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glutamine gastrointestinal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496350/intravenous-citrulline-generation-test-to-assess-intestinal-function-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#1
Job Hc Peters, Nicolette J Wierdsma, Albertus Beishuizen, Tom Teerlink, Ad A van Bodegraven
BACKGROUND: Assessment of a quantifiable small intestinal function test is cumbersome. Fasting citrulline concentrations have been proposed as a measure of enterocyte function and elaborated into a citrulline generation test (CGT), which is applicable only when glutamine is administered orally. CGT is an oral test, limiting its use, for example, in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of normative values and feasibility of an intravenously performed CGT in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with presumed gastrointestinal motility disturbances, especially when performed intravenously...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416775/volatile-organic-compounds-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-tissue-originating-from-patient-derived-xenografts
#2
Renata Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Woźniak, Yemarshet Gebreyohannes, Bartosz Dykcik, Patrick Schöffski, Michal Markuszewski
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, localized mainly in the stomach or small intestine. The metabolomic signature of GIST signature associated with various mutations in KIT gene remains undiscovered and unexplored. The main aim of this pilot study was to determine and compare metabolomic profiles in GIST xenograft models with different genetic background. Metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry followed by both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was applied to select metabolites which differentiate the GIST models studied...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388380/acquired-amino-acid-deficiencies-a-focus-on-arginine-and-glutamine
#3
Claudia R Morris, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Robert G Martindale, Menaka Sarav, Juan B Ochoa Gautier
Nonessential amino acids are synthesized de novo and therefore not diet dependent. In contrast, essential amino acids must be obtained through nutrition since they cannot be synthesized internally. Several nonessential amino acids may become essential under conditions of stress and catabolic states when the capacity of endogenous amino acid synthesis is exceeded. Arginine and glutamine are 2 such conditionally essential amino acids and are the focus of this review. Low arginine bioavailability plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of a growing number of varied diseases, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, malaria, acute asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and trauma, among others...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334434/withdrawn-nutrition-support-for-bone-marrow-transplant-patients
#4
REVIEW
Susan M Murray, Sima Pindoria
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2002. Bone marrow transplantation involves administration of toxic chemotherapy and infusion of marrow cells. After treatment, patients can develop poor appetite, mucositis and gastrointestinal failure, leading to malnutrition. To prevent this, parenteral nutrition (PN) support is often first choice but is associated with increased risk of infection. Enteral nutrition (EN) is an alternative, as is addition of substrates...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140462/physiopathology-and-management-of-gluten-induced-celiac-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jitendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Pandey, Nar Singh Chauhan
Proline- and glutamine-rich gluten proteins are one of the major constituents of cereal dietary proteins, which are largely resistant to complete cleavage by the human gastrointestinal (GI) digestive enzymes. Partial digestion of gluten generates approximately 35 amino acids (aa) immunomodulatory peptides which activate T-cell-mediated immune system, followed by immunological inflammation of mucosa leading to the onset of celiac disease (CD). CD is an autoimmune disease associated with HLA-DQ2/DQ8 polymorphism and dysbiosis of gut microbiota...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976606/the-progression-of-coeliac-disease-its-neurological-and-psychiatric-implications
#6
Giovanna Campagna, Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Alessia Rizzuto, Irene La Fratta, Alfredo Grilli
The aim of the paper is to show the various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in coeliac disease (CD). CD is a T cell-mediated, tissue-specific autoimmune disease which affects genetically susceptible individuals after dietary exposure to proline- and glutamine-rich proteins contained in certain cereal grains. Genetics, environmental factors and different immune systems, together with the presence of auto-antigens, are taken into account when identifying the pathogenesis of CD. CD pathogenesis is related to immune dysregulation, which involves the gastrointestinal system, and the extra-intestinal systems such as the nervous system, whose neurological symptoms are evidenced in CD patients...
December 15, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940405/dietary-and-enteral-interventions-for-crohn-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Takayuki Yamamoto, Takahiro Shimoyama, Moeko Kuriyama
It is now widely acknowledged that the intestinal bacterial flora together with genetic predisposing factors significantly contribute to the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as reflected by mucosal immune dysregulation. Recently, there has been an increased interest in nutraceutical therapies, including probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Other dietary interventions with low carbohydrate diet, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine have been attempted to downregulate the gut inflammatory response and thereby alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803737/impact-of-ornithine-phenylacetate-ocr-002-in-lowering-plasma-ammonia-after-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-cirrhotic-patients
#8
Meritxell Ventura-Cots, Mar Concepción, José Antonio Arranz, Macarena Simón-Talero, Maria Torrens, Albert Blanco-Grau, Inma Fuentes, Pilar Suñé, Edilmar Alvarado-Tapias, Cristina Gely, Eva Roman, Beatriz Mínguez, German Soriano, Joan Genescà, Juan Córdoba
BACKGROUND: Ornithine phenylacetate (OP) has been proven effective in lowering ammonia plasma levels in animals, and to be well tolerated in cirrhotic patients. A trial to assess OP efficacy in lowering plasma ammonia levels versus placebo in cirrhotic patients after an upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed. The primary outcome was a decrease in venous plasma ammonia at 24 hours. METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive cirrhotic patients were enrolled within 24 hours of an upper gastrointestinal bleed...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749689/glutamine-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635657/experimental-cancer-cachexia-changes-neuron-numbers-and-peptide-levels-in-the-intestine-partial-protective-effects-after-dietary-supplementation-with-l-glutamine
#10
Geraldo E Vicentini, Luciane Fracaro, Sara R G de Souza, Heber A Martins, Flávia A Guarnier, Jacqueline N Zanoni
Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs in cancer cachexia and may result from damage to enteric innervation caused by oxidative stress, especially due to glutathione depletion. We assessed the effect of dietary supplementation with 20 g/kg l-glutamine (a glutathione precursor) on the intrinsic innervation of the enteric nervous system in healthy and Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats during the development of experimental cachexia (14 days), in comparison with non-supplemented rats, by using immunohistochemical methods and Western blotting...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129250/the-reduction-insensitive-bonds-of-the-muc2-mucin-are-isopeptide-bonds
#11
Christian V Recktenwald, Gunnar C Hansson
The main structural component of the mucus in the gastrointestinal tract is the MUC2 mucin. It forms large networks that in colon build the loose outer mucous layer that provides the habitat for the commensal flora and the inner mucous layer that protects the epithelial cells by being impenetrable to bacteria. The epithelial cells in mice lacking MUC2 are not adequately protected from bacteria, resulting in inflammation and the development of colon cancer as found in human ulcerative colitis. Correct processing of the MUC2 mucin is the basis for the building of these protective networks...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065119/genomewide-association-study-of-liver-abscess-in-beef-cattle
#12
J W Keele, L A Kuehn, T G McDaneld, R G Tait, S A Jones, B N Keel, W M Snelling
Fourteen percent of U.S. cattle slaughtered in 2011 had liver abscesses, resulting in reduced carcass weight, quality, and value. Liver abscesses can result from a common bacterial cause, , which inhabits rumen lesions caused by acidosis and subsequently escapes into the blood stream, is filtered by the liver, and causes abscesses in the liver. Our aim was to identify SNP associated with liver abscesses in beef cattle. We used lung samples as a DNA source because they have low economic value, they have abundant DNA, and we had unrestricted access to sample them...
February 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936258/glutamine-metabolism-in-advanced-age
#13
REVIEW
Dominique Meynial-Denis
Glutamine, reviewed extensively in the last century, is a key substrate for the splanchnic bed in the whole body and is a nutrient of particular interest in gastrointestinal research. A marked decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration has recently been observed in neonates and adults during acute illness and stress. Although some studies in newborns have shown parenteral and enteral supplementation with glutamine to be of benefit (by decreasing proteolysis and activating the immune system), clinical trials have not demonstrated prolonged advantages such as reductions in mortality or risk of infections in adults...
April 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911235/cyclopamine-tartrate-an-inhibitor-of-hedgehog-signaling-strongly-interferes-with-mitochondrial-function-and-suppresses-aerobic-respiration-in-lung-cancer-cells
#14
Md Maksudul Alam, Sagar Sohoni, Sarada Preeta Kalainayakan, Massoud Garrossian, Li Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is associated with the development of many cancers including prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and basal cell carcinoma. The Hh signaling pathway has been one of the most intensely investigated targets for cancer therapy, and a number of compounds inhibiting Hh signaling are being tested clinically for treating many cancers. Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three most common cancers (colon, breast, and prostate) combined...
February 24, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870119/effects-of-early-enteral-micro-feeding-on-neonatal-serum-vitamin-d-levels
#15
Liang Hu, Xiangdang Yin, Haifeng Chu, Guangli Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of early enteral micro-feeding on neonatal serum vitamin D levels, and to analyze the application value of glutamine. METHODS: One hundred ninty neonates enrolled in intensive care unit were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n=95) that were both given enteral and parenteral nutrition support. Meanwhile, the treatment group was fed formula milk containing 0.3 g/(kg·d) glutamine as enteral nutrition support for 14 days...
November 2015: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808848/acute-citrulline-malate-supplementation-and-high-intensity-cycling-performance
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Brian Cunniffe, Maria Papageorgiou, Barbara OʼBrien, Nathan A Davies, George K Grimble, Marco Cardinale
Cunniffe, B, Papageorgiou, M, O'Brien, B, Davies, NA, Grimble, GK, and Cardinale, M. Acute citrulline-malate supplementation and high-intensity cycling performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2638-2647, 2016-Dietary L-citrulline-malate (CM) consumption has been suggested to improve skeletal muscle metabolism and contractile efficiency, which would be expected to predispose exercising individuals to greater fatigue resistance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CM supplementation on acid-base balance and high-intensity exercise performance...
September 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776879/a-phase-iii-study-evaluating-oral-glutamine-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta-2-on-chemotherapy-induced-toxicity-in-patients-with-digestive-neoplasm
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Faïza Khemissa, Laurent Mineur, Caroline Amsellem, Eric Assenat, Mohamed Ramdani, Patrick Bachmann, Chloé Janiszewski, Isabelle Cristiani, Fideline Collin, Julie Courraud, Hélène de Forges, Pierre Dechelotte, Pierre Senesse
BACKGROUND: Patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer are exposed to cachexia, which is highly correlated with chemotherapy-induced side effects. Research suggests that specific immunonutrients could prevent such toxicities. AIMS: The primary objective of this phase III study was to evaluate the efficacy of glutamine and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) in the prevention of grade 3-4 non-hematological toxicities induced by chemotherapy in patients with GI cancer...
March 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759695/alpha-ketoglutarate-physiological-functions-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Nan Wu, Mingyao Yang, Uma Gaur, Huailiang Xu, Yongfang Yao, Diyan Li
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key molecule in the Krebs cycle determining the overall rate of the citric acid cycle of the organism. It is a nitrogen scavenger and a source of glutamate and glutamine that stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation in muscles. AKG as a precursor of glutamate and glutamine is a central metabolic fuel for cells of the gastrointestinal tract as well. AKG can decrease protein catabolism and increase protein synthesis to enhance bone tissue formation in the skeletal muscles and can be used in clinical applications...
January 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593456/treatment-and-prevention-of-pouchitis-after-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-chronic-ulcerative-colitis
#19
REVIEW
Siddharth Singh, Andrea M Stroud, Stefan D Holubar, William J Sandborn, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND: Pouchitis occurs in approximately 50% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of medical therapies (including antibiotics, probiotics, and other agents) for prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to October 2014...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526599/walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats-demonstrate-altered-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-effects-on-icc-in-the-walker-256-tumor-model
#20
L Fracaro, F C V Frez, B C Silva, G E Vicentini, S R G de Souza, H A Martins, D R Linden, F A Guarnier, J N Zanoni
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a significant problem in patients with cancer. The effect of cancer on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and neurons of the gastrointestinal tract have not been studied previously. Although supplementation with L-glutamine 2% may have beneficial effects in cancer-related cachexia, and be protective of ICC in models of oxidative stress such as diabetes, its effects on ICC in cancer have also not been studied. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), control supplemented with L-glutamine (CG), Walker 256 tumor (WT), and Walker 256 tumor supplemented with L-glutamine (WTG)...
January 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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