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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650919/a-sudden-death-risk-score-specifically-for-hypertension-based-on-25%C3%A2-648-individual-patient-data-from-six-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Hai-Ha Le, Fabien Subtil, Marc Cerou, Ivanny Marchant, Muaamar Al-Gobari, Mor Fall, Yanis Mimouni, Behrouz Kassaï, Lars Lindholm, Lutgarde Thijs, François Gueyffier
OBJECTIVE: To construct a sudden death risk score specifically for hypertension (HYSUD) patients with or without cardiovascular history. METHODS: Data were collected from six randomized controlled trials of antihypertensive treatments with 8044 women and 17 604 men differing in age ranges and blood pressure eligibility criteria. In total, 345 sudden deaths (1.35%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 5.16 years. Risk factors of sudden death were examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model adjusted on trials...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650184/effects-of-nicotine-versus-placebo-e-cigarette-use-on-symptom-relief-during-initial-tobacco-abstinence
#2
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Valerie C Michael
Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i...
June 26, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645291/the-effect-of-zoledronic-acid-on-type-and-volume-of-modic-changes-among-patients-with-low-back-pain
#3
Katri Koivisto, Jyri Järvinen, Jaro Karppinen, Marianne Haapea, Markus Paananen, Eero Kyllönen, Osmo Tervonen, Jaakko Niinimäki
BACKGROUND: Modic changes (MC) are associated with low back pain (LBP). In this study, we compared changes in size and type of MC, after a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg zoledronic acid (ZA) or placebo, among chronic LBP patients with MC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluated whether the MRI changes correlate with symptoms. METHODS: All patients (N = 19 in ZA, 20 in placebo) had MRI at baseline (0.23-1.5 T) and at one year (1.5-3 T). We evaluated the level, type and volume of all the MC...
June 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643800/striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-varies-across-smoking-status
#4
Corinde E Wiers, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Şükrü B Demiral, Sung Won Kim, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
To assess how tobacco smoking status affects baseline dopamine D2/D3 (D2R) receptor availability and methylphenidate-induced dopamine (DA) release, we retrospectively analyzed D2R availability measures of 8 current smokers, 10 ex-smokers, and 18 non-smokers who were scanned with Positron Emission Tomography and [(11)C]raclopride, after administration of an injection of placebo or 0.5 mg/kg iv methylphenidate. There was a significant effect of smoking status on baseline striatal D2R availability; with current smokers showing lower striatal D2R availability compared to non-smokers (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) and to ex-smokers (caudate and putamen)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638206/effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cigarette-smoking-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Wanli Huang, Fang Shen, Jiangtao Zhang, Baoping Xing
BACKGROUND: The high smoking rate among patients with schizophrenia is an important public health problem, and researchers have been studying how to change the status quo. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of high frequency (10Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the amount of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This study enrolled 37 male patients with schizophrenia who were at a stable stage of treatment...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631387/umeclidinium-bromide-versus-placebo-for-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#6
REVIEW
Han Ni, Aung Htet, Soe Moe
BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor quality of life, reduced survival, and accelerated decline in lung function, especially associated with acute exacerbations, leading to high healthcare costs. Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic improvement, and umeclidinium is one of the new long-acting muscarinic antagonists approved for treatment of patients with stable COPD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium bromide versus placebo for people with stable COPD...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624760/how-do-smoking-cessation-medicines-compare-with-respect-to-their-neuropsychiatric-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#7
Kyla H Thomas, Deborah Caldwell, Michael N Dalili, David Gunnell, Marcus R Munafò, Matt Stevenson, Nicky J Welton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605035/cardiovascular-adverse-events-in-the-drug-development-program-of-bupropion-for-smoking-cessation-a-systematic-retrospective-adjudication-effort
#8
Jessie Kittle, Renato D Lopes, Mingyan Huang, Marsha L Marquess, Matthew D Wilson, John Ascher, Alok Krishen, Vic Hasselblad, Brad J Kolls, Matthew T Roe, Darren K McGuire, Stuart D Russell, Kenneth W Mahaffey
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration requested that GlaxoSmithKline perform retrospective adjudication of cardiovascular (CV) events reported in the bupropion drug-development trials for smoking cessation. HYPOTHESIS: Retrospective adjudication of clinical trial data will not increase the identification of adverse events. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive retrospective analysis of adverse events in 19 previously completed controlled US clinical trials of bupropion marketed for the treatment of smoking cessation, yielding 9479 subjects (5290 bupropion, 2927 placebo, 1018 active control [ACT], and 244 treated concurrently with bupropion and ACT)...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600927/diverging-effects-of-nicotine-on-motor-learning-performance-improvement-in-deprived-smokers-and-attenuation-in-non-smokers
#9
J Grundey, R Amu, G Batsikadze, W Paulus, M A Nitsche
Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication...
May 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575412/postpartum-changes-in-mood-and-smoking-related-symptomatology-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-investigation
#10
Alicia Allen, Nicole Tosun, Sam Carlson, Sharon Allen
Introduction: Postpartum smoking relapse is a highly prevalent public health problem. Mood and breastfeeding are significantly associated with smoking relapse, though less is known about the temporality of these relationships. Therefore, this study utilized ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to prospectively examine changes mood and smoking-related symptomatology in relationship to three events - childbirth, termination of breastfeeding and smoking relapse. We expected all three events to significantly alter mood and smoking-related symptomatology...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574230/nicotine-effects-on-exercise-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Robert Johnston, Kenji Doma, Melissa Crowe
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smokeless forms of nicotine on physiological responses and exercise performance. Methodology and reporting were based on the PRISMA statement. The intervention was defined as any product containing nicotine that did not require smoking. Searches were conducted across two electronic databases with supplementary approaches utilized. Studies were selected following set inclusion and exclusion criteria and checked by two independent authors. A modified PEDro scale was utilized to rate study quality with studies averaging 9·3/13...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562133/dietary-nitrate-does-not-modify-blood-pressure-and-cardiac-output-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-older-adults-a-randomised-cross-over-study
#12
C Oggioni, D G Jakovljevic, M Klonizakis, A W Ashor, A Ruddock, M Ranchordas, E Williams, M Siervo
Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been associated with improved vascular and metabolic health. We conducted a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled RCT to investigate the effects of 7-d consumption of beetroot juice compared with placebo on (1) blood pressure (BP) measured in resting conditions and during exercise, (2) cardiac and peripheral vascular function and (3) biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial integrity. Twenty non-smoking healthy participants aged 60-75 years and BMI 20...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558859/acute-memory-and-psychotomimetic-effects-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-both-joint-and-individually-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, J X Xia, N D C Shaban, H V Curran
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research. METHOD: The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannabis, placebo) × 2 (tobacco, placebo) crossover design...
May 31, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558695/azithromycin-and-risk-of-copd-exacerbations-in-patients-with-and-without-helicobacter-pylori
#14
Seung Won Ra, Marc A Sze, Eun Chong Lee, Sheena Tam, Yeni Oh, Nick Fishbane, Gerard J Criner, Prescott G Woodruff, Stephen C Lazarus, Richard Albert, John E Connett, Meilan K Han, Fernando J Martinez, Shawn D Aaron, Robert M Reed, S F Paul Man, Don D Sin
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is associated with reduced lung function and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Azithromycin (AZ) is active against HP and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. We determined whether HP infection status modifies the effects of AZ in COPD patients. METHODS: Plasma samples from 1018 subjects with COPD who participated in the Macrolide Azithromycin (MACRO) in COPD Study were used to determine the HP infection status at baseline and 12 months of follow-up using a serologic assay...
May 30, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553407/sleep-disturbance-during-smoking-cessation-withdrawal-or-side-effect-of-treatment
#15
Rebecca L Ashare, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale, Larry W Hawk, Tony P George, Paul Cinciripini, Robert A Schnoll
INTRODUCTION: The nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al...
June 2017: Journal of Smoking Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
June 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549983/the-effect-of-omega-3-supplementation-on-pregnancy-outcomes-by-smoking-status
#17
Spencer G Kuper, Adi R Abramovici, Victoria C Jauk, Lorie M Harper, Joseph R Biggio, Alan T Tita
BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes such as preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth, and low birth weight. Because smoking causes oxidative stress, some have suggested using antioxidants to counteract the effects of oxidative stress. Smokers have lower serum levels of omega-3 fatty acids, an important antioxidant, and thus, investigating whether omega-3 supplementation in smokers reduces adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes represents an important area of research...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542447/exploratory-plasma-proteomic-analysis-in-a-randomized-crossover-trial-of-aspirin-among-healthy-men-and-women
#18
Xiaoliang Wang, Ali Shojaie, Yuzheng Zhang, David Shelley, Paul D Lampe, Lisa Levy, Ulrike Peters, John D Potter, Emily White, Johanna W Lampe
Long-term use of aspirin is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers; however, the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of aspirin is not fully understood. Animal studies suggest that COX-2, NFκB signaling and Wnt/β-catenin pathways may play a role, but no clinical trials have systematically evaluated the biological response to aspirin in healthy humans. Using a high-density antibody array, we assessed the difference in plasma protein levels after 60 days of regular dose aspirin (325 mg/day) compared to placebo in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 44 healthy non-smoking men and women, aged 21-45 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526798/acute-exacerbations-in-the-inpulsis-trials-of-nintedanib-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
Harold R Collard, Luca Richeldi, Dong Soon Kim, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Inga Tschoepe, Maurizio Luisetti, Jesse Roman, Gregory Tino, Rozsa Schlenker-Herceg, Christoph Hallmann, Roland M du Bois
Time to first investigator-reported acute exacerbation was a key secondary end-point in the INPULSIS trials of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).We used the INPULSIS trial data to investigate risk factors for acute exacerbation of IPF and to explore the impact of nintedanib on risk and outcome of investigator-reported and adjudicated confirmed/suspected acute exacerbations. Mortality following these events and events adjudicated as not acute exacerbations was analysed using the log rank test...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526078/the-efficacy-of-chlorhexidine-gel-in-the-prevention-of-alveolar-osteitis-after-mandibular-third-molar-extraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Amare Teshome
BACKGROUND: Alveolar osteitis is a very painful and distressing condition for a patient who has recently undergone a tooth extraction and has led dental professionals to search for preventive measures. The aim of this meta-analysis to determine the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) gel on the incidence of alveolar osteitis after mandibular third molar extraction. METHODS: Studies were searched for on electronic search engines using Medline (PubMed), Cochrane central, Scopus and advanced Google Scholar from May 2015 to December 2015...
May 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
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