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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298165/high-throughput-patch-clamp-screening-in-human-%C3%AE-6-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#1
Lucas C Armstrong, Glenn E Kirsch, Nikolai B Fedorov, Caiyun Wu, Yuri A Kuryshev, Abby L Sewell, Zhiqi Liu, Arianne L Motter, Carmine S Leggett, Michael S Orr
Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261794/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-at-the-single-channel-level
#2
REVIEW
Cecilia Bouzat, Steven M Sine
Over the past four decades, the patch clamp technique and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors have established an enduring partnership. Like all good partnerships, each partner has proven significant in its own right, while their union has spurred innumerable advances in life science research. A member and prototype of the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, the nACh receptor is a chemo-electric transducer, binding nerve-released ACh and rapidly opening its channel to cation flow to elicit cellular excitation...
March 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241514/antivenom-evaluation-by-electrophysiological-analysis
#3
Rita Restano-Cassulini, Walter Garcia, Jorge F Paniagua-Solís, Lourival D Possani
Scorpion stings on humans are medically relevant because they may contain toxins that specifically target ion channels. During antivenom production, pharmaceutical companies must use a large number of experimental animals to ensure the antivenom's efficacy according to pharmacopeia methods. Here we present an electrophysiological alternative for the evaluation of horse antivenoms produced against two species of Moroccan scorpions: Buthus mardochei and Androctonus mauretanicus. Human sodium and potassium channels and acetylcholine nicotinic receptors were analyzed by standard patch-clamp techniques...
February 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239942/extended-treatment-for-cigarette-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-control-trial
#4
Jennifer R Laude, Steffani R Bailey, Erin Crew, Ann Varady, Anna Lembke, Danielle McFall, Anna Jeon, Diana Killen, Joel D Killen, Sean P David
AIM: To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. DESIGN: Two-group parallel randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. SETTING: Community clinic in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18)...
February 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224877/-helping-people-to-give-up-smoking-efficacy-and-safety-of-smoking-cessation-interventions
#5
R C van de Graaf, O C P van Schayck
- This review evaluates the safety and efficacy of, smoking cessation interventions.- Behavioural counselling is the cornerstone of smoking cessation programmes.- This counselling can be supplemented with written self-help materials, telephone counselling and e-health tailored to individual patient preferences.- Behavioural counselling may be combined with pharmacotherapy for increased effectiveness. First choice is a combination of a nicotine patch and a nicotine lozenge or chewing gum, mainly because of the favourable side-effect profile...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193583/nicotinic-modulation-of-salience-network-connectivity-and-centrality-in-schizophrenia
#6
Jason Smucny, Korey P Wylie, Eugene Kronberg, Kristina T Legget, Jason R Tregellas
Although functional abnormalities of the salience network are associated with schizophrenia, the acute effects of nicotine on its function and network dynamics during the resting state in patients are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of a 7 mg nicotine patch (vs. placebo) on salience network connectivity were examined in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy subjects. We hypothesized abnormal connectivity between the salience network and other major networks (e.g. executive network) in patients under placebo administration and amelioration of this difference after nicotine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166924/-lifestyle-recommendations-for-prevention-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women
#7
E Maisonneuve
OBJECTIVES: To establish recommendations for lifestyle of pregnant women and its impact on spontaneous preterm births. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched Pubmed and Cochrane databases and checked reference lists of retrieved studies. This review of the literature concerns only women who have no symptoms for the ongoing pregnancy. RESULTS: Concerning maternal occupation during pregnancy, there is a mild increase of the risk of preterm birth only for women who work more than 40hours a week or who have hard working conditions according to a fatigue score (LE2)...
December 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160016/nicotine-at-clinically-relevant-concentrations-affects-atrial-inward-rectifier-potassium-current-sensitive-to-acetylcholine
#8
Markéta Bébarová, Peter Matejovič, Olga Švecová, Roman Kula, Milena Šimurdová, Jiří Šimurda
Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0...
February 3, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148643/developmental-nicotine-exposure-alters-potassium-currents-in-hypoglossal-motoneurons-of-neonatal-rat
#9
Marina Cholanian, Jesse Wealing, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
We previously showed that nicotine exposure in utero and after birth via breast milk [developmental nicotine exposure (DNE)] is associated with many changes in the structure and function of hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs), including a reduction in the size of the dendritic arbor and an increase in cell excitability. Interestingly, the elevated excitability was associated with a reduction in the expression of glutamate receptors on the cell body. Together, these observations are consistent with a homeostatic compensation aimed at restoring cell excitability...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131721/effects-of-acetylcholine-and-cholinergic-antagonists-on-the-activity-of-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-neurons
#10
Werner I Furuya, Eduardo Colombari, Alastair V Ferguson, Débora S A Colombari
Previously we have demonstrated that microinjection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the intermediate nucleus of the solitary tract (iNTS) induced sympatho-inhibition combined with a decrease in the phrenic nerve activity (PNA), whereas in the commissural NTS (cNTS), ACh did not change sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but increased the PNA. In view of these demonstrated distinctive effects of ACh in different subnuclei of the NTS the current studies were undertaken to examine, using patch clamp techniques, the specific effects of ACh on the excitability of individual neurons in the NTS, as well as the neuropharmacology of these actions...
January 25, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103704/quality-of-life-after-quitting-smoking-and-initiating-aerobic-exercise
#11
Erika Litvin Bloom, Haruka Minami, Richard A Brown, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Ana M Abrantes
Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063325/a-pilot-trial-of-in-vivo-nrt-sampling-to-increase-medication-adherence-in-community-corrections-smokers
#12
Karen L Cropsey, Peter S Hendricks, Samantha Schiavon, Aaron Sellers, Morgan Froelich, Richard C Shelton, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Individuals in the criminal justice system demonstrate high rates of cigarette use (70-80%) and low adherence to smoking cessation medication. Educational approaches have not been shown to promote adherence or cessation, though medication sampling has boosted both use and cessation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether In vivo nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling approach increases NRT adherence among criminal justice smokers during a subsequent quit attempt...
December 27, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039798/mailed-distribution-of-free-nicotine-patches-without-behavioral-support-predictors-of-use-and-cessation
#13
Vladyslav Kushnir, Beth A Sproule, John A Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that the mailed distribution of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), usually as part of smokers' helplines, can been effective in increasing the odds of cessation on a population level. However, limited information is available on the utilization of NRT when it is provided for free, and factors associated with regimen adherence have remained largely unexplored. METHODS: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, 500 adult smokers across Canada hypothetically interested in free NRT were mailed a 5week supply of nicotine patches, but no other support was offered...
December 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028602/negative-affect-subtypes-and-craving-differentially-predict-long-term-cessation-success-among-smokers-achieving-initial-abstinence
#14
Yantao Zuo, Norka E Rabinovich, David G Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of individual trajectories of three types of negative affect (NA: anxiety, depression, and anger) and craving during a 44-day period of incentivized smoking abstinence period with cessation outcome at 3 months and at 1 year. METHODS: Adult smokers (N = 140) completed questionnaire assessments of NA and craving during pre-quit baseline sessions and 15 postquit sessions over the 45 days of biochemically verified abstinence while on nicotine or placebo patch treatment...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013098/toward-precision-smoking-cessation-treatment-i-moderator-results-from-a-factorial-experiment
#15
Megan E Piper, Tanya R Schlam, Jessica W Cook, Stevens S Smith, Daniel M Bolt, Wei-Yin Loh, Robin Mermelstein, Linda M Collins, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker
BACKGROUND: The development of tobacco use treatments that are effective for all smokers is critical to improving clinical and public health. The Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) uses highly efficient factorial experiments to evaluate multiple intervention components for possible inclusion in an optimized tobacco use treatment. Factorial experiments permit analyses of the influence of patient characteristics on main and interaction effects of multiple, relatively discrete, intervention components...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013097/toward-precision-smoking-cessation-treatment-ii-proximal-effects-of-smoking-cessation-intervention-components-on-putative-mechanisms-of-action
#16
Megan E Piper, Jessica W Cook, Tanya R Schlam, Stevens S Smith, Daniel M Bolt, Linda M Collins, Robin Mermelstein, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker
BACKGROUND: Understanding how smoking cessation treatments exert their effects can inform treatment development and use. Factorial designs allow researchers to examine whether multiple intervention components affect hypothesized change mechanisms, and whether the affected mechanisms are related to cessation. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of smokers recruited during primary care visits (N=637, 55% women, 87% white) who were motivated to quit. Participants in this fractional factorial experiment were randomized to one level of each of six intervention factors: Prequit Nicotine Patch vs None, Prequit Nicotine Gum vs None, Preparation Counseling vs None, Intensive In-Person Counseling vs Minimal, Intensive Phone Counseling vs Minimal, and 16 vs 8 Weeks of Combination Nicotine Replacement (nicotine patch+nicotine gum)...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007552/the-potential-subunits-involved-in-two-subtypes-of-%C3%AE-bgt-resistant-nachrs-in-cockroach-dorsal-unpaired-median-dum-neurons
#17
Huahua Sun, Yang Liu, Jian Li, Xinzhu Cang, Haibo Bao, Zewen Liu
The american cockroach (Periplaneta americana) dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons provide an native tool to analyze the functional and pharmacological properties of ion channels and membrane receptors, such as nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here the imidacloprid-activated nAChR subtypes were examined in DUM neurons by the patch-clamp technique and the potential subunits involved in important subtypes were analyzed by combining with RNA interference (RNAi) technique. Imidacloprid exerted agonist activities on one subtype in α-Bgt-sensitive nAChRs and another subtype in α-Bgt-resistant nAChRs, in which the α-Bgt-resistant subtype showed much higher sensitivity to imidacloprid than the α-Bgt-sensitive subtype, with the difference close to 200-fold...
February 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#18
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#19
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893843/comparative-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-a-national-prospective-cohort-from-taiwan
#20
Po-Yin Chang, Po-Ching Lo, Hui-Chin Chang, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Yi-Wen Tsai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters. METHODS: In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015), a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052), bupropion (n = 823), NRT gum (n = 1944) or NRT patch (n = 4,149)...
2016: PloS One
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