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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817864/tobacco-cessation-strategies-it-takes-a-village
#1
Debbie Anne Chiu Qua
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and chronic diseases in the U.S. Identifying smokers and providing appropriate intervention is therefore an integral part of each clinic visit. A combination of pharmacotherapy as well as behavioral counseling provides the best results. Pharmacotherapy includes nicotine replacement (patch, gum, lozenges), bupropion and varenicline. More recently, electronic nicotinic delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes, vaporizers/vape pens, and hookah pens) have become popular...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771779/population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-transdermal-nicotine-delivered-from-a-matrix-type-patch
#2
Matthew W Linakis, Joseph E Rower, Jessica K Roberts, Eleanor I Miller, Diana G Wilkins, Catherine M T Sherwin
AIM: Nicotine addiction is an issue faced by millions of individuals worldwide. As a result, nicotine replacement therapies, such as transdermal nicotine patches, have become widely distributed and used. While the pharmacokinetics of transdermal nicotine have been extensively described using non-compartmental methods, there is very little data available describing the between subject variability in transdermal nicotine pharmacokinetics. The aim of this investigation was to use population pharmacokinetic techniques to describe this variability, particularly as it pertains to the absorption of nicotine from the transdermal patch...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756042/effectiveness-of-continuing-nicotine-replacement-after-a-lapse-a-randomized-trial
#3
John R Hughes, Laura J Solomon, Catherine E Peasley-Miklus, Peter W Callas, James R Fingar
INTRODUCTION: Four post-hoc analyses of prior trials found smokers using nicotine patch following a lapse were less likely to progress to relapse compared to those using a placebo patch following a lapse. We attempted a conceptual replication test of these results via a randomized trial of instructions to continue vs. stop nicotine patch after a lapse. METHODS: Smokers trying to quit (n=701) received nicotine patch (21/14/7mg) and brief phone counseling (six 15-min sessions)...
July 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747857/acculturation-depression-and-smoking-cessation-a-trajectory-pattern-recognition-approach
#4
Sun S Kim, Hua Fang, Kunsook Bernstein, Zhaoyang Zhang, Joseph DiFranza, Douglas Ziedonis, Jeroan Allison
BACKGROUND: Korean Americans are known for a high smoking prevalence within the Asian American population. This study examined the effects of acculturation and depression on Korean Americans' smoking cessation and abstinence. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a smoking cessation study that implemented eight weekly individualized counseling sessions of a culturally adapted cessation intervention for the treatment arm and a standard cognitive behavioral therapy for the comparison arm...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720080/long-term-effectiveness-of-mailed-nicotine-replacement-therapy-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-5-year-follow-up
#5
Vladyslav Kushnir, Peter Selby, Laurie Zawertailo, Rachel F Tyndale, Scott T Leatherdale, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Our group recently completed a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of providing 5 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; in the form of the nicotine patch) by expedited postal mail without behavioral assistance to regular adult smokers interested in receiving it. The findings revealed that mailed provision of nicotine patches resulted in more than a doubling of quit rates at a six-month follow-up compared to a no intervention control group. While this trial provided evidence for the effectiveness of mailed nicotine patches in promoting cessation, the findings speak only to the short term effectiveness of this approach...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715776/gender-differences-in-the-real-world-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-findings-from-the-2010-2011-tobacco-use-supplement-to-the-current-population-survey
#6
Philip H Smith, Ju Zhang, Andrea H Weinberger, Carolyn M Mazure, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of clinical trial data have identified clinically relevant gender differences in the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. It is unclear whether these findings are generalizable to smokers quitting in real-world contexts. METHODS: Using Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2010-2011 cross-sectional data, we generated propensity score matched samples of smokers who quit either unassisted by medication, using only varenicline, or using only transdermal nicotine patch (TNP)...
July 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715122/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-telephone-and-face-to-face-delivered-counseling-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-in-dutch-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#7
Nadine Berndt, Lilian Lechner, Aart Mudde, Hein De Vries, Catherine Bolman
Intensive behavioral counseling interventions combined with nicotine replacement therapy have increased smoking abstinence rates in cardiac patients, but little is known about their feasibility when initiated upon hospital admission and continued post-discharge. The current study was an evaluation of the use, appreciation, and fidelity of two post-discharge counseling interventions designed for cardiac patients to quit smoking that differed in their delivery mode. In a controlled trial with cross-over randomization at the cardiac unit level, hospitalized smokers in eight cardiac units of eight Dutch hospitals were assigned either telephone counseling (n = 223) or nurse-administered face-to-face counseling (n = 157) using the Ask-Advise-Refer strategy...
July 17, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693456/impact-of-large-scale-distribution-and-subsequent-use-of-free-nicotine-patches-on-primary-care-physician-interaction
#8
Vladyslav Kushnir, Beth A Sproule, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Large-scale distribution efforts of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have been documented to be cost-effective interventions for increasing smoking quit rates. However, despite nearly a dozen studies evaluating their effectiveness, none have examined whether free NRT provision promotes further primary care help-seeking and the impact that it may have on cessation efforts. METHODS: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, a secondary analysis was conducted on 1000 adult regular smokers randomized to be mailed a 5-week supply of nicotine patches or to a no intervention control group...
July 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671393/top-20-research-studies-of-2016-for-primary-care-physicians
#9
REVIEW
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
This article summarizes the top 20 original research studies and four practice guidelines of 2016, based on regular literature surveillance and as selected by members of the Canadian Medical Association. The studies, known as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters), were rated highly because of their relevance, validity, and potential to change practice. Key hypertension treatment findings include reduced mortality (a benefit not demonstrated in lower-risk persons or persons with diabetes mellitus) but also an increase in harms with a more aggressive blood pressure target in high-risk persons with hypertension and without diabetes...
May 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615326/prenatal-nicotinic-exposure-prolongs-superior-laryngeal-c-fiber-mediated-apnea-and-bradycardia-through-enhancing-neuronal-trpv1-expression-and-excitation
#10
Xiuping Gao, Lei Zhao, Jianguo Zhuang, Na Zang, Fadi Xu
Maternal cigarette smoke, including prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE), is responsible for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The fatal events of SIDS are characterized by severe bradycardia and life-threatening apneas. Although activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) of superior laryngeal C-fibers (SLCFs) could induce bradycardia and apnea and has been implicated in SIDS pathogenesis, how PNE affects the SLCF-mediated cardiorespiratory responses remains unexplored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PNE would aggravate the SLCF-mediated apnea and bradycardia via up-regulating TRPV1 expression and excitation of laryngeal C-neurons in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglia...
June 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593623/-smoking-cessation-and-schizophrenia
#11
D P Muller, L de Haan
People with schizophrenia smoke about 5.6 times as much as people without the disease. This factor is a major but treatable cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Nevertheless, health professionals make relatively little effort to discourage people from smoking or to give it up altogether.<br/> AIM: To increase health professionals' knowledge about possible therapeutic interventions that can help people with schizophrenia to stop smoking.<br/> METHOD: We studied the relevant literature...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585699/impact-of-ageing-on-postsynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-neurotransmission-in-auditory-thalamus
#12
Sarah Y Sottile, Lynne Ling, Brandon C Cox, Donald M Caspary
KEY POINTS: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a fundamental role in the attentional circuitry throughout the mammalian CNS. In the present study, we report a novel finding that ageing negatively impacts nAChR efficacy in auditory thalamus, and this is probably the result of a loss of nAChR density (Bmax ) and changes in the subunit composition of nAChRs. Our data support the hypothesis that age-related maladaptive changes involving nAChRs within thalamocortical circuits partially underpin the difficulty that elderly adults experience with respect to attending to speech and other salient acoustic signals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521035/beyond-quitting-any-additional-impact-of-mailing-free-nicotine-patches-to-current-smokers
#13
John A Cunningham, Vladyslav Kushnir, Peter Selby, Rachel F Tyndale, Laurie Zawertailo, Scott T Leatherdale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500373/effects-of-varenicline-versus-transdermal-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-cigarette-demand-on-quit-day-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders
#14
Cara M Murphy, James MacKillop, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Damaris J Rohsenow
RATIONALE: Cigarette demand is a behavioral economic measure of the relative value of cigarettes. Decreasing the value of cigarette reinforcement may help with quitting smoking. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of initial use of varenicline (VAR) versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on demand for cigarettes on quit day among smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) and to determine whether reduced demand was associated with subsequent abstinence from smoking at 1 and 3 months...
August 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498504/varenicline-versus-nicotine-patch-with-brief-advice-for-smokers-with-substance-use-disorders-with-or-without-depression-effects-on-smoking-substance-use-and-depressive-symptoms
#15
Damaris J Rohsenow, Jennifer W Tidey, Rosemarie A Martin, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio, Peter M Monti
AIMS: Varenicline was compared with transdermal nicotine (NRT) for smokers with current substance use disorders (SUD) for effects on 3-month smoking abstinence (primary outcome) and, secondarily, on 3- and 6 month abstinence while adjusting for medication adherence, and on additional smoking and substance use outcomes. Moderation by major depressive disorder history (MDD) and adherence were investigated. DESIGN: Double-blind double-placebo-controlled randomized design, stratifying by MDD, gender and nicotine dependence, with 3 and 6 months follow-up...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496108/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-via-modulating-gabaergic-presynaptic-activity-in-a-chronic-glaucomatous-model
#16
Xujiao Zhou, Yun Cheng, Rong Zhang, Gang Li, Boqi Yang, Shenghai Zhang, Jihong Wu
Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonists can prevent glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the neuroprotective effects and the mechanism of action of PNU-282987, an α7-nAChR agonist, in a chronic in vivo rat glaucoma model are poorly understood. We found that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) downregulated retinal α7-nAChR expression. Electroretinography revealed that the amplitude of the photopic negative response (PhNR) decreased in parallel with the loss of RGCs caused by elevated IOP...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493744/does-menthol-cigarette-use-moderate-the-effect-of-nicotine-metabolism-on-short-term-smoking-cessation
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nancy C Jao, Anna K Veluz-Wilkins, Matthew J Smith, Allison J Carroll, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank T Leone, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert A Schnoll, Brian Hitsman
The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) has been shown to predict response to the transdermal nicotine patch, such that faster nicotine metabolism is associated with a lower abstinence rate. Menthol cigarette use, versus nonmenthol cigarette use, slows nicotine metabolism and therefore may attenuate the effect of NMR on smoking abstinence. In this study, we evaluated whether cigarette type (menthol vs. nonmenthol) modified the association between NMR and short-term abstinence. This was a secondary analysis examining treatment in the first 8 weeks of 21 mg/day nicotine patch therapy in a completed clinical trial (n = 474)...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489501/smoking-cessation-treatment-for-patients-with-mental-disorders-using-cbt-and-combined-pharmacotherapy
#18
Aline Rodrigues Loreto, Carlos Felipe Cavalcanti Carvalho, Fernanda Piotto Frallonardo, Flavia Ismael, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate smoking treatment effectiveness and retention in a population with and without mental disorders (MD). Participants received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus nicotine patch alone or in combination with other medications (i.e., gum, bupropion, or nortriptyline) for smoking cessation treatment in a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center unit (CAPS), taking into account sociodemographics and smoking profile covariates. METHODS: The study involved comparison of treatment success (seven-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of the treatment) and retention (presence of the individual in all of the four medical consultations and six group sessions) in two subsamples of patients with MD (n = 267) and without MD (n = 397) who were included in a six-week treatment provided by a CAPS from 2007 to 2013...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489321/nicotine-deprivation-attenuates-panic-reactivity-in-smokers-findings-from-a-placebo-controlled-nicotine-patch-study
#19
Kenneth Abrams, Sam Krimmel, Stacey Johnson, Kate Cieslowski, Helen Strnad, Arielle Melum, Caroline Kryder
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies consistently find that smoking is a risk factor for the development of panic disorder (PD). A possible explanation is that nicotine deprivation promotes heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and/or arterial carbon dioxide (CO2 ). Abrams et al. (2011) previously found that, in response to a CO2 rebreathing challenge, smokers experiencing more (vs. less) intense nicotine withdrawal had more severe panic symptoms and a stronger urge to escape. However, participants were aware of the last time they smoked, leaving unclear the extent to which fear reactivity was influenced by the pharmacologic effects of nicotine deprivation versus beliefs regarding when nicotine was most recently used...
May 10, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487481/functional-genomics-in-brugia-malayi-reveal-diverse-muscle-nachrs-and-differences-between-cholinergic-anthelmintics
#20
Saurabh Verma, Sudhanva Srinivas Kashyap, Alan Patrick Robertson, Richard John Martin
Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell PCR, whole muscle cell patch clamp, motility phenotyping (Worminator), and dsRNA for RNAi for functional genomic studies that have revealed, in vivo, four different muscle nAChRs (M-, L-, P-, and N-)...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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