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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803737/impact-of-ornithine-phenylacetate-ocr-002-in-lowering-plasma-ammonia-after-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-cirrhotic-patients
#1
Meritxell Ventura-Cots, Mar Concepción, José Antonio Arranz, Macarena Simón-Talero, Maria Torrens, Albert Blanco-Grau, Inma Fuentes, Pilar Suñé, Edilmar Alvarado-Tapias, Cristina Gely, Eva Roman, Beatriz Mínguez, German Soriano, Joan Genescà, Juan Córdoba
BACKGROUND: Ornithine phenylacetate (OP) has been proven effective in lowering ammonia plasma levels in animals, and to be well tolerated in cirrhotic patients. A trial to assess OP efficacy in lowering plasma ammonia levels versus placebo in cirrhotic patients after an upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed. The primary outcome was a decrease in venous plasma ammonia at 24 hours. METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive cirrhotic patients were enrolled within 24 hours of an upper gastrointestinal bleed...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749689/glutamine-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-from-bench-to-bedside
#2
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635657/experimental-cancer-cachexia-changes-neuron-numbers-and-peptide-levels-in-the-intestine-partial-protective-effects-after-dietary-supplementation-with-l-glutamine
#3
Geraldo E Vicentini, Luciane Fracaro, Sara R G de Souza, Heber A Martins, Flávia A Guarnier, Jacqueline N Zanoni
Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs in cancer cachexia and may result from damage to enteric innervation caused by oxidative stress, especially due to glutathione depletion. We assessed the effect of dietary supplementation with 20 g/kg l-glutamine (a glutathione precursor) on the intrinsic innervation of the enteric nervous system in healthy and Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats during the development of experimental cachexia (14 days), in comparison with non-supplemented rats, by using immunohistochemical methods and Western blotting...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129250/the-reduction-insensitive-bonds-of-the-muc2-mucin-are-isopeptide-bonds
#4
Christian V Recktenwald, Gunnar C Hansson
The main structural component of the mucus in the gastrointestinal tract is the MUC2 mucin. It forms large networks that in colon build the loose outer mucous layer that provides the habitat for the commensal flora and the inner mucous layer that protects the epithelial cells by being impenetrable to bacteria. The epithelial cells in mice lacking MUC2 are not adequately protected from bacteria, resulting in inflammation and the development of colon cancer as found in human ulcerative colitis. Correct processing of the MUC2 mucin is the basis for the building of these protective networks...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065119/genomewide-association-study-of-liver-abscess-in-beef-cattle
#5
J W Keele, L A Kuehn, T G McDaneld, R G Tait, S A Jones, B N Keel, W M Snelling
Fourteen percent of U.S. cattle slaughtered in 2011 had liver abscesses, resulting in reduced carcass weight, quality, and value. Liver abscesses can result from a common bacterial cause, , which inhabits rumen lesions caused by acidosis and subsequently escapes into the blood stream, is filtered by the liver, and causes abscesses in the liver. Our aim was to identify SNP associated with liver abscesses in beef cattle. We used lung samples as a DNA source because they have low economic value, they have abundant DNA, and we had unrestricted access to sample them...
February 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936258/glutamine-metabolism-in-advanced-age
#6
REVIEW
Dominique Meynial-Denis
Glutamine, reviewed extensively in the last century, is a key substrate for the splanchnic bed in the whole body and is a nutrient of particular interest in gastrointestinal research. A marked decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration has recently been observed in neonates and adults during acute illness and stress. Although some studies in newborns have shown parenteral and enteral supplementation with glutamine to be of benefit (by decreasing proteolysis and activating the immune system), clinical trials have not demonstrated prolonged advantages such as reductions in mortality or risk of infections in adults...
April 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911235/cyclopamine-tartrate-an-inhibitor-of-hedgehog-signaling-strongly-interferes-with-mitochondrial-function-and-suppresses-aerobic-respiration-in-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Md Maksudul Alam, Sagar Sohoni, Sarada Preeta Kalainayakan, Massoud Garrossian, Li Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is associated with the development of many cancers including prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and basal cell carcinoma. The Hh signaling pathway has been one of the most intensely investigated targets for cancer therapy, and a number of compounds inhibiting Hh signaling are being tested clinically for treating many cancers. Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three most common cancers (colon, breast, and prostate) combined...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870119/effects-of-early-enteral-micro-feeding-on-neonatal-serum-vitamin-d-levels
#8
Liang Hu, Xiangdang Yin, Haifeng Chu, Guangli Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of early enteral micro-feeding on neonatal serum vitamin D levels, and to analyze the application value of glutamine. METHODS: One hundred ninty neonates enrolled in intensive care unit were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n=95) that were both given enteral and parenteral nutrition support. Meanwhile, the treatment group was fed formula milk containing 0.3 g/(kg·d) glutamine as enteral nutrition support for 14 days...
November 2015: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808848/acute-citrulline-malate-supplementation-and-high-intensity-cycling-performance
#9
Brian Cunniffe, Maria Papageorgiou, Barbara OʼBrien, Nathan A Davies, George K Grimble, Marco Cardinale
Cunniffe, B, Papageorgiou, M, O'Brien, B, Davies, NA, Grimble, GK, and Cardinale, M. Acute citrulline-malate supplementation and high-intensity cycling performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2638-2647, 2016-Dietary L-citrulline-malate (CM) consumption has been suggested to improve skeletal muscle metabolism and contractile efficiency, which would be expected to predispose exercising individuals to greater fatigue resistance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CM supplementation on acid-base balance and high-intensity exercise performance...
September 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776879/a-phase-iii-study-evaluating-oral-glutamine-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta-2-on-chemotherapy-induced-toxicity-in-patients-with-digestive-neoplasm
#10
Faïza Khemissa, Laurent Mineur, Caroline Amsellem, Eric Assenat, Mohamed Ramdani, Patrick Bachmann, Chloé Janiszewski, Isabelle Cristiani, Fideline Collin, Julie Courraud, Hélène de Forges, Pierre Dechelotte, Pierre Senesse
BACKGROUND: Patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer are exposed to cachexia, which is highly correlated with chemotherapy-induced side effects. Research suggests that specific immunonutrients could prevent such toxicities. AIMS: The primary objective of this phase III study was to evaluate the efficacy of glutamine and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) in the prevention of grade 3-4 non-hematological toxicities induced by chemotherapy in patients with GI cancer...
March 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759695/alpha-ketoglutarate-physiological-functions-and-applications
#11
REVIEW
Nan Wu, Mingyao Yang, Uma Gaur, Huailiang Xu, Yongfang Yao, Diyan Li
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key molecule in the Krebs cycle determining the overall rate of the citric acid cycle of the organism. It is a nitrogen scavenger and a source of glutamate and glutamine that stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation in muscles. AKG as a precursor of glutamate and glutamine is a central metabolic fuel for cells of the gastrointestinal tract as well. AKG can decrease protein catabolism and increase protein synthesis to enhance bone tissue formation in the skeletal muscles and can be used in clinical applications...
January 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593456/treatment-and-prevention-of-pouchitis-after-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-chronic-ulcerative-colitis
#12
REVIEW
Siddharth Singh, Andrea M Stroud, Stefan D Holubar, William J Sandborn, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND: Pouchitis occurs in approximately 50% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of medical therapies (including antibiotics, probiotics, and other agents) for prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to October 2014...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526599/walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats-demonstrate-altered-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-effects-on-icc-in-the-walker-256-tumor-model
#13
L Fracaro, F C V Frez, B C Silva, G E Vicentini, S R G de Souza, H A Martins, D R Linden, F A Guarnier, J N Zanoni
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a significant problem in patients with cancer. The effect of cancer on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and neurons of the gastrointestinal tract have not been studied previously. Although supplementation with L-glutamine 2% may have beneficial effects in cancer-related cachexia, and be protective of ICC in models of oxidative stress such as diabetes, its effects on ICC in cancer have also not been studied. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), control supplemented with L-glutamine (CG), Walker 256 tumor (WT), and Walker 256 tumor supplemented with L-glutamine (WTG)...
January 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26501700/efficacy-and-safety-of-glutamine-supplemented-parenteral-nutrition-in-surgical-icu-patients-an-american-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Thomas R Ziegler, Addison K May, Gautam Hebbar, Kirk A Easley, Daniel P Griffith, Nisha Dave, Bryan R Collier, George A Cotsonis, Li Hao, Traci Leong, Amita K Manatunga, Eli S Rosenberg, Dean P Jones, Gregory S Martin, Gordon L Jensen, Harry C Sax, Kenneth A Kudsk, John R Galloway, Henry M Blumberg, Mary E Evans, Paul E Wischmeyer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether glutamine (GLN)-supplemented parenteral nutrition (PN) improves clinical outcomes in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: GLN requirements may increase with critical illness. GLN-supplemented PN may improve clinical outcomes in SICU patients. METHODS: A parallel-group, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial in 150 adults after gastrointestinal, vascular, or cardiac surgery requiring PN and SICU care...
April 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471792/gaba-selectively-increases-mucin-1-expression-in-isolated-pig-jejunum
#15
Hannah-Sophie Braun, Gerhard Sponder, Robert Pieper, Jörg R Aschenbach, Carolin Deiner
The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is expressed in the central nervous system and in various other tissues including the intestine. Moreover, GABA can be ingested in vegetarian diets or produced by bacterial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. As previous studies in lung have suggested a link between locally increased GABA availability and mucin 5AC production, the present study sought to test whether the presence or lack of GABA (and its precursor glutamine) has an effect on intestinal mucin expression...
November 2015: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26430821/a-diet-containing-beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-ameliorates-chemoradiation-induced-gastrointestinal-injury-in-rats
#16
Ilknur Alsan Cetin, Beste M Atasoy, Serap Cilaker, Lutfiye Zumre Arican Alicikus, Meral Karaman, Nevin Ersoy, Ayse Nur Demiral, Osman Yilmaz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a specific diet, containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, L-glutamine and L-arginine (HMB/Glu/Arg), on chemoradiation-induced injuries of the rat gastrointestinal mucosa. Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control (n = 5); radiation (n = 14); 5-fluorouracil treatment (5-FU; n = 14); and radiation and 5-FU treatment (n = 14). Rats were fed either a standard diet or a specific diet (SpD) containing HMB/Glu/Arg supplementation for 7 days prior to radiation exposure and/or 5-FU treatment...
October 2015: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246958/metastatic-melanoma-induced-metabolic-changes-in-c57bl-6j-mouse-stomach-measured-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy
#17
X Wang, M Hu, M Liu, J Z Hu
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes with high capability of invasion and rapid metastasis to other organs. Malignant melanoma is the most common metastatic malignancy found in Gastrointestinal Tract (GI). In this work, the 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is used to investigate the metabolite profile differences of stomach tissue extracts of metastatic B16-F10 melanoma and control groups in C57BL/6J mouse and to search for specific metabolite biomarker candidates. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an unsupervised multivariate data analysis method, is used to detect possible outliers, while Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure (OPLS), a supervised multivariate data analysis method, is employed to evaluate important metabolites responsible for discriminating the control and the melanoma groups...
2014: Metabolomics: Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26200648/immunonutrition-support-for-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-malignancy-preoperative-postoperative-or-perioperative-a-bayesian-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Guo-Min Song, Xu Tian, Lei Zhang, Yang-Xiang Ou, Li-Juan Yi, Ting Shuai, Jian-Guo Zhou, Zi Zeng, Hong-Ling Yang
Enteral immunonutrition (EIN) has been established to be as a significantly important modality to prevent the postoperative infectious and noninfectious complications, enhance the immunity of host, and eventually improve the prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients undergoing surgery. However, different support routes, which are the optimum option, remain unclear. To evaluate the effects of different EIN support regimes for patients who underwent selective surgery for resectable GI malignancy, a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted...
July 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142941/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-proton-mr-spectroscopic-findings-after-metabolic-crisis-in-3-methylcrotonylglycinuria
#19
Ghazi Adlan Alshumrani, Zoltan Patay
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) findings in 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria presenting with acute metabolic decompensation in a previously healthy 7-year old female are described. The patient was hospitalized with fever, irritability, gastrointestinal problems, drowsiness, signs of upper motor neuron deficit, and rapidly progressive respiratory distress requiring assisted ventilation. Laboratory workup showed severe metabolic acidosis, and the diagnosis of 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria was established by the mass spectrometry analysis of urine sample...
January 2015: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26130636/effects-of-intraduodenal-infusions-of-l-phenylalanine-and-l-glutamine-on-antropyloroduodenal-motility-and-plasma-cholecystokinin-in-healthy-men
#20
Robert E Steinert, Maria F Landrock, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dietary proteins have potent eating-inhibitory and glucose-lowering effects, which may be mediated via effects of amino acids on gastrointestinal hormone and motor function, although little information is available. We have now evaluated the effects of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) on antropyloroduodenal motility and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concen-trations. METHODS: Two double-blind, 3-way cross-over studies were performed, each including 10 healthy, normal-weight men...
July 30, 2015: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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