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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534463/gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-embryonic-disc-trophoblast-and-parietal-hypoblast-at-the-start-of-gastrulation
#1
Peter L Pfeffer, Craig S Smith, Paul Maclean, Debra K Berg
In cattle early gastrulation-stage embryos (Stage 5), four tissues can be discerned: (i) the top layer of the embryonic disc consisting of embryonic ectoderm (EmE); (ii) the bottom layer of the disc consisting of mesoderm, endoderm and visceral hypoblast (MEH); (iii) the trophoblast (TB); and (iv) the parietal hypoblast. We performed microsurgery followed by RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of these four tissues as well as a developmentally earlier pre-gastrulation embryonic disc. The cattle EmE transcriptome was similar at Stages 4 and 5, characterised by the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG pluripotency network...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533192/in-vitro-effects-of-reprogramming-factors-on-the-expressions-of-pluripotent-genes-and-cd34-gene-in-human-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#2
Liang-Fang Zhu, Min Xiao, Yong-Quan Chen, Ling-Yan Wang, Xiao-Feng Luo, Xiao-Hong Yuan, Jin-Hua Ren, Zhi-Zhe Chen, Jian-Da Hu, Ting Yang
OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to explore the in vitro effects of reprogramming factors on the expressions of pluripotent genes and CD34 gene in HL-60 cells. METHODS: According to the construction of retroviral vector LV-OSCK of reprogramming factors (Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc), 293T cells were transfected to detect virus titer. The endogenous pluripotent genes (Oct4, SOX2, c-Myc and Klf4) and CD34 mRNA and protein expressions were detected by AP staining, immunofluorescence staining, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry...
May 19, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531375/mouse-minipuberty-coincides-with-gonocyte-transformation-into-spermatogonial-stem-cells-a-model-for-human-minipuberty
#3
Ruili Li, Amanda Vannitamby, Sarah S K Yue, David Handelsman, John Hutson
As the transient postnatal hormone surge in humans, known as 'minipuberty', occurs simultaneously with key steps in germ-cell development, we investigated whether similar changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis of neonatal mice at a time that would coincide with gonocyte transformation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Serum and testes were collected from C57Bl/6 mice at embryonic Day 17 (E17), birth (postnatal Day 0; P0) and daily until P10. Serum FSH and testosterone levels in both serum and testes were analysed and gene expression of FSH receptor (Fshr), luteinising hormone receptor (Lhr), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), membrane type 1 metalloprotease (Mt1-mmp), proto-oncogene C-kit and promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (Plzf ) was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
May 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530648/mechanism-of-human-somatic-reprogramming-to-ips-cell
#4
Rika Teshigawara, Junkwon Cho, Masahiro Kameda, Takashi Tada
Somatic reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) was realized in the year 2006 in mice, and in 2007 in humans, by transiently forced expression of a combination of exogenous transcription factors. Human and mouse iPSCs are distinctly reprogrammed into a 'primed' and a 'naïve' state, respectively. In the last decade, puzzle pieces of somatic reprogramming have been collected with difficulty. Collectively, dissecting reprogramming events and identification of the hallmark of sequentially activated/silenced genes have revealed mouse somatic reprogramming in fragments, but there is a long way to go toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of human somatic reprogramming, even with developing technologies...
May 22, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530472/telomerase-expression-in-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-pharyngeal-teeth
#5
W H Tan, P E Witten, C Winkler, D W T Au, A Huysseune
Nonmammalian vertebrates have the capacity of lifelong tooth replacement. In all vertebrates, tooth formation requires contact and interaction between the oral or pharyngeal epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. To secure lifelong replacement, the presence of odontogenic stem cells has been postulated, particularly in the epithelial compartment. This study uses an advanced teleost fish species, the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, a close relative to Oryzias latipes, to examine the expression and distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert), the catalytic unit of telomerase, in developing pharyngeal teeth and to relate these data to the proliferative activity of the cells...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529134/direct-reprogramming-epigenetics-and-cardiac-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Shota Kurotsu, Takeshi Suzuki, Masaki Ieda
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized regenerative medicine. Autologous iPSCs can be generated by introducing 4 stem cell-specific factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) into fibroblasts. iPSCs can propagate indefinitely and differentiate into clinically important cell types including cardiomyocytes, in vitro. The iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes represent a promising source of cells for cell-based therapeutic approaches for cardiac regeneration. However, there are several challenges in the clinical application of iPSCs: tumorigenicity of immature cells, poor survival of the transplanted myocardial cells, and cost and efficacy of this therapeutic approach...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520534/cpg-island-methylation-correlates-with-the-use-of-alternative-promoter-for-usp44-gene-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-testis
#7
Philippe Tropel, Laura Jung, Cécile André, Adeline Ndandougou, Stéphane Viville
Deubiquitinating enzymes may play a major regulatory role in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) but few studies have investigated this topic. Within this family of enzymes, we found that the ubiquitin specific peptidase, USP44, is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, induced PSCs and testes as compared to differentiated progenies and somatic organs. Analysis by qPCR and 5'RACE showed that alternate promoters are responsible for expression in PSCs and organs. We noticed 7 regions of transcription initiation, some of them with cell- or tissue-specific activity...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516515/interaction-of-lincrna-ror-and-p53-mir-145-correlates-with-lung-cancer-stem-cell-signatures
#8
Fan Xia, Ye Xiong, Qiang Li
ROR is one of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and acts as a strong negative regulator of p53 and a sponge for miR-145 to regulate diverse cancer progression. However, the interaction of ROR, p53 and miR-145 in lung cancer and its correlation with lung cancer stem cell (LCSC) signatures were not fully understood. Here, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that p53 and ROR were upregulated while miR-145 was downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and LCSCs compared to their paired adjacent normal tissues and lung cancer cells (LCCs)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515423/mir-520b-as-a-novel-molecular-target-for-suppressing-stemness-phenotype-of-head-neck-cancer-by-inhibiting-cd44
#9
Ya-Ching Lu, Ann-Joy Cheng, Li-Yu Lee, Guo-Rung You, Yan-Liang Li, Hsin-Ying Chen, Joseph T Chang
Cancer stem cells preferentially acquire the specific characteristics of stress tolerance and high mobility, allowing them to progress to a therapy-refractive state. To identify a critical molecule to regulate cancer stemness is indispensable to erratically cure cancer. In this study, we identified miR-520b as a novel molecular target to suppress head-neck cancer (HNC) with stemness phenotype. MiR-520b inhibited cellular migration and invasion via the mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It also sensitized cells to therapeutic drug and irradiation...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514649/widespread-mitotic-bookmarking-by-histone-marks-and-transcription-factors-in-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Yiyuan Liu, Bobbie Pelham-Webb, Dafne Campigli Di Giammartino, Jiexi Li, Daleum Kim, Katsuhiro Kita, Nestor Saiz, Vidur Garg, Ashley Doane, Paraskevi Giannakakou, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Olivier Elemento, Effie Apostolou
During mitosis, transcription is halted and many chromatin features are lost, posing a challenge for the continuity of cell identity, particularly in fast cycling stem cells, which constantly balance self-renewal with differentiation. Here we show that, in pluripotent stem cells, certain histone marks and stem cell regulators remain associated with specific genomic regions of mitotic chromatin, a phenomenon known as mitotic bookmarking. Enhancers of stem cell-related genes are bookmarked by both H3K27ac and the master regulators OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4, while promoters of housekeeping genes retain high levels of mitotic H3K27ac in a cell-type invariant manner...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509990/transient-activation-of-reprogramming-transcription-factors-using-protein-transduction-facilitates-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-toward-cardiomyocyte-like-cells
#11
Zaniar Ghazizadeh, Hassan Rassouli, Hananeh Fonoudi, Mehdi Alikhani, Mahmood Talkhabi, Amir Darbandi-Azar, Shuibing Chen, Hossein Baharvand, Nasser Aghdami, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Derivation of cardiomyocytes directly from patients' own fibroblasts could offer a new therapeutic approach for those with ischemic heart disease. An essential step toward clinical application is to establish safe conversion of human fibroblasts into a cardiac fate. Here we aimed to efficiently and safely generate cardiomyocytes from human fibroblasts by direct delivery of reprogramming recombinant cell permeant form of reprogramming proteins followed by cardio-inductive signals. Human fetal and adult fibroblasts were transiently exposed to transactivator of transcription-fused recombinant OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC for 2 weeks and then were directly differentiated toward protein-induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (p-iCLCs) in a cardiac fate niche, carried out by treatment with a set of cardiogenic small molecules (sequential treatment of Chir, and IWP-2, SB431542 and purmorphamine)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505005/gastric-cancer-with-primitive-enterocyte-phenotype-an-aggressive-subgroup-of-intestinal-type-adenocarcinoma
#12
Sho Yamazawa, Tetsuo Ushiku, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Akimasa Hayashi, Akiko Iwasaki, Hiroyuki Abe, Amane Tagashira, Hiroharu Yamashita, Yasuyuki Seto, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Masashi Fukayama
A primitive cell-like gene expression signature is associated with aggressive phenotypes of various cancers. We assessed the expression of phenotypic markers characterizing primitive cells and its correlation with clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of a panel of primitive phenotypic markers, including embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, NANOG, SALL4, CLDN6, and LIN28) and known oncofetal proteins (AFP and GPC3), was performed using tissue microarray on 386 gastric cancers...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503428/soluble-expression-of-recomb-inant-cmyc-klf4-oct4-and-sox2-proteins-in-bacteria-and-transduction-into-living-cells
#13
Guo-Dan Liu, Shi-Feng Zhou, Xu-Chen Ding, Chun-Lai Fang, Shu-Yong Mi, Xiang-Chun Gao, Qing Han
AIM: To develop a new method to produce recombinant reprogramming proteins, cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, in soluble format with low cost for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). METHODS: A short polypeptide sequence derived from the HIV trans-activator of transcription protein (TAT) and the nucleus localization signal (NLS) polypeptide were fused to the N terminus of the reprogramming proteins and they were constructed into pCold-SUMO vector which can extremely improve the solubility of recombinant proteins...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500734/differentiation-of-human-olfactory-bulb-derived-neural-stem-cell-towards-oligodendrocyte-development
#14
H E Marei, Z Shouman, A Althani, N Afifi, A Abd-Elmaksoud, S Lashen, A Hasan, T Caceci, R Rizzi, C Cenciarelli, P Casalbore
In the central nervous system, oligodendrocytes are the glial element in charge of myelin formation. Obtaining an overall presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells/oligodendrocytes. (OPCs/OLs) in culture from different sources of NSCs is an important research area, because OPCs/OLs may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases affecting myelination of axons. The present study was designed to differentiate human olfactory bulb NSCs (OBNSCs) into OPCs/OLs and using expression profiling (RT-qPCR) gene, immunocytochemistry and specific protein expression to highlight molecular mechanism(s) underlying differentiation of human OBNSCs into OPCs/OLs...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499884/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-specific-protease-34-usp34-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-promotes-stemness-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#15
Eunhye Oh, Ji Young Kim, Daeil Sung, Youngkwan Cho, Nahyun Lee, Hyunsook An, Yoon-Jae Kim, Tae-Min Cho, Jae Hong Seo
Ubiquitin-specific protease 34 (USP34) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates Axin stability and plays a critical role in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We sought to investigate the role of USP34 on epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) induction and its effects on mammary epithelial stem cells. USP34 expression levels were relatively lower in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 mesenchymal-like cells when compared to epithelial-like cells. Inhibition of USP34 in NMuMG cells induced EMT, as evidenced by the upregulation of EMT markers including N-cadherin, phospho-Smad3, Snail and active-β-catenin, as well as the downregulation of Axin 1 and E-cadherin...
May 10, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498828/kdm1a-lsd1-regulates-the-differentiation-and-maintenance-of-spermatogonia-in-mice
#16
Dexter A Myrick, Michael A Christopher, Alyssa M Scott, Ashley K Simon, Paul G Donlin-Asp, William G Kelly, David J Katz
The proper regulation of spermatogenesis is crucial to ensure the continued production of sperm and fertility. Here, we investigated the function of the H3K4me2 demethylase KDM1A/LSD1 during spermatogenesis in developing and adult mice. Conditional deletion of Kdm1a in the testis just prior to birth leads to fewer spermatogonia and germ cell loss before 3 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that KDM1A is required for spermatogonial differentiation, as well as germ cell survival, in the developing testis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498248/c1galt1-seems-to-promote-in-vitro-disease-progression-in-ovarian-cancer
#17
Chih-Hsing Chou, Miao-Juei Huang, Ying-Yu Liao, Chi-Hau Chen, Min-Chuan Huang
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant glycosylation affects many cellular properties in cancers. The core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1), an enzyme that controls the formation of mucin-type O-glycans, has been reported to regulate hepatocellular and mammary carcinogenesis. This study aimed to explore the role of C1GALT1 in ovarian cancer. METHODS: C1GALT1 expression was assessed in a public database based on microarray data from 1287 ovarian cancer patients and ovarian cancerous tissues...
June 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484743/effects-of-cell-cycle-regulators-on-the-cell-cycle-synchronization-of-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Dae-Jin Kwon, In-Sul Hwang, Tae-Uk Kwak, Hyeon Yang, Mi-Ryung Park, Sun-A Ock, Keon Bong Oh, Jae-Seok Woo, Gi-Sun Im, Seongsoo Hwang
Unlike mouse results, cloning efficiency of nuclear transfer from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) is very low. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of cell cycle inhibitors on the cell cycle synchronization of piPSCs. piPSCs were generated using combination of six human transcriptional factors under stem cell culture condition. To examine the efficiency of cell cycle synchronization, piPSCs were cultured on a matrigel coated plate with stem cell media and they were treated with staurosporine (STA, 20 nM), daidzein (DAI, 100 μM), roscovitine (ROSC, 10 μM), or olomoucine (OLO, 200 μM) for 12 h...
March 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476334/novel-spliced-variants-of-oct4-oct4c-and-oct4c1-with-distinct-expression-patterns-and-functions-in-pluripotent-and-tumor-cell-lines
#19
Mahshid Malakootian, Fatemeh Mirzadeh Azad, Parisa Naeli, Mohammad Pakzad, Youssef Fouani, Elham Taheri Bajgan, Hossein Baharvand, Seyed Javad Mowla
OCT4 is a major regulator of pluripotency which has several spliced variants and expressed pseudogenes. Here, we are reporting the existence of two additional novel spliced variants of OCT4, OCT4C and OCT4C1, which lack Exon1 (E1) but start at a novel exon (E0) located ∼14kb upstream of E2. OCT4C/C1 is highly expressed in ES and iPS cells, and their expression was sharply turned off, upon the induction of neural differentiation. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) PSORS1C3, is located ∼9kb downstream of the E0 of OCT4C/C1...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473980/oct4b1-regulates-the-cellular-stress-response-of-human-dental-pulp-cells-with-inflammation
#20
Lu Liu, Rong Huang, Ruiqi Yang, Xi Wei
Introduction. Infection and apoptosis are combined triggers for inflammation in dental tissues. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4-B1 (OCT4B1), a novel spliced variant of OCT4 family, could respond to the cellular stress and possess antiapoptotic property. However, its specific role in dental pulpitis remains unknown. Methods. To investigate the effect of OCT4B1 on inflammation of dental pulp cells (DPCs), its expression in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs was examined by in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay...
2017: BioMed Research International
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