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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#1
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893843/comparative-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-a-national-prospective-cohort-from-taiwan
#2
Po-Yin Chang, Po-Ching Lo, Hui-Chin Chang, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Yi-Wen Tsai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters. METHODS: In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015), a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052), bupropion (n = 823), NRT gum (n = 1944) or NRT patch (n = 4,149)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865452/cyp2a6-genetic-variation-alters-striatal-cingulate-circuits-network-hubs-and-executive-processing-in-smokers
#3
Sufang Li, Yihong Yang, Ewa Hoffmann, Rachel F Tyndale, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. METHODS: Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 66 smokers and 92 nonsmokers. A subset of subjects (n = 23/20; smokers/nonsmokers) performed the monetary incentive delay task, probing reward anticipation, and a go/no-go task, probing response inhibition, on two occasions, in the presence and absence of a nicotine patch...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856558/human-polymorphisms-in-nicotinic-receptors-a-functional-analysis-in-ips-derived-dopaminergic-neurons
#4
Cristina Deflorio, Stéphane Blanchard, Maria Carla Carisì, Delphine Bohl, Uwe Maskos
Tobacco smoking is a public health problem, with ∼5 million deaths per year, representing a heavy burden for many countries. No effective therapeutic strategies are currently available for nicotine addiction, and it is therefore crucial to understand the etiological and pathophysiological factors contributing to this addiction. The neuronal α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is critically involved in nicotine dependence. In particular, the human polymorphism α5D398N corresponds to the strongest correlation with nicotine dependence risk found to date in occidental populations, according to meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies...
November 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816700/a-subnanomolar-concentration-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-pre-synaptically-modulates-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-acting-through-acetylcholine
#5
Valeria Pecoraro, Lara Maria Sardone, Mariangela Chisari, Flora Licata, Guido Li Volsi, Vincenzo Perciavalle, Lucia Ciranna, Lara Costa
The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exerts a well-documented modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. Since PACAP was shown to stimulate ACh release in the hippocampus, we tested whether PACAP acting through ACh might indirectly modulate glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission at a pre- and/or at a post-synaptic level...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805736/therapeutic-concentrations-of-varenicline-in-the-presence-of-nicotine-increase-action-potential-firing-in-human-adrenal-chromaffin-cells
#6
Arik J Hone, J Michael McIntosh, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Juan Passas, Cristina de Castro-Guerín, Jesús Blázquez, Carmen González-Enguita, Almudena Albillos
Varenicline is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist used to treat nicotine addiction but a live debate persists concerning its mechanism of action in reducing nicotine consumption. Although initially reported as α4β2-selective, varenicline was subsequently shown to activate other nAChR subtypes implicated in nicotine addiction including α3β4. However, it remains unclear whether activation of α3β4 nAChRs by therapeutically relevant concentrations of varenicline is sufficient to affect the behavior of cells that express this subtype...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798084/unassisted-quitting-and-smoking-cessation-methods-used-in-the-united-states-analyses-of-2010-2011-tobacco-use-supplement-to-the-current-population-survey-data
#7
Julia N Soulakova, Lisa J Crockett
INTRODUCTION: The study estimated the prevalence of unassisted quitting (ie, quitting without pharmacological aids or other interventions) among former smokers and identified the most common smoking cessation methods used by U.S. adult smokers who quit smoking between 2007 and 2011. Among long-term quitters, smoking-related behaviors and factors associated with using pharmacological methods and quitting unassisted were examined. METHODS: The analytic sample consisted solely of former smokers, including 3,583 "long-term quitters" (those who quit 1 to 3 years prior to the survey) and 2,205 "recent quitters" (those who quit within a year prior to the survey), who responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey...
October 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776725/electronic-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation
#8
Menfil A Orellana-Barrios, Drew Payne, Rita M Medrano-Juarez, Shengping Yang, Kenneth Nugent
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods)...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776679/association-between-utilization-of-quitline-services-and-probability-of-tobacco-abstinence-in-low-income-smokers
#9
Steven L Bernstein, June-Marie Weiss, Benjamin Toll, Susan M Zbikowski
INTRODUCTION: Quitlines (QL) are an effective means for smoking cessation, but a paucity of data exist examining the dose-response relationship between use of QL services and quit rates, especially among low-income smokers. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between tobacco abstinence and use of QL services among low-income smokers. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial of every- or some-day smokers aged 18 years or older visiting an urban emergency department...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776246/daily-nicotine-patch-wear-time-predicts-smoking-abstinence-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-adults-an-analysis-of-ecological-momentary-assessment-data
#10
Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Insiya B Poonawalla, David S Balis, Michael S Businelle
INTRODUCTION: Individuals who use the nicotine patch are more likely to quit smoking than those who receive placebo or no medication. However, studies have not yet examined the association between actual daily nicotine patch wear time during the early phase of a smoking cessation attempt and later smoking abstinence. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature. METHODS: Participants who enrolled in a safety-net hospital smoking cessation program were followed for 13 weeks (i...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752966/high-intensity-smoking-cessation-interventions-cardiac-patients-of-low-socioeconomic-status-and-low-intention-to-quit-profit-most
#11
N Berndt, H de Vries, L Lechner, F Van Acker, E S Froelicher, F Verheugt, A Mudde, C Bolman
BACKGROUND: Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was used...
October 17, 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743335/development-of-culturally-appropriate-support-strategies-to-increase-uptake-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-among-russian-and-chinese-speaking-smokers-in-new-york-city
#12
Erin C Quinn, Rachel Sacks, Shannon M Farley, Sayone Thihalolipavan
Approximately 80,000 New York City smokers are Chinese or Russian speakers. To increase utilization of smoking cessation services among these populations, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed linguistically and culturally tailored outreach strategies to promote and enhance its annual Nicotine Patch and Gum Program. In 2010, online web applications in Chinese and Russian were introduced. In 2011, input was sought from the community to develop Russian-language radio and newspaper ads, and a Russian-speaking liaison provided phone-assisted online enrollment support...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736144/pilot-evaluation-of-a-brief-intervention-to-improve-nicotine-patch-adherence-among-smokers-living-with-hiv-aids
#13
Joan S Tucker, William G Shadel, Frank H Galvan, Diana Naranjo, Christian Lopez, Claude Setodji
Nicotine replacement therapy is an effective intervention for smoking cessation, but adherence tends to be low. This article presents results from a pilot evaluation of a brief smoking cessation treatment to improve adherence to the nicotine patch among Latino smokers living with HIV/AIDS. Forty smokers were randomized to receive either a standard 5 As counseling session and 8-week treatment of nicotine patch, or a similar intervention that added a 10-min module to the 5 As counseling that focused on improving adherence to the nicotine patch...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734465/interventions-to-reduce-harm-from-continued-tobacco-use
#14
REVIEW
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734062/successes-and-unintended-consequences-of-the-northern-territory-s-smoke-free-prisons-policy-results-from-a-process-evaluation
#15
Marita Hefler, Robyn Hopkins, David P Thomas
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Northern Territory was the first Australian jurisdiction to introduce a smoke-free policy for all correctional facilities. We report on a process evaluation to identify what worked well, key challenges and unintended consequences. METHODS: We interviewed 87 people, comprising remand, medium-security and low-security prisoners; visiting family members; and prison staff (including prison management and health workers). A realist evaluation approach was used...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712845/pharmacogenetic-optimization-of-smoking-cessation-treatment
#16
Meghan J Chenoweth, Rachel F Tyndale
Worldwide, approximately one billion people smoke cigarettes. Cigarette smoking persists in part because long-term smoking cessation rates are modest on existing treatments. Smoking cessation outcomes are influenced by genetic factors, including genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize nicotine and smoking cessation medications, as well as in receptor targets for nicotine and treatment medications. For example, smokers with genetically slow nicotine metabolism have higher cessation success on behavioural counseling and nicotine patches compared with smokers with genetically fast nicotine metabolism...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660494/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-videoconferencing-smoking-cessation-intervention-for-korean-american-women-preliminary-findings
#17
Sun S Kim, Somporn Sitthisongkram, Kunsook Bernstein, Hua Fang, Won S Choi, Douglas Ziedonis
INTRODUCTION: Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking. METHODS: This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647058/helping-hospitalized-smokers-a-factorial-rct-of-nicotine-patches-and-counseling
#18
Sharon E Cummins, Anthony C Gamst, Kendra Brandstein, Gregory B Seymann, Hillary Klonoff-Cohen, Carrie A Kirby, Elisa K Tong, Edward Chaplin, Gary J Tedeschi, Shu-Hong Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Most smokers abstain from smoking during hospitalization but relapse upon discharge. This study tests the effectiveness of two proven treatments (i.e., nicotine patches and telephone counseling) in helping these patients stay quit after discharge from the hospital, and assesses a model of hospital-quitline partnership. STUDY DESIGN: This study had a 2×2 factorial design in which participants were stratified by recruitment site and smoking rate and randomly assigned to usual care, nicotine patches only, counseling only, or patches plus counseling...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635998/can-brain-games-help-smokers-quit-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
James Loughead, Mary Falcone, E Paul Wileyto, Benjamin Albelda, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Wen Cao, Matthew M Kurtz, Ruben C Gur, Caryn Lerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Deficits in cognitive function are observed during nicotine withdrawal and present a challenge to successful smoking cessation. This clinical trial evaluated a cognitive exercise training (CT) program to improve smoking cessation rates. METHODS: Adult treatment-seeking smokers (n=213) were randomized to receive nicotine patch therapy and 12 weeks of either computerized CT or computerized relaxation (control) training. Smoking status was biochemically verified at the end of treatment and 6-month follow-up...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622384/electronic-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation
#20
REVIEW
Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Hayden McRobbie, Chris Bullen, Rachna Begh, Lindsay F Stead, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid into an aerosol for inhalation. The liquid usually comprises propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, and stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organizations, tobacco control advocacy groups and policy makers have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety...
September 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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