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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225440/smoking-urges-during-treatment-and-long-term-cessation-among-low-income-african-americans
#1
Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A Dietz, Joseph C Wilson
Objective: The urge to smoke is a predictor of smoking relapse. Little research has focused on the impact of acute urges during treatment among African Americans. This study examined the relationship between smoking urges and long-term abstinence among treatment seekers. Design: Longitudinal prospective investigation. Urges to smoke were assessed at the initial (session 1) and final (session 8) sessions among adult smokers (N=308) enrolled in a 4-week group intervention trial...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200999/confirming-a-role-for-%C3%AE-9nachrs-and-sk-potassium-channels-in-type-ii-hair-cells-of-the-turtle-posterior-crista
#2
Xiaorong Xu Parks, Donatella Contini, Paivi M Jordan, Joseph C Holt
In turtle posterior cristae, cholinergic vestibular efferent neurons (VENs) synapse on type II hair cells, bouton afferents innervating type II hair cells, and afferent calyces innervating type I hair cells. Electrical stimulation of VENs releases acetylcholine (ACh) at these synapses to exert diverse effects on afferent background discharge including rapid inhibition of bouton afferents and excitation of calyx-bearing afferents. Efferent-mediated inhibition is most pronounced in bouton afferents innervating type II hair cells near the torus, but becomes progressively smaller and briefer when moving longitudinally through the crista toward afferents innervating the planum...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191791/electrophysiological-investigation-of-the-effect-of-structurally-different-bispyridinium-non-oxime-compounds-on-human-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-activity-an-in-vitro-structure-activity-analysis
#3
Corinna Scheffel, Karin V Niessen, Sebastian Rappenglück, Klaus T Wanner, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger
Organophosphorus compounds, including nerve agents and pesticides, exert their toxicity through irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and functional impairment of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Current therapy comprises oximes to reactivate AChE and atropine to antagonize effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotinic malfunction leading to depression of the central and peripheral respiratory system is not directly treated calling for alternative therapeutic interventions...
November 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161166/helping-smokers-with-severe-mental-illness-who-do-not-want-to-quit
#4
Bruce A Christiansen, Julianne Carbin, Erin TerBeek, Michael C Fiore
BACKGROUND: People with a severe and persistent mental illness are far more likely to smoke than others. While a large portion would like to quit, they are less likely to make quit attempts and succeed. OBJECTIVE: This study used an Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to test an intervention designed to increase engagement in cessation treatment, quit attempts, and quitting in smokers who did not want to quit in the next 30 days. It also compared these smokers with those who were motivated to quit in the next 30 days...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#5
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131336/molecular-function-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-as-drug-targets
#6
Cecilia Bouzat, Matías Lasala, Beatriz Elizabeth Nielsen, Jeremías Corradi, María Del Carmen Esandi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In vertebrates, there are seventeen different nAChR subunits that combine to yield a variety of receptors with different pharmacology, function, and localization. The homomeric α7 receptor is one of the most abundant nAChRs in the nervous system and it is also present in non-neuronal cells. It plays important roles in cognition, memory, pain, neuroprotection, and inflammation...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059451/nicotine-increases-activation-to-anticipatory-valence-cues-in-anterior-insula-and-striatum
#7
Lauren V Moran, Luke E Stoeckel, Kristina Wang, Carolyn E Caine, Rosemond Villafuerte, Vanessa Calderon, Justin T Baker, Dost Ongur, Amy C Janes, Diego A Pizzagalli, A Eden Evins
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the neurobiology of the rewarding effects of nicotine promises to aid treatment development for nicotine dependence. Through its actions on mesolimbic dopaminergic systems, nicotine engenders enhanced responses to drug-related cues signaling rewards, a mechanism hypothesized to underlie the development and maintenance of nicotine addiction. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of acute nicotine on neural responses to anticipatory cues signaling (non-drug) monetary reward or loss among 11 non-smokers who had no prior history of tobacco smoking...
September 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059442/financial-incentives-for-smoking-abstinence-in-homeless-smokers-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Travis P Baggett, Yuchiao Chang, Awesta Yaqubi, Claire McGlave, Stephen T Higgins, Nancy A Rigotti
Introduction: Three-quarters of homeless people smoke cigarettes. Financial incentives for smoking abstinence have appeared promising in non-experimental studies of homeless smokers but randomized controlled trial (RCT) data are lacking. Methods: We conducted a pilot RCT of financial incentives for homeless smokers. Incentive arm participants (N=25) could earn escalating $15-$35 rewards for brief smoking abstinence (exhaled carbon monoxide <8 parts per million) assessed 14 times over 8 weeks...
August 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059367/nicotine-metabolism-informed-care-for-smoking-cessation-a-pilot-precision-rct
#9
Quinn S Wells, Matthew S Freiberg, Robert A Greevy, Rachel F Tyndale, Suman Kundu, Meredith S Duncan, Stephen King, Elizabeth Scoville, Dawn Beaulieu, Vanessa Gatskie, Hilary A Tindle
Introduction: Varenicline doubles cessation over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch for "normal," but not "slow," nicotine metabolizers, as assessed by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). Metabolism-informed care (MIC) could improve outcomes by matching normal metabolizers with non-nicotine medication (e.g., varenicline) and slow metabolizers with NRT patch. Methods: We conducted a feasibility randomized controlled trial of MIC vs. guideline based care (GBC) among 81 outpatient adult daily smokers with medical comorbidity...
October 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054128/combination-varenicline-bupropion-treatment-benefits-highly-dependent-smokers-in-an-adaptive-smoking-cessation-paradigm
#10
Jed E Rose, Frédérique M Behm
Introduction: This study replicated and extended results of a previous trial, which found that combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased smoking abstinence in smokers who were male, highly dependent, and who did not respond to prequit nicotine patch treatment with a >50% reduction in expired-air carbon monoxide in the first week. Methods: One hundred and twenty-two male nicotine patch nonresponders and 52 responders were identified. Smokers in each group were randomized to receive 12 weeks of varenicline plus bupropion treatment versus varenicline plus placebo...
August 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042244/selectivity-of-coronaridine-congeners-at-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-inhibitory-activity-on-mouse-medial-habenula
#11
Hugo R Arias, Xiaotao Jin, Dominik Feuerbach, Ryan M Drenan
The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca(2+) influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca(2+) influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC]>(+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-MC>(±)-18-HC>(±)-18-MAC...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039714/causal-factors-of-increased-smoking-in-adhd-a-systematic-review
#12
Jan van Amsterdam, Bauke van der Velde, Mieke Schulte, Wim van den Brink
BACKGROUND: ADHD is a highly prevalent disorder and poses a risk for a variety of mental disorders and functional impairments into adulthood. One of the most striking comorbidities of ADHD is nicotine dependence. Youth diagnosed with ADHD are 2-3 times more likely to smoke than their peers without ADHD, initiate smoking earlier in life and progress more quickly and more frequently to regular use and dependence. Possible explanations for these increased risks are: (a) self-medication of ADHD symptoms with the stimulant nicotine; (b) ADHD symptoms like inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity predispose for smoking initiation and impede smoking cessation; (c) peer pressure; and/or (d) common genetic or environmental determinants for ADHD and smoking...
October 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033834/tc299423-a-novel-agonist-for-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#13
Teagan R Wall, Brandon J Henderson, George Voren, Charles R Wageman, Purnima Deshpande, Bruce N Cohen, Sharon R Grady, Michael J Marks, Daniel Yohannes, Paul J Kenny, Merouane Bencherif, Henry A Lester
(E)-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl)-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423) is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2(∗) (α6β2-containing), α4β2(∗), and α3β4(∗) nAChRs, using [(125)I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal (86)Rb(+) efflux, [(3)H]-dopamine release, and [(3)H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30-60 nM for α6β2(∗) nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [(3)H]-dopamine release assays...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020601/pioglitazone-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-reduces-nicotine-craving-in-humans-with-marginal-effects-on-abuse-potential
#14
Jermaine D Jones, Sandra D Comer, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Suky Martinez, Mudassir Mumtaz, Adam Bisaga
Possibly through their actions upon glia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPAR) have been shown to alter the abuse potential of addictive drugs in several preclinical models. The current study extends this research into the human laboratory as the first clinical study into the effects of the PPAR gamma agonist, pioglitazone, on the abuse potential of nicotine. Heavy smokers were recruited for this 3-week study. Upon admission, participants were randomized to either active (45mg, n=14) or placebo (0mg, n=13) PIO maintenance conditions for the duration of the study...
October 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018894/abstinence-induced-withdrawal-severity-among-adolescent-smokers-with-and-without-adhd-disentangling-effects-of-nicotine-and-smoking-reinstatement
#15
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Sara G Balestrieri, Suzanne M Colby, Valerie S Knopik, Jennifer W Tidey
RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) start smoking earlier, are more likely to progress to nicotine dependence, and have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk, particularly at the adolescent stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of overnight nicotine abstinence and smoking reinstatement on subjective withdrawal states in adolescent smokers with and without ADHD...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922651/evaluating-the-effect-of-smoking-cessation-treatment-on-a-complex-dynamical-system
#16
Korkut Bekiroglu, Michael A Russell, Constantino M Lagoa, Stephanie T Lanza, Megan E Piper
OBJECTIVE: To understand the dynamic relations among tobacco withdrawal symptoms to inform the development of effective smoking cessation treatments. Dynamical system models from control engineering are introduced and utilized to evaluate complex treatment effects. We demonstrate how dynamical models can be used to examine how distinct withdrawal-related processes are related over time and how treatment influences these relations. METHOD: Intensive longitudinal data from a randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial (N=1504) are used to estimate a dynamical model of withdrawal-related processes including momentary craving, negative affect, quitting self-efficacy, and cessation fatigue for each of six treatment conditions (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, patch + lozenge, bupropion + lozenge, and placebo)...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#17
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905874/ovarian-hormones-and-transdermal-nicotine-administration-independently-and-synergistically-suppress-tobacco-withdrawal-symptoms-and-smoking-reinstatement-in-the-human-laboratory
#18
Raina D Pang, Madalyn M Liautaud, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Jimi Huh, John Monterosso, Adam M Leventhal
Modeling intra-individual fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone may provide unique insight into the effects of ovarian hormones on the etiology and treatment of nicotine dependence. This randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study tested the independent and interactive effects of intra-individual ovarian hormone variation and nicotine on suppression of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and smoking behavior. Female smokers randomized to 21 mg nicotine (TNP; n=37) or placebo (PBO; n=43) transdermal patch following overnight abstinence completed three sessions occurring during hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894502/use-of-smoking-cessation-products-a-survey-of-patients-in-community-pharmacies
#19
Alan Phung, Lauren Luo, Noor Breik, Silvia Alessi-Severini
OBJECTIVES: At 17.3%, smoking rates in Manitoba continue to exceed the national average. In this province, a total health care spending of more than $200 million per year has been attributed to smoking. This study examined the use of smoking cessation agents, including nicotine replacement products and prescription medications, in a sample of smokers in the city of Winnipeg. METHODS: A simple multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to willing individuals attending 2 community pharmacies in Winnipeg, Manitoba...
September 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875026/segregation-of-lipids-near-acetylcholine-receptor-channels-imaged-by-cryo-em
#20
Nigel Unwin
Rapid communication at the chemical synapse depends on the action of ion channels residing in the postsynaptic membrane. The channels open transiently upon the binding of a neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal, eliciting an electrical response. Membrane lipids also play a vital but poorly understood role in this process of synaptic transmission. The present study examines the lipid distribution around nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in tubular vesicles made from postsynaptic membranes of the Torpedo ray, taking advantage of the recent advances in cryo-EM...
July 1, 2017: IUCrJ
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