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glutamine gastrointestinal

M R Perez-Gregorio, R Días, N Mateus, V de Freitas
The lack of digestibility of certain gluten proteins is essential in the development of celiac disease (CD). Gluten proteins are remarkably resistant to luminal and brush-border proteolysis owing to their high proline and glutamine content. Consequently, large fragments remain intact after digestion exerting toxic effects. Intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) have been described as having strong proteolytic activity mainly through prolyl endopeptidase enzymes. The purpose of this work was to monitor the gastrointestinal digestion of specific CD epitopes by means of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model that included incubation with brush-border membrane enzymes...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
Theresa A Lawrie, John T Green, Mark Beresford, Linda Wedlake, Sorrel Burden, Susan E Davidson, Simon Lal, Caroline C Henson, H Jervoise N Andreyev
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of people survive cancer but a significant proportion have gastrointestinal side effects as a result of radiotherapy (RT), which impairs their quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVES: To determine which prophylactic interventions reduce the incidence, severity or both of adverse gastrointestinal effects among adults receiving radiotherapy to treat primary pelvic cancers. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase in September 2016 and updated them on 2 November 2017...
January 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Babak Golkhalkhali, Audra Shaleena Paliany, Kin Fah Chin, Retnagowri Rajandram
The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on a steady rise over the years, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting CRC as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While treatment modalities may differ in accordance to the staging and severity of the disease itself, chemotherapy is almost unavoidable in most cases. Though effective in its mode of action, chemotherapy is commonly associated with undesirable side effects that negatively affects the patient in terms of quality of life, and in some cases may actually interfere with their treatment regimens, thus escalating to poor prognosis...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Nazzareno Fagoni, Simone Piva, Rosella Marino, Giovanni Chiarini, Daniela Ferrari, Eleonora Grespi, Rita Bertuetti, Silvia Barbieri, Nicola Latronico, Frank Rasulo
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and failure (GID and GIF) in critically ill patients are a common, relevant, and underestimated complications in ICU patients. The aims of this study were (1) to determine plasmatic levels of citrulline, glutamine, and arginine as markers of GID/GIF in critically ill patients with or without GID/GIF with or without multiple organ failure (MOF) and (2) to assess the role of intra-abdominal hypertension in these patient groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a 1-year, monocentric (Italian hospital), prospective observational study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
Juan J Ortiz de Urbina, Beatriz San-Miguel, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Irene Crespo, Diana I Sánchez, José L Mauriz, Jesús M Culebras, Javier González-Gallego, María J Tuñón
Background and Aims: Abdominal radiotherapy (RT) causes harm to the mid gastrointestinal mucosa by release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes autophagic changes in tumor cells. This study was aimed to measure the effect of glutamine administration on markers of inflammation and autophagy in cancer patients treated with RT. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial 43 patients under abdominal RT diagnosed of pelvic or abdominal malignancies receiving glutamine (30 g/d) or placebo (casein, 30 g/d)...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Z K Yu, Z J Gong, X D Jian, A J Qu
Objective: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of alanyl glutamine injection on patients with gastrointestinal function obstacle caused by severe phorate poisoning. Methods: A total of 80 eligible patients with gastrointestinal function obstacle caused by severe phorate poisoning were randomly divided into the control group (n=40) and treatment group (n=40) . The control group was treated with the conventional therapy, which included forbidden diet, atropine, pralidoxime iodide, anti-inflammatory, albumin infusion, ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion, protection of organs function, blood perfusion, and Fat Emulsion, Amino Acids (17) and Glucose Injection...
July 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Per T Sangild, René Liang Shen, Peter Erik Lotko Pontoppidan, Mathias Rathe
Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs and several animal models of CIM have been developed to help understand the progression of CIM, and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g. GIT) insights, standardized, clinically-relevant treatment regimens and discovery of new biomarkers...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jamie N Pugh, Stephen Sage, Mark Hutson, Dominic A Doran, Simon C Fleming, Jamie Highton, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
PURPOSE: To examine the dose-response effects of acute glutamine supplementation on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) permeability, damage and, secondary, subjective symptoms of GI discomfort in response to running in the heat. METHODS: Ten recreationally active males completed a total of four exercise trials; a placebo trial and three glutamine trials at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.9 g kg-1 of fat-free mass (FFM) consumed 2 h before exercise. Each exercise trial consisted of a 60-min treadmill run at 70% of [Formula: see text] in an environmental chamber set at 30 °C...
December 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Marcela González-Montoya, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma, Jose Manuel Silván, Rosalva Mora-Escobedo, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
The aim was to investigate the potential of germinated soybean proteins asa source of peptides with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities produced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Protein concentrate from germinated soybean was hydrolysed with pepsin/pancreatin and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Whole digest and fractions>10, 5-10, and<5kDa caused cytotoxicity to Caco-2, HT-29, HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, and reduced inflammatory response caused by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages RAW 264...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chen Zheng, Xiang-Ke Chen, Yue Zhou
The purpose of this study was to determine if acute intake of glutamine modulates homeostatic, hematologic, immune, and inflammatory responses to exhaustive exercise in the heat. Thirteen healthy untrained young men participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. They served as their own control and completed two trials of treadmill exercise at 40% VO2max to exhaustion in a hot environment (38.0 ± 1.0 °C, 60.0 ± 5.0 % relative humidity, and 20.8% oxygen) following placebo (PLA) and glutamine (GLN) consumption...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Bie Tan, Honglan Liu, Guangzu He, Hao Xiao, Dingfu Xiao, Yanhong Liu, Jianping Wu, Jun Fang, Yulong Yin
The synthetic dipeptides alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) are used as Gln substitution to provide energy source in the gastrointestinal tract due to their high solubility and stability. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Gln, Ala-Gln and Gly-Gln on mitochondrial respiration and protein turnover of enterocytes. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were cultured for 2 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing 2.5 mM Gln, Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln...
August 31, 2017: Amino Acids
Li-Long Pan, Jiahong Li, Muhammad Shamoon, Madhav Bhatia, Jia Sun
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common abdominal acute inflammatory disorder and the leading cause of hospital admission for gastrointestinal disorders in many countries. Clinical manifestations of AP vary from self-limiting local inflammation to devastating systemic pathological conditions causing significant morbidity and mortality. To date, despite extensive efforts in translating promising experimental therapeutic targets in clinical trials, disease-specific effective remedy remains obscure, and supportive care has still been the primary treatment for this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Nobutoshi Fushimi, Munenori Yamada, Hiroki Hachiya, Shun Ito, Takashi Shibuya, Noritsugu Ohashi, Akihiro Mori
AIM: Glutamine has various beneficial functions in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of two different glutamine supplements on bowel movement at the start of enteral feeding in elderly inpatients. METHODS: This was a double-blind, prospective, randomized comparison study. A total of 25 patients aged >75 years recovering from a critical illness in a non-intensive care unit and scheduled for tube feeding were recruited...
July 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Bhawan Deep Garg, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acute and fatal gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with mortality range from 15 to 30%. NEC is likely due to multifactorial process such as oxidative injury, ischemic necrosis, and over-reactive inflammatory response to intestinal microbes. AIMS: To evaluate the role of amino acid supplementation for reduction of neonatal NEC in preterm neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other database...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
José Manuel Martínez Moreno, Alexander Reyes-Ortiz, José María Lage Sánchez, Pilar Sánchez-Gallegos, Manuel Garcia-Caballero
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to study the process of intestinal adaptation in the three limbs of the small intestine after malabsorptive bariatric surgery: the biliopancreatic limb, the alimentary limb, and the common channel. These limbs are exposed to different stimuli, namely, gastrointestinal transit and nutrients in the alimentary limb, biliopancreatic secretions in the biliopancreatic limb, and a mix of both in the common channel. We also wished to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on the adaptation process...
December 2017: Obesity Surgery
Job Hc Peters, Nicolette J Wierdsma, Albertus Beishuizen, Tom Teerlink, Ad A van Bodegraven
BACKGROUND: Assessment of a quantifiable small intestinal function test is cumbersome. Fasting citrulline concentrations have been proposed as a measure of enterocyte function and elaborated into a citrulline generation test (CGT), which is applicable only when glutamine is administered orally. CGT is an oral test, limiting its use, for example, in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of normative values and feasibility of an intravenously performed CGT in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with presumed gastrointestinal motility disturbances, especially when performed intravenously...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Renata Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Woźniak, YeMarshet K Gebreyohannes, Bartosz Dykcik, Patrick Schöffski, Michał J Markuszewski
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and localize mainly in the stomach or small intestine. The metabolomic signatures of GISTs driven by different KIT gene mutations remain undiscovered and unexplored. The main aim of this pilot study was to determine and compare metabolomic profiles in GIST xenograft models with different genetic backgrounds. Metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry followed by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was applied to select metabolites that differentiated the GIST models studied...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Claudia R Morris, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Robert G Martindale, Menaka Sarav, Juan B Ochoa Gautier
Nonessential amino acids are synthesized de novo and therefore not diet dependent. In contrast, essential amino acids must be obtained through nutrition since they cannot be synthesized internally. Several nonessential amino acids may become essential under conditions of stress and catabolic states when the capacity of endogenous amino acid synthesis is exceeded. Arginine and glutamine are 2 such conditionally essential amino acids and are the focus of this review. Low arginine bioavailability plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of a growing number of varied diseases, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, malaria, acute asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and trauma, among others...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Susan M Murray, Sima Pindoria
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2002. Bone marrow transplantation involves administration of toxic chemotherapy and infusion of marrow cells. After treatment, patients can develop poor appetite, mucositis and gastrointestinal failure, leading to malnutrition. To prevent this, parenteral nutrition (PN) support is often first choice but is associated with increased risk of infection. Enteral nutrition (EN) is an alternative, as is addition of substrates...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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