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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329763/efficacy-and-safety-of-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-france-anrs-144-inter-activ-a-randomised-controlled-phase-3-clinical-trial
#1
Patrick Mercié, Julie Arsandaux, Christine Katlama, Samuel Ferret, Aurélie Beuscart, Christian Spadone, Claudine Duvivier, Jacques Reynes, Nathalie Wirth, Laetitia Moinot, Antoine Bénard, David Zucman, Xavier Duval, Jean-Michel Molina, Bruno Spire, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is common in people living with HIV, but high-quality evidence on interventions for smoking cessation is not available in this population. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline with counselling to aid smoking cessation in people living with HIV. METHODS: The ANRS 144 Inter-ACTIV randomised, parallel, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was done at 30 clinical hospital sites in France. People living with HIV who had smoked at least ten cigarettes per day for 1 year or longer, were motivated to stop smoking, were not dependent on another psychoactive substance, and had no history of depression or suicide attempt were eligible...
January 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324248/varenicline-for-tobacco-dependence-treatment-in-alcohol-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Ryan T Hurt, Jon O Ebbert, Ivana T Croghan, Darrell R Schroeder, Richard D Hurt, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is prevalent among persons with alcohol abuse and dependence. Varenicline has been shown to be the most effective pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and may decrease alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of varenicline for increasing smoking abstinence rates in smokers with alcohol abuse or dependence. METHODS: Participants were eligible for enrollment if they were 18 years or older, smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 6 months, had current alcohol abuse or dependence, and were interested in quitting smoking...
January 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322605/declare-timi-58-participants-baseline-characteristics
#3
Itamar Raz, Ofri Mosenzon, Marc P Bonaca, Avivit Cahn, Eri T Kato, Michael G Silverman, Deepak L Bhatt, Lawrence A Leiter, Darren K McGuire, John Wilding, Ingrid Am Gause-Nilsson, Anna Maria Langkilde, Peter A Johansson, Marc S Sabatine, Stephen D Wiviott
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials with new glucose lowering agents (GLA) are designed to prove CV safety in high CV risk populations. However, the level of CV risk differs greatly among trials, which may influence comparability and generalizability of results. AIM: We describe baseline characteristics of participants randomized in the Dapagliflozin Effect on CardiovascuLAR Events (DECLARE-TIMI 58) trial, the pivotal study to assess CV outcomes with dapagliflozin...
January 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289383/immunogenicity-of-a-two-dose-investigational-hepatitis-b-vaccine-hbsag-1018-using-a-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-adjuvant-compared-with-a-licensed-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-adults
#4
Sam Jackson, Joseph Lentino, James Kopp, Linda Murray, William Ellison, Margaret Rhee, Gerald Shockey, Lalith Akella, Kimberly Erby, William L Heyward, Robert S Janssen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection remains an important public health problem in the United States. Currently approved alum-adjuvanted vaccines require three doses and have reduced immunogenicity in adults, particularly in those who have diabetes mellitus, or are older, male, obese, or who smoke. METHODS: Phase 3 observer-blinded, randomized (2:1 HBsAg-1018 [HEPLISAV-B™]:HBsAg-Eng [Engerix-B®]), active-controlled trial in adults 18-70 years of age. HBsAg-1018 was administered intramuscularly at weeks 0 and 4 and placebo at week 24 and HBsAg-Eng at weeks 0, 4, and 24...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261824/effect-of-varenicline-combined-with-medical-management-on-alcohol-use-disorder-with-comorbid-cigarette-smoking-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Stephanie S O'Malley, Allen Zweben, Lisa M Fucito, Ran Wu, Mary E Piepmeier, David M Ockert, Krysten W Bold, Ismene Petrakis, Srinivas Muvvala, Peter Jatlow, Ralitza Gueorguieva
Importance: Individuals with alcohol use disorder have high rates of cigarette smoking. Varenicline tartrate, an approved treatment for smoking cessation, may reduce both drinking and smoking. Objectives: To test the efficacy of varenicline with medical management for patients with alcohol use disorder and comorbid smoking seeking alcohol treatment, and to evaluate the secondary effects on smoking abstinence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 2, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 2 outpatient clinics from September 19, 2012, to August 31, 2015...
December 20, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250815/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-cessation-of-tobacco-smoking
#6
Nieves Gómez-Coronado, Adam J Walker, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent after one year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, affording a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated...
December 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223599/pharmacological-intervention-and-abstinence-in-smokers-undergoing-cessation-treatment-a-psychophysiological-study
#7
Yong Cui, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Jonathan Xian, Jennifer A Minnix, Cho Y Lam, Maher Karam-Hage, Paul M Cinciripini, Jason D Robinson
As a composite concept, negative affect comprises various aversive emotional experiences, such as irritability and nervousness. It is a critical motivational factor that helps maintain smoking behavior, and contributes significantly to smoking cessation failure as a core withdrawal symptom. Prior research has indicated an important role of nicotinic mechanisms in negative affect processing. The most effective smoking cessation medication, varenicline, targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as a partial agonist, while another first-line cessation medication, bupropion, has shown antagonistic effects on nAChRs...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220524/brain-responses-to-cigarette-related-and-emotional-images-in-smokers-during-smoking-cessation-no-effect-of-varenicline-or-bupropion-on-the-late-positive-potential
#8
Francesco Versace, Elise M Stevens, Jason D Robinson, Yong Cui, Menton M Deweese, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Charles E Green, Maher Karam-Hage, Cho Y Lam, Jennifer A Minnix, David W Wetter, Paul M Cinciripini
Introduction: Varenicline and bupropion are two effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Researchers have hypothesized that they might be effective, in part, because they reduce cue reactivity and cue-induced cravings. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly measure brain responses to cigarette-related and other motivationally relevant images during a pharmacologically aided quit attempt. Methods: Smokers involved in a 12-week placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of smoking cessation medications (varenicline, bupropion, placebo) took part in the study...
December 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185480/initial-cross-over-test-of-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptors-to-aid-cessation-in-smokers-with-or-without-schizophrenia
#9
Kenneth A Perkins, Kn Roy Chengappa, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry, Valerie Michael, Taylor Herb, Jessica Gannon, Jaspreet Brar, Lisa Ford, Stephanie Rassnick, Darlene Brunzell
Preclinical research shows that compounds acting at α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) can reduce nicotine self-administration, suggesting that a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 receptors, JNJ-39393406, may aid smoking cessation. Moreover, individuals with schizophrenia, who have very high rates of smoking, have reduced expression of α7 nAChRs and may particularly benefit from this compound. In two parallel studies using a within-subject crossover design, 36 healthy smokers (Study 1) and 62 smokers with schizophrenia (Study 2), both groups high in quit interest, attempted to initiate quitting temporarily during each of two 3-week phases...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178487/therapeutic-benefit-of-smoked-cannabis-in-randomized-placebo-controlled-studies
#10
REVIEW
Lynneice L Bowen, Aimee L McRae-Clark
The medicinal use of marijuana has been legalized in 28 states, with a wide range of specificity for approved medical conditions. Even with the emergence of non-combustion-based delivery systems, 90% of marijuana users in 2014 used smoked marijuana. This review summarizes the data available on the use of smoked marijuana for medical purposes. A literature search was performed to retrieve randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of smoked cannabis for treatment of a medical condition. Studies with the primary end point listed as the effect of smoked cannabis on a disease-specific characteristic were included...
January 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175386/impact-of-clinicopathologic-features-on-the-efficacy-of-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-patients-with-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Tao Jiang, Hongcheng Liu, Meng Qiao, Xuefei Li, Chao Zhao, Chunxia Su, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to comprehensively investigate the impact of various clinicopathologic features on the efficacy of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and ligand (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials that compared PD-1/PD-L1-inhibitor monotherapy with chemotherapy or placebo in patients with previously treated NSCLC were included. RESULTS: Five trials were included (n = 3025)...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104871/smoking-gender-and-overweight-are-important-influencing-factors-on-monocytic-hla-dr-before-and-after-major-cancer-surgery
#12
Gunnar Lachmann, Clarissa von Haefen, Johannes Kurth, Fatima Yuerek, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Claudia Spies
Background: Monocytic human leukocyte antigen D related (mHLA-DR) is essential for antigen-presentation. Downregulation of mHLA-DR emerged as a general biomarker of impaired immunity seen in patients with sepsis and pneumonia and after major surgery. Influencing factors of mHLA-DR such as age, overweight, diabetes, smoking, and gender remain unclear. Methods: We analyzed 20 patients after esophageal or pancreatic resection of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (placebo group)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082319/anatomy-of-a-joint-comparing-self-reported-and-actual-dose-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-in-a-joint-and-how-these-are-influenced-by-controlled-acute-administration
#13
Chandni Hindocha, Tom P Freeman, H Valerie Curran
Introduction: Major gaps exist in the measurement of cannabis exposure. The accuracy of self-reported cannabis and tobacco dose per joint is poorly characterized and has never been investigated following acute cannabis/tobacco exposure. Using an innovative "Roll a Joint" paradigm, this study aims to (1) compare estimated and actual dose of cannabis and tobacco per joint at baseline and (2) examine the acute effects of cannabis and/or tobacco on estimated and actual dose. Materials and Methods: We investigated this by using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover 2 (active cannabis, placebo cannabis)×2 (active tobacco, placebo tobacco) design in a laboratory setting...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074542/rv568-a-narrow-spectrum-kinase-inhibitor-with-p38-mapk-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-selectivity-suppresses-copd-inflammation
#14
Catherine E Charron, Paul Russell, Kazuhiro Ito, Simon Lea, Yasuo Kizawa, Charlie Brindley, Dave Singh
Novel anti-inflammatory approaches targeting chronically activated kinase pathways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We evaluated RV568, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-α and -γ and SRC family kinase inhibitor, in cellular and in vivo models relevant to COPD and examined its safety and efficacy in COPD patients.The anti-inflammatory activities of RV568 were tested in primary cultured monocytes, macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells and in vivo in lipopolysaccharide and cigarette smoke-exposed murine models...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059451/nicotine-increases-activation-to-anticipatory-valence-cues-in-anterior-insula-and-striatum
#15
Lauren V Moran, Luke E Stoeckel, Kristina Wang, Carolyn E Caine, Rosemond Villafuerte, Vanessa Calderon, Justin T Baker, Dost Ongur, Amy C Janes, Diego A Pizzagalli, A Eden Evins
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the neurobiology of the rewarding effects of nicotine promises to aid treatment development for nicotine dependence. Through its actions on mesolimbic dopaminergic systems, nicotine engenders enhanced responses to drug-related cues signaling rewards, a mechanism hypothesized to underlie the development and maintenance of nicotine addiction. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of acute nicotine on neural responses to anticipatory cues signaling (non-drug) monetary reward or loss among 11 non-smokers who had no prior history of tobacco smoking...
September 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054128/combination-varenicline-bupropion-treatment-benefits-highly-dependent-smokers-in-an-adaptive-smoking-cessation-paradigm
#16
Jed E Rose, Frédérique M Behm
Introduction: This study replicated and extended results of a previous trial, which found that combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased smoking abstinence in smokers who were male, highly dependent, and who did not respond to prequit nicotine patch treatment with a >50% reduction in expired-air carbon monoxide in the first week. Methods: One hundred and twenty-two male nicotine patch nonresponders and 52 responders were identified. Smokers in each group were randomized to receive 12 weeks of varenicline plus bupropion treatment versus varenicline plus placebo...
August 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052617/adhd-smoking-withdrawal-and-inhibitory-control-results-of-a-neuroimaging-study-with-methylphenidate-challenge
#17
Maggie M Sweitzer, Scott H Kollins, Rachel V Kozink, Matt Hallyburton, Joseph English, Merideth A Addicott, Jason A Oliver, F Joseph McClernon
Smoking withdrawal negatively impacts inhibitory control, and these effects are greater for smokers with pre-existing attention problems, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study preliminarily evaluated changes in inhibitory control-related behavior and brain activation during smoking withdrawal among smokers with ADHD. Moreover, we investigated the role of catecholamine transmission in these changes by examining effects of 40 mg methylphenidate (MPH) administration. Adult daily smokers with (n=17) and without (n=20) ADHD completed fMRI scanning under each of three conditions: (a) smoking as usual+placebo; (b) 24 hr smoking abstinence+placebo and (c) 24 hr smoking abstinence+MPH...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048189/sex-related-marijuana-expectancies-as-predictors-of-sexual-risk-behavior-following-smoked-marijuana-challenge
#18
Linda M Skalski, Rachel L Gunn, Amy Caswell, Stephen Maisto, Jane Metrik
Marijuana use has been associated with sexual risk behavior, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are not well understood. The present study examined whether marijuana acutely increased sexual risk on a behavioral decision-making task and whether sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies influenced sexual risk decisions after marijuana administration. Participants were heterosexual marijuana users (n = 126) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 study conditions using a 2 × 2 factorial design crossing drug administration (received 2...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020601/pioglitazone-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-reduces-nicotine-craving-in-humans-with-marginal-effects-on-abuse-potential
#19
Jermaine D Jones, Sandra D Comer, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Suky Martinez, Mudassir Mumtaz, Adam Bisaga
Possibly through their actions upon glia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPAR) have been shown to alter the abuse potential of addictive drugs in several preclinical models. The current study extends this research into the human laboratory as the first clinical study into the effects of the PPAR gamma agonist, pioglitazone, on the abuse potential of nicotine. Heavy smokers were recruited for this 3-week study. Upon admission, participants were randomized to either active (45mg, n=14) or placebo (0mg, n=13) PIO maintenance conditions for the duration of the study...
October 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018894/abstinence-induced-withdrawal-severity-among-adolescent-smokers-with-and-without-adhd-disentangling-effects-of-nicotine-and-smoking-reinstatement
#20
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Sara G Balestrieri, Suzanne M Colby, Valerie S Knopik, Jennifer W Tidey
RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) start smoking earlier, are more likely to progress to nicotine dependence, and have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk, particularly at the adolescent stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of overnight nicotine abstinence and smoking reinstatement on subjective withdrawal states in adolescent smokers with and without ADHD...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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