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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097777/activin-a-in-combination-with-erk1-2-mapk-pathway-inhibition-sustains-propagation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Yuhei Ashida, May Nakajima-Koyama, Akira Hirota, Takuya Yamamoto, Eisuke Nishida
The Activin/Nodal/TGF-β signaling pathway plays a major role in maintaining mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). The EpiSC-maintaining medium, which contains Activin A and bFGF, induces differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to EpiSCs. Here, we show that Activin A also has an ability to efficiently propagate ESCs without differentiation to EpiSCs when combined with a MEK inhibitor PD0325901. ESCs cultured in Activin+PD retained high-level expression of naive pluripotency-related transcription factors...
January 18, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096214/cartilage-to-bone-transformation-during-fracture-healing-is-coordinated-by-the-invading-vasculature-and-induction-of-the-core-pluripotency-genes
#2
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094306/maternal-diabetes-modulates-dental-epithelial-stem-cells-proliferation-and-self-renewal-in-offspring-through-apurinic-apyrimidinicendonuclease-1-mediated-dna-methylation
#3
Guoqing Chen, Jie Chen, Zhiling Yan, Ziyue Li, Mei Yu, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has many adverse effects on the development of offspring. Aberrant DNA methylation is a potential mechanism associated with these effects. However, the effects of GDM on tooth development and the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, a GDM rat model was established and incisor labial cervical loop tissue and dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs) were harvested from neonates of diabetic and control dams. GDM significantly suppressed incisor enamel formation and DESCs proliferation and self-renewal in offspring...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093523/cutting-edge-nanog-activates-autophagy-under-hypoxic-stress-by-binding-to-bnip3l-promoter
#4
Meriem Hasmim, Bassam Janji, Mehdi Khaled, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Fawzia Louache, Didier Bordereaux, Abdou Abderamane, Veronique Baud, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Salem Chouaib
Hypoxia upregulates the core pluripotency factors NANOG, SOX2, and OCT4, associated with tumor aggressiveness and resistance to conventional anticancer treatments. We have previously reported that hypoxia-induced NANOG contributed in vitro to tumor cell resistance to autologous-specific CTL and in vivo to the in situ recruitment of immune-suppressive cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying NANOG-mediated tumor cell resistance to specific lysis under hypoxia. We demonstrated the tumor-promoting effect of hypoxia on tumor initiation into immunodeficient mice using human non-small lung carcinoma cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093458/single-cell-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-diversity-among-human-spermatogonia
#5
N Neuhaus, J Yoon, N Terwort, S Kliesch, J Seggewiss, A Huge, R Voss, S Schlatt, R V Grindberg, H R Schöler
STUDY QUESTION: Is the molecular profile of human spermatogonia homogeneous or heterogeneous when analysed at the single-cell level? SUMMARY ANSWER: Heterogeneous expression profiles may be a key characteristic of human spermatogonia, supporting the existence of a heterogeneous stem cell population. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Despite the fact that many studies have sought to identify specific markers for human spermatogonia, the molecular fingerprint of these cells remains hitherto unknown...
January 15, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091581/icaritin-enhances-mesc-self-renewal-through-upregulating-core-pluripotency-transcription-factors-mediated-by-er%C3%AE
#6
Wing Pui Tsang, Fengjie Zhang, Qiling He, Waijiao Cai, Jianhua Huang, Wai Yee Chan, Ziyin Shen, Chao Wan
Utilization of small molecules in modulation of stem cell self-renewal is a promising approach to expand stem cells for regenerative therapy. Here, we identify Icaritin, a phytoestrogen molecule enhances self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Icaritin increases mESCs proliferation while maintains their self-renewal capacity in vitro and pluripotency in vivo. This coincides with upregulation of key pluripotency transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and SOX2. The enhancement of mESCs self-renewal is characterized by increased population in S-phase of cell cycle, elevation of Cylin E and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and downregulation of p21, p27 and p57...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079980/induction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-absence-of-soluble-inducer-for-cutaneous-wound-regeneration-by-a-chitin-nanofibers-based-hydrogel
#7
Kangquan Shou, Yao Huang, Baiwen Qi, Xiang Hu, Zhanjun Ma, Ang Lu, Chao Jian, Lina Zhang, Aixi Yu
Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been considered as a promising strategy for wound healing. However, poor viability of engrafted BMSCs and limited capabilities of differentiation into the desired cell types in wounds often hinder their application. Few studies report the induction of BMSCs differentiation into the skin regeneration related cell types using natural biopolymer, e.g., chitin and its derivative. Here we utilized a chitin nanofibers(CNFs) hydrogel as a directive cue to induce BMSCs differentiation for enhancing cutaneous wound regeneration in the absence of cell-differentiating factors...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079892/hif-2%C3%AE-and-oct4-have-synergistic-effects-on-survival-and-myocardial-repair-of-very-small-embryonic-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-infarcted-hearts
#8
Shaoheng Zhang, Lan Zhao, Jiahong Wang, Nannan Chen, Jian Yan, Xin Pan
Poor cell survival and limited functional benefits have restricted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) efficacy for treating myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. The transcription factor HIF-2α is an essential regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, which can interact with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transcription factor Oct4 and modulate its signaling. Here, we obtained very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells (vselMSCs) from MI patients, which possessed the very small embryonic-like stem cells' (VSELs) morphology as well as ESCs' pluripotency...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076327/mir-410-induces-stemness-by-inhibiting-gsk3%C3%AE-but-upregulating-%C3%AE-catenin-in-non-small-cells-lung-cancer
#9
Xixian Ke, Yue Yuan, Chenglin Guo, Yan Yang, Qiang Pu, Xueting Hu, Kui Tang, Xinmei Luo, Qianqian Jiang, Xiaolan Su, Lunxu Liu, Wen Zhu, Yuquan Wei
Our previous research indicated miR-410 played a critical role in promoting the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC (non-small cells lung cancer). MiR-410 has been recently reported to be crucial for development and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. But it remains elusive whether miR-410 stimulates the stemness of cancer until now. Herein, we identify miR-410 induces the stemness and is associated with the progression of NSCLC. We demonstrate miR-410 increases the levels of stem cells marker Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, CXCR4 as well as lung cancer stem cells surface marker CD44 and CD166...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072991/-expression-of-oct4-and-sox2-and-their-clinical-significance-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
X D Jiang, G Luo, X H Wang, L L Chen, X Ke, Y Li
Objective: To investigate Oct4 and Sox2 protein expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and the relationships between the expressions of Oct4 and Sox2 and clinical pathological characteristics and survival of patients. Methods: The paraffin imbedded tissue specimens of 51 patients with histologically confirmed TSCC were included. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the protein expression of Oct4 and Sox2 in 51 TSCC tissue samples. The protein expression levels of Oct4 and Sox2 and their relationships with both clinicopathological features and survival of patients with TSCC were evaluated...
January 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071602/microgrooved-topographical-surface-directs-tenogenic-lineage-specific-differentiation-of-mouse-tendon-derived-stem-cells
#11
Yuan Shi, Kaili Zhou, Wenjie Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Yilin Cao, Wei Liu
Tendon derived stem cells (TDSCs) are the endogenous cell source for tenocyte turnover and tendon functional maintenance. They are also the important cell source for tendon engineering and regeneration. In addition, TDSCs also play an important role in tendinopathy via their non-tenogenic lineage differentiation. It has been well demonstrated that cell shape could determine mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage differentiation. In this study, a parallel microgrooved polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane (10 µm groove width and 3 µm depth) was employed to investigate the role of cell elongation via this particular topographic surface in directing murine TDSC (mTDSC) lineage differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070808/combined-positive-effect-of-oocyte-extracts-and-brilliant-cresyl-blue-stained-recipient-cytoplasts-on-epigenetic-reprogramming-and-gene-expression-in-buffalo-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#12
E M Sadeesh, Shah Fozia, Kataria Meena
This study examined the effects of buffalo oocyte extracts (BOE) on donor cells reprogramming and molecular characterisation of oocytes screened via brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and comparison of gene expression profiles of developmentally important genes in blastocysts from IVF and cloned derived from BOE treated donor cells with BCB selected recipient cytoplasts. Relative abundance (RA) of OCT4 and NANOG was increased (P < 0.05) and HDAC-1, DNMT-1, and DNMT-3A decreased (P < 0.05) in extract treated cells (ETCs)...
January 9, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068409/reprogramming-malignant-cancer-cells-toward-a-benign-phenotype-following-exposure-to-human-embryonic-stem-cell-microenvironment
#13
Shufeng Zhou, Mohamed Abdouh, Vincenzo Arena, Manuel Arena, Goffredo Orazio Arena
The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065642/mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-mediated-by-cdh1-promotes-spontaneous-reprogramming-of-male-germline-stem-cells-to-pluripotency
#14
Junhui An, Yu Zheng, Christina Tenenhaus Dann
Cultured spermatogonial stem cells (GSCs) can spontaneously form pluripotent cells in certain culture conditions. However, GSC reprogramming is a rare event that is largely unexplained. We show GSCs have high expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) suppressors resulting in a developmental barrier inhibiting GSC reprogramming. Either increasing OCT4 or repressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling promotes GSC reprogramming by upregulating CDH1 and boosting MET. Reducing ZEB1 also enhances GSC reprogramming through its direct effect on CDH1...
December 24, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055234/scriptaid-upregulates-expression-of-development-related-genes-inhibits-apoptosis-and-improves-the-development-of-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-mini-pig-embryos
#15
Li Zhang, Yuemeng Huang, Yanjun Wu, Jinglei Si, Yanna Huang, Qinyang Jiang, Ganqiu Lan, Yafen Guo, Hesheng Jiang
The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms by which Scriptaid treatment improves the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) mini-pig embryos in vitro. We found that treatment with 500 nmol/L Scriptaid for 15 hours significantly improved the development of mini-pig SCNT embryos. Compared with the control group, the blastocyst rate was higher (18.3% vs. 10.7%; p < 0.05). The acetylation level on H3K14 of the Scriptaid-treated group was higher compared with the control group in SCNT embryos at two-cell, four-cell, and blastocyst stages (p < 0...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050378/large-cell-calcifying-sertoli-cell-tumour-of-testis-a-rare-case-report
#16
Harresh Kumar, Nadeem Tanveer, Natasha Gupta, Kiran Mishra
Sertoli cell tumours of testes are classified into sertoli cell tumour NOS (not otherwise specified), sclerosing variant and large cell calcifying variant. So far, 90 cases of the large cell calcifying variant have been reported in literature. We describe a rare case of inhibin negative locally invasive large cell calcifying sertoli cell tumour of testis. A 62-year-old man presented with complaints of pain and swelling in right scrotum for 8 months. Ultrasound revealed a right testicular mass with internal vascularity and calcification...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042545/comparative-in-vitro-evaluation-of-human-dental-pulp-and-follicle-stem-cell-commitment
#17
Razieh Karamzadeh, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi
OBJECTIVE: Pulp and periodontal tissues are well-known sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that provide a promising place in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The molecular mechanisms underlying commitment and differentiation of dental stem cells that originate from different dental tissues are not fully understood. In this study, we have compared the expression levels of pluripotency factors along with immunological and developmentally-related markers in the culture of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs), and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042541/rational-development-of-a-polycistronic-plasmid-with-a-cpg-free-bacterial-backbone-as-a-potential-tool-for-direct-reprogramming
#18
Kianoush Dormiani, Hamid Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Mahboobeh Forouzanfar, Hossein Baharvand, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
OBJECTIVE: Induced pluripotent stem cells are generated from somatic cells by direct reprogramming. These reprogrammed pluripotent cells have different applications in biomedical fields such as regenerative medicine. Although viral vectors are widely used for efficient reprogramming, they have limited applications in the clinic due to the risk for immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis. Accordingly, we designed and developed a small, non-integrating plasmid named pLENSO/Zeo as a 2A-mediated polycistronic expression vector...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040490/biological-effects-of-iron-oxide-protamine-sulfate-complex-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-its-relaxometry-based-labeling-optimization-for-cellular-mri
#19
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently used as a therapeutic, but reliable imaging technique to longitudinally evaluate the engraftment of transplanted cells is inadequate. For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it is essential to understand the technical competence of in vitro stem cells labeling with iron oxide with regard to its relaxation behavior and significance of its biological expressions. The purpose of the study was to optimize the effective labeling of MSCs with high transverse relaxivity iron oxide contrast agent with protamine sulfate and also evaluate the biological effects (phenotype and function) of labeled MSCs...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038351/microrna-29-impairs-the-early-phase-of-reprogramming-process-by-targeting-active-dna-demethylation-enzymes-and-wnt-signaling
#20
Mariane Serra Fráguas, Reto Eggenschwiler, Jeannine Hoepfner, Josiane Lilian Dos Santos Schiavinato, Rodrigo Haddad, Lucila Habib Bourguignon Oliveira, Amélia Góes Araújo, Marco Antônio Zago, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Tobias Cantz
Somatic cell reprogramming by transcription factors and other modifiers such as microRNAs has opened broad avenues for the study of developmental processes, cell fate determination, and interplay of molecular mechanisms in signaling pathways. However, many of the mechanisms that drive nuclear reprogramming itself remain yet to be elucidated. Here, we analyzed the role of miR-29 during reprogramming in more detail. Therefore, we evaluated miR-29 expression during reprogramming of fibroblasts transduced with lentiviral OKS and OKSM vectors and we show that addition of c-MYC to the reprogramming factor cocktail decreases miR-29 expression levels...
December 19, 2016: Stem Cell Research
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