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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921038/the-clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-china
#1
REVIEW
Cheng Xue, Chen-Chen Zhou, Ming Wu, Chang-Lin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890648/bupropion-sustained-release-for-pregnant-smokers-a%C3%A2-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Cheryl Oncken, Valentina M Fokina, Richard S Feinn, Shannon M Clark, Holly West, Sunil K Jain, Mahmoud S Ahmed, Gary D V Hankins
BACKGROUND: Bupropion is used to treat depression during pregnancy. However, its usefulness as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of bupropion sustained release for smoking cessation during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Pregnant women who smoked daily received individualized behavior counseling and were randomly assigned to a 12 week, twice-a-day treatment with 150 mg bupropion sustained release or placebo...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888045/effects-of-tiotropium-on-lung-function-in-current-smokers-and-never-smokers-with-bronchial-asthma
#3
Makoto Yoshida, Yasuko Kaneko, Akiko Ishimatsu, Masashi Komori, Tomoaki Iwanaga, Hiromasa Inoue
The effects of tiotropium, an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist, on lung function were investigated in current smokers and nonsmokers with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and other asthma controllers: inhaled long-acting β2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and/or theophylline. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of an inhaled single dose of tiotropium in 9 asthmatics currently smoking and 9 asthmatics who have never smoked in a crossover manner. Lung function was measured before and 1, 3, and 24 h after inhalation of 18 μg of tiotropium or a placebo...
November 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881962/cigarette-smoking-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-vascular-inflammation-and-injury-are-attenuated-by-antioxidant-supplementation-in-an-animal-model
#4
Moustafa Al Hariri, Kazem Zibara, Wissam Farhat, Yasmine Hashem, Nadia Soudani, Farah Al Ibrahim, Eva Hamade, Asad Zeidan, Ahmad Husari, Firas Kobeissy
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO), represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863344/selection-criteria-limit-generalizability-of-smoking-pharmacotherapy-studies-differentially-across-clinical-trials-and-laboratory-studies-a-systematic-review-on-varenicline
#5
REVIEW
Courtney A Motschman, Julie C Gass, Jennifer M Wray, Lisa J Germeroth, Nicolas J Schlienz, Diana A Munoz, Faith E Moore, Jessica D Rhodes, Larry W Hawk, Stephen T Tiffany
BACKGROUND: The selection criteria used in clinical trials for smoking cessation and in laboratory studies that seek to understand mechanisms responsible for treatment outcomes may limit their generalizability to one another and to the general population. METHODS: We reviewed studies on varenicline versus placebo and compared eligibility criteria and participant characteristics of clinical trials (N=23) and laboratory studies (N=22) across study type and to nationally representative survey data on adult, daily USA smokers (2014 National Health Interview Survey; 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health)...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851714/preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-large-integrated-health-care-system-adherence-renal-safety-and-discontinuation
#6
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Charles Bradley Hare, Dong Phuong Nguyen, Tony Phengrasamy, Michael J Silverberg, Juliet E Stoltey, Jonathan E Volk
BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled and open-label studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection, but data are limited on real-world PrEP use. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study from July 2012 through June 2015 of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members initiating PrEP. We assessed pharmacy refill adherence and discontinuation, decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836377/-prevention-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth-excluding-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-guidelines-for-clinical-practice%C3%A2-%C3%A2-text-of-the-guidelines-short-text
#7
L Sentilhes, M-V Sénat, P-Y Ancel, E Azria, G Benoist, J Blanc, G Brabant, F Bretelle, S Brun, M Doret, C Ducroux-Schouwey, A Evrard, G Kayem, E Maisonneuve, L Marcellin, S Marret, N Mottet, S Paysant, D Riethmuller, P Rozenberg, T Schmitz, H Torchin, B Langer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the measures to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes)and its consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: In France, premature birth concerns 60,000 neonates every year (7.4 %), half of them are delivered after spontaneous onset of labor...
December 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815511/lorcaserin-for-smoking-cessation-and-associated-weight-gain-a-randomized-12-week-clinical-trial
#8
William R Shanahan, Jed E Rose, Alan Glicklich, Scott Stubbe, Matilde Sanchez-Kam
INTRODUCTION: Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist approved by the FDA for chronic weight management. Preclinical data suggest that it may also be effective in smoking cessation through modulation of the dopaminergic reward system. METHODS: This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 30 centers in the United States. 603 adult smokers with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5-35 kg/m(2), averaging at least 10 cigarettes/day with no period of abstinence >3 months for the past year were randomized to lorcaserin 10 mg QD, 10 mg BID or placebo; all received standardized smoking cessation counseling weekly...
November 4, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806250/comparison-of-cannabinoid-concentrations-in-plasma-oral-fluid-and-urine-in-occasional-cannabis-smokers-after-smoking-cannabis-cigarette
#9
Amélie Marsot, Christine Audebert, Laurence Attolini, Bruno Lacarelle, Joelle Micallef, Olivier Blin
PURPOSE: A randomized cross-over, double blind placebo controlled study of smoked cannabis was carried out on occasional cannabis smokers. The objective of this research was to describe the pharmacokinetic parameters of THC and its metabolites in plasma, oral fluid and urine, from samples obtained simultaneously to provide estimations of THC and metabolites concentrations after smoking a cannabis cigarette. METHODS: Blood, oral fluid and urine samples were collected until up to 72 h after smoking the cannabis cigarette (4% of delta-9-tetrathydrocannabinol (THC))...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797984/effect-of-characteristics-of-women-on-attendance-in-blind-and-non-blind-randomised-trials-analysis-of-recruitment-data-from-the-epht-trial
#10
Piret Veerus, Krista Fischer, Elina Hemminki, Sirpa-Liisa Hovi, Matti Hakama
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the effect of women's characteristics on their willingness to join a blind or a non-blind subtrial or to be excluded by physicians. DESIGN: Primary prevention trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). A 2×2, randomised design with a non-blind HT arm or control arm and a blind HT arm or placebo arm. SETTING: 3 clinical centres in Estonia. METHODS: Interest in joining the trial was asked in a questionnaire together with demographic and health status data...
October 18, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776246/daily-nicotine-patch-wear-time-predicts-smoking-abstinence-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-adults-an-analysis-of-ecological-momentary-assessment-data
#11
Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Insiya B Poonawalla, David S Balis, Michael S Businelle
INTRODUCTION: Individuals who use the nicotine patch are more likely to quit smoking than those who receive placebo or no medication. However, studies have not yet examined the association between actual daily nicotine patch wear time during the early phase of a smoking cessation attempt and later smoking abstinence. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature. METHODS: Participants who enrolled in a safety-net hospital smoking cessation program were followed for 13 weeks (i...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760790/management-of-endocrine-disease-rituximab-therapy-for-graves-orbitopathy-lessons-from-randomized-control-trials
#12
REVIEW
Marius N Stan, Mario Salvi
Rituximab (RTX) use in open-label series has been associated with very encouraging responses in patients with active and moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Recently, randomized controlled trials of RTX have been performed in such patients to answer the question of clinical efficacy and the safety profile of this agent. That data, reported separately, focused on Clinical Activity Score (CAS) and indicated in one trial a strong benefit of RTX in comparison with IV glucocorticoids, whereas the other trial noted the absence of a benefit by comparison with placebo...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734465/interventions-to-reduce-harm-from-continued-tobacco-use
#13
REVIEW
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732768/assessing-cannabis-consumption-frequency-is-the-combined-use-of-free-and-glucuronidated-thccooh-blood-levels-of-diagnostic-utility
#14
Marianne Hädener, Marie Martin Fabritius, Stefan König, Christian Giroud, Wolfgang Weinmann
Heavy cannabis consumption is considered incompatible with safe driving. In Swiss traffic policy, drivers suspected of regular cannabis use are therefore required to undergo medical assessment of their long-term fitness to drive. A whole blood concentration of the cannabis metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) of 40 µg/L is currently used by Swiss forensic experts as decision limit for regular cannabis consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of THCCOOH-glucuronide blood levels as an additional and/or better marker for the frequency of cannabis use...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701692/-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-an-update
#15
Nikolas Bernhard, Robert Bals, Sebastian Fähndrich
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis. The disease is widely underdiagnosed. The hallmarks of therapy are smoking cessation, prevention from environmental dust exposure and augmentation therapy. Findings from the recently published prospective, placebo-controlled and randomized RAPID trial proved effectiveness of AAT augmentation therapy for slowing progression of emphysema, measured by CT lung density. CT lung density may be more sensitive than forced exspiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or monoxid diffusion capacity (DLCO)...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701428/krill-oil-improves-mild-knee-joint-pain-a-randomized-control-trial
#16
Yoshio Suzuki, Minoru Fukushima, Keishoku Sakuraba, Keisuke Sawaki, Kazuaki Sekigawa
BACKGROUND: Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38-85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684102/psilocybin-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#17
Bas T H de Veen, Arnt F A Schellekens, Michel M M Verheij, Judith R Homberg
INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin...
August 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683558/current-therapeutic-cannabis-controversies-and-clinical-trial-design-issues
#18
REVIEW
Ethan B Russo
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661192/intranasal-oxytocin-dampens-cue-elicited-cigarette-craving-in-daily-smokers-a-pilot-study
#19
Melissa A Miller, Anya Bershad, Andrea C King, Royce Lee, Harriet de Wit
Despite moderate success with pharmacological and behavioral treatments, smoking relapse rates remain high, and many smokers report that smoking cues lead to relapse. Therefore, treatments that target cue reactivity are needed. One candidate for reducing craving is the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT). Here, we investigated the effects of intranasal OT on two types of craving for cigarettes: craving following overnight abstinence and craving elicited by smoking-related cues. In this within-subject, placebo-controlled pilot study, smokers (N=17) abstained from smoking for 12 h before attending two sessions randomized to intranasal OT or placebo (i...
December 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660650/adjunctive-use-of-modified-yunu-jian-in-the-non-surgical-treatment-of-male-smokers-with-chronic-periodontitis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Kwan-Yat Zee, Pui Sze Chan, Johnson Chun Sing Ho, Stanley Man Lung Lai, Esmonde Francis Corbet, Wai Keung Leung
BACKGROUND: Yunu-Jian (YJ) is a Chinese medicine (CM) heat purging formula, which is used to reduce wei huo (stomach-heat, SH) and enrich shen yin (kidney-yin, KY). This formula is also commonly used to manage diabetes mellitus and gum/oral inflammation. The activity of YJ can be modified or refined by the addition of other CM herbs and/or minor changes to one of its five key ingredients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adjunctive use of modified YJ (mYJ) or YJ containing additional osteoblast-stimulating and inflammation-modulating CM herbs in the non-surgical periodontal treatment of smokers with chronic periodontitis in a randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study...
2016: Chinese Medicine
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