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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415979/behavioral-activation-for-smoking-cessation-and-mood-management-following-a-cardiac-event-results-of-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Andrew M Busch, Erin M Tooley, Shira Dunsiger, Elizabeth A Chattillion, John Fani Srour, Sherry L Pagoto, Christopher W Kahler, Belinda Borrelli
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation following hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) significantly reduces subsequent mortality. Depressed mood is a major barrier to cessation post-ACS. Although existing counseling treatments address smoking and depression independently in ACS patients, no integrated treatment addresses both. We developed an integrated treatment combining gold standard cessation counseling with behavioral activation-based mood management; Behavioral Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers (BAT-CS)...
April 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409740/quit-methods-used-by-us-adult-cigarette-smokers-2014-2016
#2
Ralph S Caraballo, Paul R Shafer, Deesha Patel, Kevin C Davis, Timothy A McAfee
To quantify the prevalence of 10 quit methods commonly used by adult cigarette smokers, we used data from a nationally representative longitudinal (2014-2016) online survey of US adult cigarette smokers (n = 15,943). Overall, 74.7% of adult current cigarette smokers used multiple quit methods during their most recent quit attempt. Giving up cigarettes all at once (65.3%) and reducing the number of cigarettes smoked (62.0%) were the most prevalent methods. Substituting some cigarettes with e-cigarettes was used by a greater percentage of smokers than the nicotine patch, nicotine gum, or other cessation aids approved by the US Food and Drug Administration...
April 13, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#3
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401564/a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-oral-naltrexone-for-heavy-drinking-smokers-seeking-smoking-cessation-treatment
#4
Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Golfo K Tzilos, Nichea S Spillane, Lorenzo Leggio, Susan E Ramsey, Richard A Brown, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Post hoc analyses of two randomized controlled trials suggest naltrexone may reduce alcohol use and improve smoking cessation outcomes among heavy drinkers receiving smoking cessation treatment. However, no studies have been conducted specifically to examine naltrexone for this purpose or to test whether naltrexone has benefit when added to smoking cessation counseling that explicitly addresses heavy drinking. METHODS: We recruited heavy drinking smokers from the community and randomized them to receive 10 weeks of either (a) 50 mg naltrexone [n = 75] or (b) placebo [n = 75] daily...
April 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398690/use-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-young-people-entering-custody-in-new-south-wales-australia
#5
Leigh Haysom, Dianne Lawrence, Donna Mellish, Peter Burns, Pariza Khale, Ariana Arulampalam, Catherine Stapylton
AIM: To describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence and acceptance of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in young people entering custody, where smoking is not allowed. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 2013. SETTING: All New South Wales Juvenile Justice Centres. PARTICIPANTS: Incarcerated youth, aged 12-21 years. MAIN EXPOSURES: gender, age, ethnicity, cannabis use. MAIN OUTCOMES: rates of smoking, cannabis use, nicotine dependence, NRT acceptance...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396143/lethal-effects-of-an-insecticidal-spider-venom-peptide-involve-positive-allosteric-modulation-of-insect-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#6
Monique J Windley, Irina Vetter, Richard J Lewis, Graham M Nicholson
κ-Hexatoxins (κ-HXTXs) are a family of excitotoxic insect-selective neurotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders that are lethal to a wide range of insects, but display no toxicity towards vertebrates. The prototypic κ-HXTX-Hv1c selectively blocks native and expressed cockroach large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa or KCa1.1) channels, but not their mammalian orthologs. Despite this potent and selective action on insect KCa1.1 channels, we found that the classical KCa1.1 blockers paxilline, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, which all block insect KCa1...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342090/the-effect-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-patch-on-smoking-rate-and-satisfaction-with-smoking-an-examination-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-pre-quit-pharmacotherapies
#7
Wenying Lu, Kate Chappell, Julia A E Walters, Glenn A Jacobson, Rahul Patel, Natalie Schüz, Stuart G Ferguson
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, there has been growing research interest in using nicotine replacement medications to aid smoking reduction prior to a quit attempt. Gaining a better understanding of how treatments influence smoking reduction may allow for better tailoring of treatments and, ultimately, better cessation outcomes. The objective of the current study was to test the effects of the pre-quit use of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking. METHODS: All participants were required to attend up to five study visit sections...
March 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298165/high-throughput-patch-clamp-screening-in-human-%C3%AE-6-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#8
Lucas C Armstrong, Glenn E Kirsch, Nikolai B Fedorov, Caiyun Wu, Yuri A Kuryshev, Abby L Sewell, Zhiqi Liu, Arianne L Motter, Carmine S Leggett, Michael S Orr
Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261794/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-at-the-single-channel-level
#9
REVIEW
Cecilia Bouzat, Steven M Sine
Over the past four decades, the patch clamp technique and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors have established an enduring partnership. Like all good partnerships, each partner has proven significant in its own right, while their union has spurred innumerable advances in life science research. A member and prototype of the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, the nACh receptor is a chemo-electric transducer, binding nerve-released ACh and rapidly opening its channel to cation flow to elicit cellular excitation...
March 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241514/antivenom-evaluation-by-electrophysiological-analysis
#10
Rita Restano-Cassulini, Walter Garcia, Jorge F Paniagua-Solís, Lourival D Possani
Scorpion stings on humans are medically relevant because they may contain toxins that specifically target ion channels. During antivenom production, pharmaceutical companies must use a large number of experimental animals to ensure the antivenom's efficacy according to pharmacopeia methods. Here we present an electrophysiological alternative for the evaluation of horse antivenoms produced against two species of Moroccan scorpions: Buthus mardochei and Androctonus mauretanicus. Human sodium and potassium channels and acetylcholine nicotinic receptors were analyzed by standard patch-clamp techniques...
February 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239942/extended-treatment-for-cigarette-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-control-trial
#11
Jennifer R Laude, Steffani R Bailey, Erin Crew, Ann Varady, Anna Lembke, Danielle McFall, Anna Jeon, Diana Killen, Joel D Killen, Sean P David
AIM: To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. DESIGN: Two-group parallel randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. SETTING: Community clinic in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18)...
February 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224877/-helping-people-to-give-up-smoking-efficacy-and-safety-of-smoking-cessation-interventions
#12
R C van de Graaf, O C P van Schayck
- This review evaluates the safety and efficacy of, smoking cessation interventions.- Behavioural counselling is the cornerstone of smoking cessation programmes.- This counselling can be supplemented with written self-help materials, telephone counselling and e-health tailored to individual patient preferences.- Behavioural counselling may be combined with pharmacotherapy for increased effectiveness. First choice is a combination of a nicotine patch and a nicotine lozenge or chewing gum, mainly because of the favourable side-effect profile...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193583/nicotinic-modulation-of-salience-network-connectivity-and-centrality-in-schizophrenia
#13
Jason Smucny, Korey P Wylie, Eugene Kronberg, Kristina T Legget, Jason R Tregellas
Although functional abnormalities of the salience network are associated with schizophrenia, the acute effects of nicotine on its function and network dynamics during the resting state in patients are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of a 7 mg nicotine patch (vs. placebo) on salience network connectivity were examined in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy subjects. We hypothesized abnormal connectivity between the salience network and other major networks (e.g. executive network) in patients under placebo administration and amelioration of this difference after nicotine...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166924/-lifestyle-recommendations-for-prevention-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women
#14
E Maisonneuve
OBJECTIVES: To establish recommendations for lifestyle of pregnant women and its impact on spontaneous preterm births. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched Pubmed and Cochrane databases and checked reference lists of retrieved studies. This review of the literature concerns only women who have no symptoms for the ongoing pregnancy. RESULTS: Concerning maternal occupation during pregnancy, there is a mild increase of the risk of preterm birth only for women who work more than 40hours a week or who have hard working conditions according to a fatigue score (LE2)...
December 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160016/nicotine-at-clinically-relevant-concentrations-affects-atrial-inward-rectifier-potassium-current-sensitive-to-acetylcholine
#15
Markéta Bébarová, Peter Matejovič, Olga Švecová, Roman Kula, Milena Šimurdová, Jiří Šimurda
Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0...
February 3, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148643/developmental-nicotine-exposure-alters-potassium-currents-in-hypoglossal-motoneurons-of-neonatal-rat
#16
Marina Cholanian, Jesse Wealing, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
We previously showed that nicotine exposure in utero and after birth via breast milk [developmental nicotine exposure (DNE)] is associated with many changes in the structure and function of hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs), including a reduction in the size of the dendritic arbor and an increase in cell excitability. Interestingly, the elevated excitability was associated with a reduction in the expression of glutamate receptors on the cell body. Together, these observations are consistent with a homeostatic compensation aimed at restoring cell excitability...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131721/effects-of-acetylcholine-and-cholinergic-antagonists-on-the-activity-of-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-neurons
#17
Werner I Furuya, Eduardo Colombari, Alastair V Ferguson, Débora S A Colombari
Previously we have demonstrated that microinjection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the intermediate nucleus of the solitary tract (iNTS) induced sympatho-inhibition combined with a decrease in the phrenic nerve activity (PNA), whereas in the commissural NTS (cNTS), ACh did not change sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but increased the PNA. In view of these demonstrated distinctive effects of ACh in different subnuclei of the NTS the current studies were undertaken to examine, using patch clamp techniques, the specific effects of ACh on the excitability of individual neurons in the NTS, as well as the neuropharmacology of these actions...
January 25, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103704/quality-of-life-after-quitting-smoking-and-initiating-aerobic-exercise
#18
Erika Litvin Bloom, Haruka Minami, Richard A Brown, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Ana M Abrantes
Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063325/a-pilot-trial-of-in-vivo-nrt-sampling-to-increase-medication-adherence-in-community-corrections-smokers
#19
Karen L Cropsey, Peter S Hendricks, Samantha Schiavon, Aaron Sellers, Morgan Froelich, Richard C Shelton, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Individuals in the criminal justice system demonstrate high rates of cigarette use (70-80%) and low adherence to smoking cessation medication. Educational approaches have not been shown to promote adherence or cessation, though medication sampling has boosted both use and cessation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether In vivo nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling approach increases NRT adherence among criminal justice smokers during a subsequent quit attempt...
December 27, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039798/mailed-distribution-of-free-nicotine-patches-without-behavioral-support-predictors-of-use-and-cessation
#20
Vladyslav Kushnir, Beth A Sproule, John A Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that the mailed distribution of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), usually as part of smokers' helplines, can been effective in increasing the odds of cessation on a population level. However, limited information is available on the utilization of NRT when it is provided for free, and factors associated with regimen adherence have remained largely unexplored. METHODS: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, 500 adult smokers across Canada hypothetically interested in free NRT were mailed a 5week supply of nicotine patches, but no other support was offered...
December 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
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