides. Another type of fat has been described, the beige adipose tissue; this tissue emerges in existing WAT depots but with thermogenic ability, a phenomenon known as browning. Several peripheral signals relaying information about energy status act in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to regulate thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT...
April 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448548/altered-striatal-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#7
Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Mariluz Hernández-Gálvez, Cecilia J Hillard, Patricia Maciel, Sara Valdeolivas, José A Ramos, María Gómez-Ruiz, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA-3) is the most prevalent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia. We recently found that the endocannabinoid system is altered in the post-mortem cerebellum of SCA-3 patients, and similar results were also found in the cerebellar and brainstem nuclei of a SCA-3 transgenic mouse model. Given that the neuropathology of SCA-3 is not restricted to these two brain regions but rather, it is also evident in other structures (e.g., the basal ganglia), we studied the possible changes to endocannabinoid signaling in the striatum of these transgenic mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448272/automated-network-analysis-to-measure-brain-effective-connectivity-estimated-from-eeg-data-of-patients-with-alcoholism
#8
Youngoh Bae, Byeong Wook Yoo, Jung Chan Lee, Hee Chan Kim
OBJECTIVE: Detection and diagnosis based on extracting features and classification using electroencephalography (EEG) signals are being studied vigorously. A network analysis of time series EEG signal data is one of many techniques that could help study brain functions. In this study, we analyze EEG to diagnose alcoholism. APPROACH: We propose a novel methodology to estimate the differences in the status of the brain based on EEG data of normal subjects and data from alcoholics by computing many parameters stemming from effective network using Granger causality...
April 27, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448009/using-primary-neurosphere-cultures-to-study-primary-cilia
#9
Issei S Shimada, Hemant Badgandi, Bandarigoda N Somatilaka, Saikat Mukhopadhyay
The primary cilium is fundamentally important for the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells and for neuronal differentiation during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. In addition, most differentiated neurons possess primary cilia that house signaling receptors, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, and signaling molecules, such as adenylyl cyclases. The primary cilium determines the activity of multiple developmental pathways, including the sonic hedgehog pathway during embryonic neuronal development, and also functions in promoting compartmentalized subcellular signaling during adult neuronal function...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447863/lysophosphatidic-acid-and-amitriptyline-signal-through-lpa1r-to-reduce-p-glycoprotein-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#10
David B Banks, Gary Ny Chan, Rebecca A Evans, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
The blood-brain barrier is a microvascular network that (1) provides neuroprotection from metabolic and environmental toxins and (2) limits the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The ATP-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein contributes to the latter by actively pumping clinical substrates back into circulation before they can reach the brain parenchyma. Targeting P-glycoprotein has proven effective in increasing the delivery of therapeutics to their cerebral targets. We provide a novel mechanism to achieve this end in functioning, intact rat brain capillaries, whereby the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline reduce basal P-glycoprotein transport activity through a distinct lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor-mediated signaling cascade that requires G-protein coupling, Src kinase, and ERK 1/2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447824/correction-to-kuhn-et-al-2017
#11
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Similar Representations of Emotions Across Faces and Voices" by Lisa Katharina Kuhn, Taeko Wydell, Nadine Lavan, Carolyn McGettigan and Lúcia Garrido (Emotion, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 02, 2017, np). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-09406-001.) Emotions are a vital component of social communication, carried across a range of modalities and via different perceptual signals such as specific muscle contractions in the face and in the upper respiratory system...
April 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447738/telmisartan-suppresses-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-the-nfat-anp-bnp-signaling-pathway
#12
Xiurong Li, Yuhuai Lan, Yan Wang, Minghao Nie, Yanhong Lu, Eryang Zhao
Telmisartan, a type of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor inhibitor, is a common agent used to treat hypertension in the clinic. Hypertension increases cardiac afterload and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. However, the ventricular Ang II receptor may be activated in the absence of hypertension. Therefore, telmisartan may reduce cardiac hypertrophy by indirectly ameliorating hypertensive symptoms and directly inhibiting the cardiac Ang II receptor. Nuclear factor of activated T‑cells (NFAT) contributes to cardiac hypertrophy via nuclear translocation, which induces a cascade of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain/B‑type natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447730/pioglitazone-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-42-deposition-in-rats-with-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-associated-with-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-activation
#13
Sisi Yang, Zhe Chen, Ming Cao, Renjie Li, Zhigang Wang, Muxun Zhang
Pioglitazone may have potential benefits as an alternative therapeutic treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in individuals that also have comorbid diabetes; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone on amyloid β, isoform 42 (Aβ42) deposition in rats with diet‑induced insulin resistance (IR). Diet‑induced IR model rats were established in the presence or absence of pioglitazone. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, and cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels were measured; in addition, hippocampal tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of Aβ42 expression...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447574/optimized-longitudinal-monitoring-of-stem-cell-grafts-in-mouse-brain-using-a-novel-bioluminescent-near-infrared-fluorescent-fusion-reporter
#14
Laura Mezzanotte, Juvita Delancy Iljas, Ivo Que, Alan Chan, Eric Kaijzel, Rob Hoeben, Clemens Löwik
<p>Biodistribution and fate of transplanted stem cells via longitudinal monitoring has been successfully achievedin the last decade using optical imaging. However, sensitive longitudinal imaging of transplanted stem cells in deep tissue like the brain remains challenging not only due to low light penetration but because of other factors such as low or inferior expression levels of optical reporters in stem cells and stem cell death after transplantation. Here we describe an optimized imaging protocol for sensitive long term monitoring of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) expressing a novel bioluminescent/near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) fusion reporter transplanted in mouse brain cortex...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447295/functional-expression-of-p-glycoprotein-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-understanding-transport-mechanisms-for-improved-cns-drug-delivery
#15
Wazir Abdullahi, Thomas P Davis, Patrick T Ronaldson
Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is greatly limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Physical and biochemical properties of the BBB have rendered treatment of CNS diseases, including those with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component, extremely difficult. Targeting endogenous BBB transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily (i.e., P-glycoprotein (P-gp)) or from the solute carrier (SLC) family (i.e., organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents)) has been suggested as a strategy that can improve delivery of drugs to the brain...
April 26, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447033/prokineticin-is-a-new-linker-between-obesity-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Canan G Nebigil
Obesity is a fast growing epidemic event worldwide. Fatness is associated with a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although obesity can be heredity in 30-70% cases, the environmental contributions also play an important role in the increasing prevalence of obesity. The relationship between development of obesity and CVD is poorly characterized. Obesity and CVD can also be resulted from a common mechanism such as metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal changes. Prokineticins are defined as cytokines (immunoregulatory proteins), adipokines (adipocyte-secreted hormone), angiogenic (increasing vessel formation), or aneroxic (lowering food intake) hormones...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#17
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446702/alteration-of-cerebrovascular-haemodynamic-patterns-due-to-atrial-fibrillation-an-in-silico-investigation
#18
S Scarsoglio, A Saglietto, M Anselmino, F Gaita, L Ridolfi
There has recently been growing evidence that atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is independently associated with the risk of dementia. This represents a very recent frontier with high social impact for the number of individuals involved and for the expected increase in AF incidence in the next 40 years. Although a number of potential haemodynamic processes, such as microembolisms, altered cerebral blood flow, hypoperfusion and microbleeds, arise as connecting links between the two pathologies, the causal mechanisms are far from clear...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446616/early-immune-responses-are-independent-of-rgc-dysfunction-in-glaucoma-with-complement-component-c3-being-protective
#19
Jeffrey M Harder, Catherine E Braine, Pete A Williams, Xianjun Zhu, Katharine H MacNicoll, Gregory L Sousa, Rebecca A Buchanan, Richard S Smith, Richard T Libby, Gareth R Howell, Simon W M John
Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wld(s) allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J.Wld(s) mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446613/structural-basis-for-ligand-capture-and-release-by-the-endocytic-receptor-apoer2
#20
Hidenori Hirai, Norihisa Yasui, Keitaro Yamashita, Sanae Tabata, Masaki Yamamoto, Junichi Takagi, Terukazu Nogi
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) is a close homologue of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that mediates the endocytosis of ligands, including LDL particles. LDLR family members have been presumed to explore a large conformational space to capture ligands in the extended conformation at the cell surface. Ligands are subsequently released through a pH-titrated structural transition to a self-docked, contracted-closed conformation. In addition to lipoprotein uptake, ApoER2 is implicated in signal transduction during brain development through capture of the extracellular protein reelin...
April 26, 2017: EMBO Reports
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