Read by QxMD icon Read


Nan-Hee Seo, Eun-Hye Lee, Jin-Hee Seo, Hwa-Ryung Song, Myung-Kwan Han
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are metabolically distinct from their differentiated counterparts. ESC mitochondria are less complex and fewer in number than their differentiated progeny. However, few studies have examined the proteins responsible for differences in mitochondrial structure and function between ESCs and somatic cells. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the differences between mitochondrial proteins in these two cell types. We demonstrate that HSP60 is more abundant in mouse ESC mitochondria than in mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
March 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Masami Hayashi, Kayo Yoshida, Kohei Kitada, Akane Kizu, Daisuke Tachibana, Mitsuru Fukui, Takashi Morita, Masayasu Koyama
PURPOSE: To study the outcomes of mouse preimplantation embryos irradiated with low doses of X-rays (≤ 1 Gy) and investigate apoptosis and pluripotency of the irradiated embryos. METHODS: Mouse embryos at the 2-cell stage were collected for in vitro culture. After reaching the 8-cell stage, embryos were irradiated with various low doses of X-rays (0-1 Gy). Blastocysts with a normal appearance were transferred into a pseudopregnant uterus. The developmental rate to blastocysts and the survival rate following embryo transfer were examined...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Tingchao Mao, Chengquan Han, Ruizhi Deng, Biao Wei, Peng Meng, Yan Luo, Yong Zhang
Epigenetic modifications extensively occur in mammalian embryonic development and cell differentiation process. They play an essential role in the reprogramming of nuclei during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and subsequent in vitro embryonic development. Recently, SCNT embryos have been verified to contain a subnormal level of histone H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) in contrast to in vitro fertilized embryos. This finding suggested that increasing H3K4me2 levels may ameliorate the aberrant development of cloned embryos...
March 15, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Weiwei Qian, Xiaochuan Kong, Tao Zhang, Dengdian Wang, Jin Song, Yuan Li, Xiaoting Li, Hao Geng, Jie Min, Qi Kong, Jie Liu, Zhiqi Liu, Daming Wang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Dexin Yu, Caiyun Zhong
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are essentially responsible for tumor initiation, growth, progression, metastasis and recurrence, and cigarette smoke (CS) is closely involved in the occurrence and development of kidney cancer. However, the effect of CS on renal CSCs has not been elucidated yet. In the present study, tumorsphere formation assay was used to enrich renal CSCs from 786-O and ACHN cells. We illustrated that CS effectively promoted renal CSCs stemness by enhancing tumorsphere formation, increasing the expression of renal CSCs markers (CD133, CD44, ALDHA1, Oct4, and Nanog) and elevating CD133+ cell population...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
Jia-Ming Zhang, Kai Wei, Ming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) are common biomarkers of cancer stem cells, which contribute to the pathological processes of several carcinomas, while little is known about the effects of OCT4 and SOX2 on the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The purpose was to evaluate the correlation of tumor tissue OCT4 and SOX2 expressions with clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) in surgical TNBC patients...
March 13, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Wasco Wruck, James Adjaye
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) provide a defined and renewable source of cells for drug screening, toxicology and regenerative medicine. We previously reprogrammed human fetal foreskin fibroblast cells (HFF1) into iPSCs employing an episomal plasmid-based integration-free approach, this iPSC-line and the hESC lines H1 and H9 were used to model hepatogenesis in vitro. Biochemical characterisation confirmed glycogen storage, ICG uptake and release, urea and bile acid production, as well as CYP3A4 activity...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Yangyang Ma, Tong Yu, Yuanxing Cai, Huayan Wang
Derivation of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells is still a critical issue because porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are not available yet, and most of the culture conditions to maintain porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) are based on conditions for mouse and human iPS cells. In this study, we generated a doxycycline-inducible porcine iPS cell line (DOX-iPSCs) and used it to screen the optimal culture condition to sustain the self-renewal of piPSCs. We found that LIF and b-FGF were required for porcine cell reprogramming, but were not essential cytokines for maintaining the self-renewal and pluripotency of piPSCs...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Qiang Zhuang, Wenjuan Li, Christina Benda, Zhijian Huang, Tanveer Ahmed, Ping Liu, Xiangpeng Guo, David P Ibañez, Zhiwei Luo, Meng Zhang, Mazid Md Abdul, Zhongzhou Yang, Jiayin Yang, Yinghua Huang, Hui Zhang, Dehao Huang, Jianguo Zhou, Xiaofen Zhong, Xihua Zhu, Xiuling Fu, Wenxia Fan, Yulin Liu, Yan Xu, Carl Ward, Muhammad Jadoon Khan, Shahzina Kanwal, Bushra Mirza, Micky D Tortorella, Hung-Fat Tse, Jiayu Chen, Baoming Qin, Xichen Bao, Shaorong Gao, Andrew P Hutchins, Miguel A Esteban
Somatic cell reprogramming by exogenous factors requires cooperation with transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors to effectively remodel the epigenetic environment. How this interplay is regulated remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that NCoR/SMRT co-repressors bind to pluripotency loci to create a barrier to reprogramming with the four Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC), and consequently, suppressing NCoR/SMRT significantly enhances reprogramming efficiency and kinetics. The core epigenetic subunit of the NCoR/SMRT complex, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), contributes to the effects of NCoR/SMRT by inducing histone deacetylation at pluripotency loci...
March 12, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Gunjan Mandal, Subir Biswas, Sougata Roy Chowdhury, Annesha Chatterjee, Suman Purohit, Poulomi Khamaru, Sayan Chakraborty, Palash Kumar Mandal, Arnab Gupta, Jo-Anne de la Mare, Adrienne Lesley Edkins, Arindam Bhattacharyya
The multifunctional cytokine TGF-β crucially participates in breast cancer (BCa) metastasis and works differently in the disease stages, thus contributing in BCa progression. We address connections between TGF-β and the stem cell-related transcription factor (TF) Oct4 in BCa. In 147 BCa patients with infiltrating duct carcinoma, we identified a significantly higher number of cases with both moderate/high Oct4 expression and high TGF-β in late stages compared to early stages of the disease. In vitro studies showed that TGF-β elevated Oct4 expression, which in turn, regulated Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EMT)-regulatory gene (Snail and Slug) expression, migratory ability, chemotactic invasiveness and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation potential of BCa cells...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Navroop K Dhaliwal, Kamelia Miri, Scott Davidson, Hala Tamim El Jarkass, Jennifer A Mitchell
Cooperative action of a transcription factor complex containing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and KLF4 maintains the naive pluripotent state; however, less is known about the mechanisms that disrupt this complex, initiating exit from pluripotency. We show that, as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exit pluripotency, KLF4 protein is exported from the nucleus causing rapid decline in Nanog and Klf4 transcription; as a result, KLF4 is the first pluripotency transcription factor removed from transcription-associated complexes during differentiation...
March 1, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Lei Gao, Keliang Wu, Zhenbo Liu, Xuelong Yao, Shenli Yuan, Wenrong Tao, Lizhi Yi, Guanling Yu, Zhenzhen Hou, Dongdong Fan, Yong Tian, Jianqiao Liu, Zi-Jiang Chen, Jiang Liu
The dynamics of the chromatin regulatory landscape during human early embryogenesis remains unknown. Using DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) sequencing, we report that the chromatin accessibility landscape is gradually established during human early embryogenesis. Interestingly, the DHSs with OCT4 binding motifs are enriched at the timing of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in humans, but not in mice. Consistently, OCT4 contributes to ZGA in humans, but not in mice. We further find that lower CpG promoters usually establish DHSs at later stages...
February 28, 2018: Cell
Yu Bin Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Hayeon Byun, Hyung-Kwan Chang, Kwanghee Jeong, Zachary M Aman, Yu Suk Choi, Jungyul Park, Heungsoo Shin
Numerous methods have been reported for the fabrication of 3D multi-cellular spheroids and their use in stem cell culture. Current methods typically relying on the self-assembly of trypsinized, suspended stem cells, however, show limitations with respect to cell viability, throughput, and accurate recapitulation of the natural microenvironment. In this study, we developed a new system for engineering cell spheroids by self-assembly of micro-scale monolayer of stem cells. We prepared synthetic hydrogels with the surface of chemically formed micropatterns (squares/circles with width/diameter of 200 μm) on which mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human nasal turbinate tissue (hTMSCs) were selectively attached and formed a monolayer...
March 1, 2018: Biomaterials
Yanfei Deng, Guiting Huang, Lingxiu Zou, Tianying Nong, Xiaoling Yang, Jiayu Cui, Yingming Wei, Sufang Yang, Deshun Shi
Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) from livestock are valuable resources for animal reproduction and veterinary therapeutic. The purpose of this study is to explore a suitable way to isolate and culture the buffalo AMSCs (bAMSCs), and to identify their biological characteristics. Digestion with a combination of trypsin-EDTA and collagenase type I could obtain pure bAMSCs more effectively than trypsin-EDTA or collagenase type I alone. bAMSCs could proliferate steadily in vitro culture and exhibited fibroblastic-like morphology in vortex-shaped colony...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Hao Zhang, Zhong-Li Li, Xiang-Zheng Su, Li Ding, Ji Li, Heng Zhu
Rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important seed cells in regenerative medicine research, particularly in translational research. In the current study, we showed that rabbit subchondral bone is a reliable source of MSCs. First, we harvested subchondral bone (SCB) from the rabbit knee-joint and initiated the MSC culture by cultivating enzyme-treated SCB. Adherent fibroblast-like cells that outgrew from SCB fulfill the common immuno-phenotypic criteria for defining MSCs, but with low contamination of CD45+ hematopoietic cells...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Animals
Lu Wang, Daniel Hiler, Beisi Xu, Issam AlDiri, Xiang Chen, Xin Zhou, Lyra Griffiths, Marc Valentine, Abbas Shirinifard, András Sablauer, Suresh Thiagarajan, Marie-Elizabeth Barabas, Jiakun Zhang, Dianna Johnson, Sharon Frase, Michael A Dyer
Diverse cell types can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of Oct4 (Pou5f1), Klf4, Sox3, and Myc. Many of these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) retain memory, in terms of DNA methylation and histone modifications (epigenetic memory), of their cellular origins, and this may bias subsequent differentiation. Neurons are difficult to reprogram, and there has not been a systematic side-by-side characterization of reprogramming efficiency or epigenetic memory across different neuronal subtypes...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Yunhee Cho, Hyeok Gu Kang, Seok-Jun Kim, Seul Lee, Sujin Jee, Sung Gwe Ahn, Min Jueng Kang, Joon Seon Song, Joon-Yong Chung, Eugene C Yi, Kyung-Hee Chun
Recurrence and drug resistance of breast cancer are still the main reasons for breast cancer-associated deaths. Cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been proposed as a hypothesis for the lethality of breast cancer. Molecular mechanisms underlying CSC maintenance are still unclear. In this study, we generated mammospheres derived from breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells and MCF7 cells to enrich CSCs and performed DNA microarray analysis. We found that the expression of carboxy terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (CHIP) E3 ubiquitin ligase was significantly downregulated in breast CSCs...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Ling Wang, Zongliang Jiang, Delun Huang, Jingyue Duan, Chang Huang, Shannon Sullivan, Kaneha Vali, Yexuan Yin, Ming Zhang, Jill Wegrzyn, Xiuchun Cindy Tian, Young Tang
BACKGROUND: The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has underdefined mechanisms. In addition, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) activated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway is the master regulator for naïve-state pluripotency achievement and maintenance. However, the regulatory process to attain naïve pluripotent iPSCs is not well understood. RESULTS: We performed transcriptome analysis to dissect the genomic expression during mouse iPSC induction, with or without blocking the JAK/STAT3 activity...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Natsumi Takei, Takuma Nakamura, Shohei Kawamura, Yuki Takada, Yui Satoh, Atsushi P Kimura, Tomoya Kotani
Background: Subcellular localization of coding and non-coding RNAs has emerged as major regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in various cell types and many organisms. However, techniques that enable detection of the subcellular distribution of these RNAs with high sensitivity and high resolution remain limited, particularly in vertebrate adult tissues and organs. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of mRNAs encoding Pou5f1/Oct4, Mos, Cyclin B1 and Deleted in Azoospermia-like (Dazl) in zebrafish and mouse ovaries by combining tyramide signal amplification (TSA)-based in situ hybridization with paraffin sections which can preserve cell morphology of tissues and organs at subcellular levels...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
Hang-Soo Park, Hyosung Kwon, Jewon Yu, Yeonju Bae, Jae-Yong Park, Kyung-Ah Choi, Yeonho Choi, Sunghoi Hong
Direct conversion is a powerful approach to safely generate mature neural lineages with potential for treatment of neurological disorders. Astrocytes play a crucial role in neuronal homeostasis and their dysfunctions contribute to several neurodegenerative diseases. Using a single-cell approach for precision, we describe here a robust method using optimized DNA amounts for the direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to astrocytes. Controlled amount of the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc was directly delivered into a single fibroblast cell...
March 6, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jia Wang, Xingui Wu, Chao Wei, Xin Huang, Qian Ma, Xiaona Huang, Francesco Faiola, Diana Guallar, Miguel Fidalgo, Tingyuan Huang, Di Peng, Li Chen, Haopeng Yu, Xingyu Li, Junyi Sun, Xinyi Liu, Xiaoxia Cai, Xiao Chen, Ling Wang, Jian Ren, Jianlong Wang, Junjun Ding
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates early embryogenesis and adult tissue formation. However, the role of YY1 in stem cell regulation remains unclear. YY1 has a Polycomb group (PcG) protein-dependent role in mammalian cells. The PcG-independent functions of YY1 are also reported, although their underlying mechanism is still undefined. This paper reports the role of YY1 and BAF complex in the OCT4-mediated pluripotency network in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The interaction between YY1 and BAF complex promotes mESC proliferation and pluripotency...
February 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"