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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440105/effect-of-doxazosin-on-stress-reactivity-and-the-ability-to-resist-smoking
#1
Terril L Verplaetse, Andrea H Weinberger, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Kathryn Mz Smith, Brian P Pittman, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Meaghan E Lavery, Marina R Picciotto, Sherry A McKee
Preclinical findings support a role for α1-adrenergic antagonists in reducing nicotine-motivated behaviors, but these findings have yet to be translated to humans. The current study evaluated whether doxazosin would attenuate stress-precipitated smoking in the human laboratory. Using a well-validated laboratory analogue of smoking-lapse behavior, this pilot study evaluated whether doxazosin (4 and 8 mg/day) versus placebo attenuated the effect of stress (vs neutral imagery) on tobacco craving, the ability to resist smoking and subsequent ad-libitum smoking in nicotine-deprived smokers ( n=35)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429843/pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials-with-rimonabant-for-smoking-cessation
#2
Jason D Robinson, Paul M Cinciripini, Maher Karam-Hage, Henri-Jean Aubin, Lowell C Dale, Raymond Niaura, Robert M Anthenelli
Despite the withdrawal of CB1 antagonists, such as rimonabant, from the market and from active clinical development because of concerns about their side effect profiles, research suggests that the endocannabinoid system may play an important role in modulating nicotine's effects. We report the combined results, using a pooled analysis, of three previously unpublished trials assessing rimonabant as a smoking cessation pharmacotherapy conducted between 2002 and 2004. Smokers (n = 2097) motivated to quit were enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, STRATUS EU, US, and META, which consisted of a 10-week treatment period with either rimonabant 20 mg (n = 789), 5 mg (n = 518; used in only two of the three studies), or placebo (n = 790), in conjunction with brief counseling...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429147/docetaxel-related-fatigue-in-men-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer-a-descriptive-analysis
#3
A R T Bergin, E Hovey, A Lloyd, G Marx, P Parente, T Rapke, P de Souza
PURPOSE: Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating side effect of docetaxel chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. A better understanding of the kinetics and nature of docetaxel-related fatigue may provide a framework for intervention. METHODS: This secondary analysis was performed using the MOTIF database, from a phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil (200 mg/day for 15 days) for docetaxel-related fatigue in men with metastatic prostate cancer [1]...
April 20, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422514/vitamin-c-prevents-offspring-dna-methylation-changes-associated-with-maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy
#4
Lyndsey E Shorey-Kendrick, Cindy T McEvoy, Betsy Ferguson, Julja Burchard, Byung S Park, Lina Gao, Brittany H Vuylsteke, Kristin F Milner, Cynthia D Morris, Eliot R Spindel
BACKGROUND: Infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy demonstrate lifelong decreases in pulmonary function. DNA methylation changes associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy have been described in placenta and cord blood at delivery, in fetal lung, and in buccal epithelium and blood during childhood. We recently demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial (NCT00632476) that vitamin C supplementation to pregnant smokers can lessen the impact of maternal smoking on offspring pulmonary function and decrease the incidence of wheeze at one year of age...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410813/post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-diabetes-mellitus-modifies-the-efficacy-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-elderly
#5
Susanne M Huijts, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Marieke Bolkenbaas, Diederick E Grobbee, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate-vaccine (PCV13) was effective in preventing vaccine-type Community-Acquired Pneumonia (VT-CAP) and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (VT-IPD) in elderly subjects, but vaccine efficacy (VE) in patients with comorbidities at time of vaccination is unknown. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the CAPiTA study, a double blind, randomized controlled trial with 84,496 immunocompetent participants aged ⩾65years, receiving PCV13 or placebo vaccination...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409564/predictors-of-naltrexone-response-in-a-randomized-trial-reward-related-brain-activation-oprm1-genotype-and-smoking-status
#6
Joseph P Schacht, Patrick K Randall, Patricia K Latham, Konstantin E Voronin, Sarah W Book, Hugh Myrick, Raymond F Anton
Naltrexone reduces drinking among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but is not effective for everyone. Variability in its effects on reward-related brain activation, genetic variation, and/or cigarette smoking may account for this mixed response profile. This randomized clinical trial tested naltrexone's effects on drinking and alcohol cue-elicited brain activation, evaluated whether OPRM1 A118G genotype or smoking moderated these effects, and explored whether medication effects on cue-elicited activation predicted subsequent drinking...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407543/subjective-and-physiological-effects-and-expired-carbon-monoxide-concentrations-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-smokers-following-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration
#7
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Osama A Abulseoud, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes. METHODS: Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6...
March 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404197/mercaptopurine-versus-placebo-to-prevent-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease-after-surgical-resection-toppic-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Craig Mowat, Ian Arnott, Aiden Cahill, Malcolm Smith, Tariq Ahmad, Sreedhar Subramanian, Simon Travis, John Morris, John Hamlin, Anjan Dhar, Chuka Nwokolo, Cathryn Edwards, Tom Creed, Stuart Bloom, Mohamed Yousif, Linzi Thomas, Simon Campbell, Stephen J Lewis, Shaji Sebastian, Sandip Sen, Simon Lal, Chris Hawkey, Charles Murray, Fraser Cummings, Jason Goh, James O Lindsay, Naila Arebi, Lindsay Potts, Aileen J McKinley, John M Thomson, John A Todd, Mhairi Collie, Malcolm G Dunlop, Ashley Mowat, Daniel R Gaya, Jack Winter, Graham D Naismith, Holly Ennis, Catriona Keerie, Steff Lewis, Robin J Prescott, Nicholas A Kennedy, Jack Satsangi
BACKGROUND: Up to 60% of patients with Crohn's disease need intestinal resection within the first 10 years of diagnosis, and postoperative recurrence is common. We investigated whether mercaptopurine can prevent or delay postoperative clinical recurrence of Crohn's disease. METHODS: We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial at 29 UK secondary and tertiary hospitals of patients (aged >16 years in Scotland or >18 years in England and Wales) who had a confirmed diagnosis of Crohn's disease and had undergone intestinal resection...
December 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403850/rationale-and-design-of-a-multicenter-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-empagliflozin-on-endothelial-function-the-emblem-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Atsushi Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro, Yosuke Okada, Isao Taguchi, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Hiroki Teragawa, Seigo Sugiyama, Hisako Yoshida, Yasunori Sato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Yumi Ikehara, Noritaka Machii, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Kosuke R Shima, Toshinari Takamura, Yasushi Matsuzawa, Kazuo Kimura, Masashi Sakuma, Jun-Ichi Oyama, Teruo Inoue, Yukihito Higashi, Shinichiro Ueda, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD)...
April 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#10
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401564/a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-oral-naltrexone-for-heavy-drinking-smokers-seeking-smoking-cessation-treatment
#11
Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Golfo K Tzilos, Nichea S Spillane, Lorenzo Leggio, Susan E Ramsey, Richard A Brown, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Post hoc analyses of two randomized controlled trials suggest naltrexone may reduce alcohol use and improve smoking cessation outcomes among heavy drinkers receiving smoking cessation treatment. However, no studies have been conducted specifically to examine naltrexone for this purpose or to test whether naltrexone has benefit when added to smoking cessation counseling that explicitly addresses heavy drinking. METHODS: We recruited heavy drinking smokers from the community and randomized them to receive 10 weeks of either (a) 50 mg naltrexone [n = 75] or (b) placebo [n = 75] daily...
April 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391664/effect-of-green-tea-added-tablets-on-volatile-sulfur-containing-compounds-in-the-oral-cavity
#12
Pier Francesco Porciani, Simone Grandini
OBJECTIVES: A controlled, clinical, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted to assess the efficacy of sugar-free tablets containing green tea extract on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus placebo tablets for 30 minutes. METHODS: To join the study, subjects had to have at least 24 teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All eligible participants had to avoid professional oral hygiene and drugs for two weeks, to not be menstruating, to avoid brushing their teeth and tongue, to not smoke, to not consume alcohol, coffee or tea, nor onion, garlic, or licorice for six hours before the test...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388260/acute-exacerbation-and-decline-in-forced-vital-capacity-are-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Miya O Paterniti, Youwei Bi, Dinko Rekić, Yaning Wang, Banu A Karimi-Shah, Badrul A Chowdhury
RATIONALE: Exploration of forced vital capacity (FVC) as it relates to mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic, progressive, and ultimately fatal parenchymal lung disease, is important both clinically and to the current drug development paradigm. We evaluated the association between FVC decline and mortality in the largest, well-characterized placebo cohort to date. Additionally, we sought to explore the risk of death from acute exacerbations and further validate previously identified baseline predictors of mortality...
April 7, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385939/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-does-not-influence-bone-healing-by-distraction-osteogenesis-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-control-trial
#14
A H R W Simpson, G Keenan, S Nayagam, R M Atkins, D Marsh, N D Clement
AIMS: The aim of this double-blind prospective randomised controlled trial was to assess whether low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerated or enhanced the rate of bone healing in adult patients undergoing distraction osteogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 adult patients undergoing limb lengthening or bone transport by distraction osteogenesis were randomised to treatment with either an active (n = 32) or a placebo (n = 30) ultrasound device...
April 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375803/routine-use-of-prophylactic-antibiotics-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-surgical-site-infections
#15
Pinar Sarkut, Sadik Kilicturgay, Hikmet Aktas, Yilmaz Ozen, Ekrem Kaya
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for the treatment of symptomatic gallbladder stones. As infections are rare in uncomplicated LC, it is widely accepted that prophylactic antibiotics need not be administered, and guidelines do not support routine antibiotic prophylaxis during elective LC. However, routine antibiotic prophylaxis for elective LC is still popular in many clinical settings. We investigated this situation in our department. METHOD: This randomized double-blind controlled study included 570 patients who underwent LC between March 2007 and February 2010...
April 4, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365177/high-dose-vitamin-d-after-lung-transplantation-a-randomized-trial
#16
Robin Vos, David Ruttens, Stijn E Verleden, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Anke Van Herck, Annelore Sacreas, Tobias Heigl, Veronique Schaevers, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Eric K Verbeken, Arne P Neyrinck, Lieven J Dupont, Jonas Yserbyt, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Geert M Verleden
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may have innate immunomodulatory functions with potentially beneficial therapeutic effects in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: This was a single-center, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prevention trial of once-monthly oral vitamin D (cholecalciferol; 100,000 IU, n = 44) vs placebo (n = 43) during 2 years in adult lung transplant recipients enrolled from October 2010 to August 2013. Primary outcome was prevalence of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) 3 years after transplantation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365035/efficacy-of-varenicline-for-cigarette-reduction-before-quitting-in-japanese-smokers-a-subpopulation-analysis-of-the-reduce-to-quit-trial
#17
Masakazu Nakamura, Masaaki Abe, Masayuki Ohkura, Joan Treadow, Ching-Ray Yu, Peter W Park
PURPOSE: This prospective analysis of the Japanese subpopulation of the varenicline reduce to quit study was conducted to evaluate whether results for Japanese participants were consistent with the full study population. METHODS: Patients received varenicline or placebo for a 24-week treatment period (12-week smoking reduction phase then a 12-week smoking abstinence phase) followed by a 28-week nontreatment, follow-up phase. Participants were to reduce the daily number of cigarettes smoked by at least 50% by week 4 and by a further 50% by week 8, with the goal of achieving complete abstinence by week 12...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361497/group-behaviour-therapy-programmes-for-smoking-cessation
#18
REVIEW
Lindsay F Stead, Allison J Carroll, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016...
March 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351203/effects-of-varenicline-on-alcohol-self-administration-and-craving-in-drinkers-with-depressive-symptoms
#19
Walter Roberts, Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly Moore, Lindsay Oberleitner, Marina R Picciotto, Sherry A McKee
Varenicline (VAR) is approved to aid in smoking cessation and has been shown to be effective for reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers. Little is known, however, about treatment moderators that may influence efficacy. The current study reanalyzed data from a human laboratory study (Verplaetse et al., 2016) to determine whether VAR was more effective at reducing alcohol use among drinkers reporting symptoms of depression. Participants were 60 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol use disorders ( n = 60) who were randomly assigned to receive VAR (1 mg/day, 2 mg/day) or placebo...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317503/type-a-type-b-alcoholism-predicts-differential-response-to-topiramate-in-a-smoking-cessation-trial-in-dually-diagnosed-men
#20
Melodie Isgro, Neal Doran, Jaimee L Heffner, Esther Wong, Elizabeth Dinh, Jessie Tibbs, Katie Russell, Tracy Bittner, Chris Wehrle, Matthew J Worley, Robert M Anthenelli
OBJECTIVE: Babor's A/B typology characterizes alcohol-dependence subtypes, which differ across multiple defining variables; however, differences in cigarette smoking and cessation between these subtypes have not been previously investigated. Topiramate reduces heavy drinking and has separately been found to help non-alcohol-dependent individuals quit smoking. This study tested the hypothesis that topiramate's effects on smoking would be moderated by alcohol-dependence subtype, and explored craving as a mediator of this response...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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