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Toshiaki Takahashi, Julia Zimmer, Florian Friedmacher, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs) are the source of the primordial diaphragm's muscle connective tissue (MCT), and developmental mutations have been shown to result in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The protein paired-related homeobox 1 (Prx1) labels migrating PPF cells and stimulates expression of transcription factor 4 (Tcf4), a novel MCT marker that controls morphogenesis of the fetal diaphragm. We hypothesized that diaphragmatic Prx1 and Tcf4 expression is decreased in the nitrofen-induced CDH model...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
J Zimmer, T Takahashi, A D Hofmann, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: High mortality and morbidity in infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are attributed to pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Forkhead box (Fox) transcription factors are known to be crucial for cell proliferation and homeostasis. FoxF1 is essential for lung morphogenesis, vascular development, and endothelial proliferation. Mutations in FoxF1 and also the Fox family member FoxC2 have been identified in neonates with PH. In human and experimental models of arterial PH, the Fox protein FoxO1 was found to be downregulated...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is presumed to originate from defects in the primordial diaphragmatic mesenchyme, mainly comprising of muscle connective tissue (MCT). Thus, normal diaphragmatic morphogenesis depends on the structural integrity of the underlying MCT. Developmental mutations that inhibit normal formation of diaphragmatic MCT have been shown to result in CDH. Desmin (DES) is a major filament protein in the MCT, which is essential for the tensile strength of the developing diaphragm muscle...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomomi Kotani, Tomoko Nakano, Kenji Imai, Shima Hirako, Hua Li, Fumitaka Kikkawa
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) causes pulmonary hypoplasia, which are often fatal. We established a new biomarker for fetal lung hypoplasia in CDH. METHODS: We collected newborn lung tissue specimens at E21 from normal and nitrofen-induced CDH rats (administered 100mg orally at E9) and performed a microarray analysis and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Sixty-three human amniotic fluid (AF) samples, including samples from isolated CDH cases (n=33) and Cesarean section (CS) cases without fetal complications (controls) (n=30), were obtained...
November 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Satoshi Umeda, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Noriko Oda, Atsuhiro Saito, Yoshiki Sakai, Yoshiki Sawa, Hiroomi Okuyama
Lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension are the major causes of mortality in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Although the prostaglandin pathway plays a pivotal role in lung development, the reported efficacy of postnatal prostaglandin agonist treatment is suboptimal. We hypothesized that prenatal treatment with ONO-1301SR, a slow-release form of a novel synthetic prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane inhibitory activity, might enhance the development of lungs exhibiting hypoplasia in the fetal period...
2016: PloS One
Julia Zimmer, Toshiaki Takahashi, Alejandro Daniel Hofmann, Prem Puri
Aim of the Study Nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFATc2), a Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor, is reported to be activated in human and animal pulmonary hypertension (PH). KV1.5, a voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channel, is expressed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and downregulated in PASMC in patients and animals with PH. Furthermore, activation of NFATc2 downregulates expression of KV1.5 channels, leading to excessive PASMC proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary vascular expression of NFATc2 and KV1...
August 14, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
Introduction Diaphragmatic morphogenesis depends on proper formation of muscle connective tissue (MCT) and underlying extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibrillin-1 is an essential ECM protein and crucial for the structural integrity of MCT in the developing diaphragm. Recently, mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) have been identified in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), thus suggesting that alterations in FBN1 gene expression may lead to diaphragmatic defects. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that the diaphragmatic expression of fibrillin-1 is decreased in the MCT of nitrofen-induced CDH...
August 14, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Daphne S Mous, Heleen M Kool, Marjon J Buscop-van Kempen, Anton H Koning, Oleh Dzyubachyk, Rene M H Wijnen, Dick Tibboel, Robbert J Rottier
Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) suffer from severe pulmonary hypertension attributable to altered development of the pulmonary vasculature, which is often resistant to vasodilator therapy. Present treatment starts postnatally even though significant differences in the pulmonary vasculature are already present early during pregnancy. We examined the effects of prenatal treatment with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil on pulmonary vascular development in experimental CDH starting at a clinically relevant time...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Carmen Mesas Burgos, Erik G Pearson, Marcus Davey, John Riley, Huimin Jia, Pablo Laje, Alan W Flake, William H Peranteau
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The etiologic insult occurs early in gestation highlighting the potential of prenatal interventions. We evaluated prenatal pharmacologic therapies in the nitrofen CDH model. METHODS: Olive oil or nitrofen were administered alone or with dexamethasone (DM), sildenafil, or DM+sildenafil to pregnant rats. Newborn pups were assessed for lung function, structure and pulmonary artery (PA) flow and resistance...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
Frances Lilian Lanhellas Gonçalves, Rebeca Lopes Figueira, Rodrigo Melo Gallindo, Ana Leda Bertoncini Simões, Alan Coleman, José Luis Peiró, Lourenço Sbragia
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Tracheal occlusion (TO) stimulates fetal lung growth and maturation and reverse vascular changes responsible for pulmonary hypertension, which are related to mechanisms involving nitric oxide (NO) in CDH. We aim to evaluate the effect of TO and ventilation on NO pathways. METHODS: Eight groups were created: (1) control; (2) control ventilated (CV); (3) CDH (CDH); (4) CDH ventilated (CDHV); (5) TO control; (6) TO ventilated; (7) TO + CDH; and (8) TO + CDH ventilated (CDHTOV)...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Bin Xiao, Chang Xu, Min Liu, Yi Ji, Yang Li-xun, Tai-ming Li, Jun Jiang, Tao-zhen He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Tetrandrine (TET) prenatal intervention on the differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells type I (AEC I) in rat model of Nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely control, CDH and TET group on day 9.5 of gestation. The rats in TET group and CDH group were given 125 mg of Nitrofen by gavage one time, while the rats in control group were given the same dose of seed fat...
March 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Shima Hirako, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomomi Kotani, Seiji Sumigama, Yukio Mano, Tomoko Nakano, Kenji Imai, Hua Li, Shinya Toyokuni, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can induce lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension and is associated with high mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of antenatal Saireito (TJ-114), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, in a rat CDH model. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to an herbicide (nitrofen, 100 mg) on embryonic day 9 (E9) to induce CDH, and antenatal Saireito (2000 mg/kg/day) was orally administered from E10 to E20. On E21, fetuses were delivered. Antenatal Saireito significantly decreased the incidence of CDH (p < 0...
September 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Shibo Zhu, Qiuming He, Ruizhong Zhang, Yong Wang, Wei Zhong, Huimin Xia, Jiakang Yu
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and the causes of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension remain unclear. miRNAs have been identified to play important regulatory roles in pulmonary pathological processes and lung development. We carried out the study to investigate the hypothesis that specific miRNAs are expressed differently in the lungs of nitrofen-induced rats, and to explore the possible targeting genes and roles of miR-33 in the pathological process of CDH...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are crucial for the maintenance of intracellular pH homeostasis in developing fetal lungs. MCT1/4 is strongly expressed by epithelial airway cells throughout lung branching morphogenesis. Functional inhibition of MCT1/4 in fetal rat lung explants has been shown to result in airway defects similar to pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We hypothesized that pulmonary expression of MCT1/4 is decreased during lung branching morphogenesis in the nitrofen model of CDH-associated PH...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Augusto Frederico Schmidt, Frances Lilian Lanhellas Gonçalves, Rebeca Lopes Figueira, Federico Scorletti, Jose Luis Peiró, Lourenço Sbragia
AIM: To investigate the effect of combined prenatal treatment with retinoic acid (RA) and tracheal occlusion (TO) on the pulmonary vascular morphology and expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and its receptors in a rat model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were given nitrofen at 9 days of gestation followed by no treatment (CDH), RA (CDH + RA), TO (CDH + TO), or both (CDH + RA + TO) (n = 16). We measured the median wall thickness of the pulmonary arterioles (MWT) and analyzed the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2)...
June 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Persistent pulmonary hypertension(PPH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is caused by increased vascular cell proliferation and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, thus leading to obstructive changes in the pulmonary vasculature. C-Kit and its ligand, stem cell factor(SCF), are expressed by ECs in the developing lung mesenchyme, suggesting an important role during lung vascular formation. Conversely, absence of c-Kit expression has been demonstrated in ECs of dysplastic alveolar capillaries...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Thomas H Mahood, Dina R Johar, Barbara M Iwasiow, Wayne Xu, Richard Keijzer
BACKGROUND: We currently do not know how the herbicide nitrofen induces lung hypoplasia and congenital diaphragmatic hernia in rats. Our aim was to compare the differentially expressed transcriptome of nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lungs to control lungs in embryonic day 13 rat embryos before the development of embryonic diaphragmatic defects. METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing technology, we identified the expression profile of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA genes...
May 2016: Pediatric Research
Balazs Kutasy, Florian Friedmacher, Lara Pes, David Coyle, Takashi Doi, Francesca Paradisi, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Low pulmonary retinol levels and disrupted retinoid signaling pathway (RSP) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and associated pulmonary hypoplasia (PH). It has been demonstrated that nitrofen disturbs the main retinol-binding protein (RBP)-dependent trophoblastic retinol transport. Several studies have demonstrated that prenatal treatment with retinoic acid (RA) can reverse PH in the nitrofen-induced CDH model. We hypothesized that maternal administration of RA can increase trophoblastic RBP-dependent retinol transport in a nitrofen model of CDH...
April 2016: Pediatric Research
Hiromizu Takahashi, Balazs Kutasy, Florian Friedmacher, Toshiaki Takahashi, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Prenatal mortality in newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been attributed to increased amounts of liver hernia ion through the diaphragmatic defect. Antenatal studies in human and rodent fetus with CDH further demonstrated a contribution of the developing liver in the pathogenesis of CDH. The abnormal hepatic growth in experimental animal models, therefore, indicates a disruption of normal liver development in CDH. However, the underlying structural, histological and functional changes in the liver of animals with CDH remain unclear...
February 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Julia Zimmer, Toshiaki Takahashi, Johannes W Duess, Alejandro D Hofmann, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Sphingolipids play a crucial role in pulmonary development. The sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) modulates the synthesis of sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P regulates cell proliferation and angiogenesis via different receptors, S1P1, S1P2 and S1P3, which all influence the expression of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). We designed this study to test the hypothesis that the S1P/Rac1 pathway is altered in the nitrofen-induced CDH model. METHODS: Pregnant rats received nitrofen or vehicle on D9...
February 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
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