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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033834/tc299423-a-novel-agonist-for-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#1
Teagan R Wall, Brandon J Henderson, George Voren, Charles R Wageman, Purnima Deshpande, Bruce N Cohen, Sharon R Grady, Michael J Marks, Daniel Yohannes, Paul J Kenny, Merouane Bencherif, Henry A Lester
(E)-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl)-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423) is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2(∗) (α6β2-containing), α4β2(∗), and α3β4(∗) nAChRs, using [(125)I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal (86)Rb(+) efflux, [(3)H]-dopamine release, and [(3)H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30-60 nM for α6β2(∗) nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [(3)H]-dopamine release assays...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020601/pioglitazone-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-reduces-nicotine-craving-in-humans-with-marginal-effects-on-abuse-potential
#2
Jermaine D Jones, Sandra D Comer, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Suky Martinez, Mudassir Mumtaz, Adam Bisaga
Possibly through their actions upon glia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPAR) have been shown to alter the abuse potential of addictive drugs in several preclinical models. The current study extends this research into the human laboratory as the first clinical study into the effects of the PPAR gamma agonist, pioglitazone, on the abuse potential of nicotine. Heavy smokers were recruited for this 3-week study. Upon admission, participants were randomized to either active (45mg, n=14) or placebo (0mg, n=13) PIO maintenance conditions for the duration of the study...
October 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018894/abstinence-induced-withdrawal-severity-among-adolescent-smokers-with-and-without-adhd-disentangling-effects-of-nicotine-and-smoking-reinstatement
#3
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Sara G Balestrieri, Suzanne M Colby, Valerie S Knopik, Jennifer W Tidey
RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) start smoking earlier, are more likely to progress to nicotine dependence, and have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk, particularly at the adolescent stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of overnight nicotine abstinence and smoking reinstatement on subjective withdrawal states in adolescent smokers with and without ADHD...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922651/evaluating-the-effect-of-smoking-cessation-treatment-on-a-complex-dynamical-system
#4
Korkut Bekiroglu, Michael A Russell, Constantino M Lagoa, Stephanie T Lanza, Megan E Piper
OBJECTIVE: To understand the dynamic relations among tobacco withdrawal symptoms to inform the development of effective smoking cessation treatments. Dynamical system models from control engineering are introduced and utilized to evaluate complex treatment effects. We demonstrate how dynamical models can be used to examine how distinct withdrawal-related processes are related over time and how treatment influences these relations. METHOD: Intensive longitudinal data from a randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial (N=1504) are used to estimate a dynamical model of withdrawal-related processes including momentary craving, negative affect, quitting self-efficacy, and cessation fatigue for each of six treatment conditions (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, patch + lozenge, bupropion + lozenge, and placebo)...
August 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#5
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905874/ovarian-hormones-and-transdermal-nicotine-administration-independently-and-synergistically-suppress-tobacco-withdrawal-symptoms-and-smoking-reinstatement-in-the-human-laboratory
#6
Raina D Pang, Madalyn M Liautaud, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Jimi Huh, John Monterosso, Adam M Leventhal
Modeling intra-individual fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone may provide unique insight into the effects of ovarian hormones on the etiology and treatment of nicotine dependence. This randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study tested the independent and interactive effects of intra-individual ovarian hormone variation and nicotine on suppression of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and smoking behavior. Female smokers randomized to 21 mg nicotine (TNP; n=37) or placebo (PBO; n=43) transdermal patch following overnight abstinence completed three sessions occurring during hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894502/use-of-smoking-cessation-products-a-survey-of-patients-in-community-pharmacies
#7
Alan Phung, Lauren Luo, Noor Breik, Silvia Alessi-Severini
OBJECTIVES: At 17.3%, smoking rates in Manitoba continue to exceed the national average. In this province, a total health care spending of more than $200 million per year has been attributed to smoking. This study examined the use of smoking cessation agents, including nicotine replacement products and prescription medications, in a sample of smokers in the city of Winnipeg. METHODS: A simple multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to willing individuals attending 2 community pharmacies in Winnipeg, Manitoba...
September 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875026/segregation-of-lipids-near-acetylcholine-receptor-channels-imaged-by-cryo-em
#8
Nigel Unwin
Rapid communication at the chemical synapse depends on the action of ion channels residing in the postsynaptic membrane. The channels open transiently upon the binding of a neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal, eliciting an electrical response. Membrane lipids also play a vital but poorly understood role in this process of synaptic transmission. The present study examines the lipid distribution around nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in tubular vesicles made from postsynaptic membranes of the Torpedo ray, taking advantage of the recent advances in cryo-EM...
July 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845178/transdermal-nicotine-patch-effects-on-eeg-power-spectra-and-heart-rate-variability-during-sleep-of-healthy-male-adults
#9
Jong-Bae Choi, Yu-Jin G Lee, Do-Un Jeong
OBJECTIVE: The effect of transdermal nicotine patch on sleep physiology is not well established. The current study aimed to examine the influence of nicotine patch on homeostatic sleep propensity and autonomic nervous system. METHODS: We studied 16 non-smoking young healthy volunteers with nocturnal polysomnography in a double blind crossover design between sleep with and without nicotine patch. We compared the sleep variables, sleep EEG power spectra, and heart rate variability...
July 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833834/estimates-of-effectiveness-and-reach-for-return-on-investment-modelling-of-smoking-cessation-interventions-using-data-from-england
#10
Robert West, Kathryn Coyle, Lesley Owen, Doug Coyle, Subhash Pokhrel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimating 'return on investment' (ROI) from smoking cessation interventions requires reach and effectiveness parameters for interventions for use in economic models such as the EQUIPT ROI tool (http://roi.equipt.eu). This paper describes the derivation of these parameter estimates for England that can be adapted to create ROI models for use by other countries. METHODS: Estimates were derived for interventions in terms of their reach and effectiveness in: 1) promoting quit attempts, and 2) improving the success of quit attempts (abstinence for at least 12 months)...
August 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817864/tobacco-cessation-strategies-it-takes-a-village
#11
Debbie Anne Chiu Qua
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and chronic diseases in the U.S. Identifying smokers and providing appropriate intervention is therefore an integral part of each clinic visit. A combination of pharmacotherapy as well as behavioral counseling provides the best results. Pharmacotherapy includes nicotine replacement (patch, gum, lozenges), bupropion and varenicline. More recently, electronic nicotinic delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes, vaporizers/vape pens, and hookah pens) have become popular...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771779/population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-transdermal-nicotine-delivered-from-a-matrix-type-patch
#12
Matthew W Linakis, Joseph E Rower, Jessica K Roberts, Eleanor I Miller, Diana G Wilkins, Catherine M T Sherwin
AIMS: Nicotine addiction is an issue faced by millions of individuals worldwide. As a result, nicotine replacement therapies, such as transdermal nicotine patches, have become widely distributed and used. While the pharmacokinetics of transdermal nicotine have been extensively described using noncompartmental methods, there are few data available describing the between-subject variability in transdermal nicotine pharmacokinetics. The aim of this investigation was to use population pharmacokinetic techniques to describe this variability, particularly as it pertains to the absorption of nicotine from the transdermal patch...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756042/effectiveness-of-continuing-nicotine-replacement-after-a-lapse-a-randomized-trial
#13
John R Hughes, Laura J Solomon, Catherine E Peasley-Miklus, Peter W Callas, James R Fingar
INTRODUCTION: Four post-hoc analyses of prior trials found smokers using nicotine patch following a lapse were less likely to progress to relapse compared to those using a placebo patch following a lapse. We attempted a conceptual replication test of these results via a randomized trial of instructions to continue vs. stop nicotine patch after a lapse. METHODS: Smokers trying to quit (n=701) received nicotine patch (21/14/7mg) and brief phone counseling (six 15-min sessions)...
July 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747857/acculturation-depression-and-smoking-cessation-a-trajectory-pattern-recognition-approach
#14
Sun S Kim, Hua Fang, Kunsook Bernstein, Zhaoyang Zhang, Joseph DiFranza, Douglas Ziedonis, Jeroan Allison
BACKGROUND: Korean Americans are known for a high smoking prevalence within the Asian American population. This study examined the effects of acculturation and depression on Korean Americans' smoking cessation and abstinence. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a smoking cessation study that implemented eight weekly individualized counseling sessions of a culturally adapted cessation intervention for the treatment arm and a standard cognitive behavioral therapy for the comparison arm...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720080/long-term-effectiveness-of-mailed-nicotine-replacement-therapy-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-5-year-follow-up
#15
Vladyslav Kushnir, Peter Selby, Laurie Zawertailo, Rachel F Tyndale, Scott T Leatherdale, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Our group recently completed a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of providing 5 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; in the form of the nicotine patch) by expedited postal mail without behavioral assistance to regular adult smokers interested in receiving it. The findings revealed that mailed provision of nicotine patches resulted in more than a doubling of quit rates at a six-month follow-up compared to a no intervention control group. While this trial provided evidence for the effectiveness of mailed nicotine patches in promoting cessation, the findings speak only to the short term effectiveness of this approach...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715776/gender-differences-in-the-real-world-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-findings-from-the-2010-2011-tobacco-use-supplement-to-the-current-population-survey
#16
Philip H Smith, Ju Zhang, Andrea H Weinberger, Carolyn M Mazure, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of clinical trial data have identified clinically relevant gender differences in the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. It is unclear whether these findings are generalizable to smokers quitting in real-world contexts. METHODS: Using Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2010-2011 cross-sectional data, we generated propensity score matched samples of smokers who quit either unassisted by medication, using only varenicline, or using only transdermal nicotine patch (TNP)...
July 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715122/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-telephone-and-face-to-face-delivered-counseling-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-in-dutch-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#17
Nadine Berndt, Lilian Lechner, Aart Mudde, Hein De Vries, Catherine Bolman
Intensive behavioral counseling interventions combined with nicotine replacement therapy have increased smoking abstinence rates in cardiac patients, but little is known about their feasibility when initiated upon hospital admission and continued post-discharge. The current study was an evaluation of the use, appreciation, and fidelity of two post-discharge counseling interventions designed for cardiac patients to quit smoking that differed in their delivery mode. In a controlled trial with cross-over randomization at the cardiac unit level, hospitalized smokers in eight cardiac units of eight Dutch hospitals were assigned either telephone counseling (n = 223) or nurse-administered face-to-face counseling (n = 157) using the Ask-Advise-Refer strategy...
October 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693456/impact-of-large-scale-distribution-and-subsequent-use-of-free-nicotine-patches-on-primary-care-physician-interaction
#18
Vladyslav Kushnir, Beth A Sproule, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Large-scale distribution efforts of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have been documented to be cost-effective interventions for increasing smoking quit rates. However, despite nearly a dozen studies evaluating their effectiveness, none have examined whether free NRT provision promotes further primary care help-seeking and the impact that it may have on cessation efforts. METHODS: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, a secondary analysis was conducted on 1000 adult regular smokers randomized to be mailed a 5-week supply of nicotine patches or to a no intervention control group...
July 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671393/top-20-research-studies-of-2016-for-primary-care-physicians
#19
REVIEW
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
This article summarizes the top 20 original research studies and four practice guidelines of 2016, based on regular literature surveillance and as selected by members of the Canadian Medical Association. The studies, known as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters), were rated highly because of their relevance, validity, and potential to change practice. Key hypertension treatment findings include reduced mortality (a benefit not demonstrated in lower-risk persons or persons with diabetes mellitus) but also an increase in harms with a more aggressive blood pressure target in high-risk persons with hypertension and without diabetes...
May 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615326/prenatal-nicotinic-exposure-prolongs-superior-laryngeal-c-fiber-mediated-apnea-and-bradycardia-through-enhancing-neuronal-trpv1-expression-and-excitation
#20
Xiuping Gao, Lei Zhao, Jianguo Zhuang, Na Zang, Fadi Xu
Maternal cigarette smoke, including prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE), is responsible for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The fatal events of SIDS are characterized by severe bradycardia and life-threatening apneas. Although activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) of superior laryngeal C-fibers (SLCFs) could induce bradycardia and apnea and has been implicated in SIDS pathogenesis, how PNE affects the SLCF-mediated cardiorespiratory responses remains unexplored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PNE would aggravate the SLCF-mediated apnea and bradycardia via up-regulating TRPV1 expression and excitation of laryngeal C-neurons in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglia...
June 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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