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Diabetes, obesity, hypertension

Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hirohisa Endo, Tomotaka Dohi, Jun Shitara, Hideki Wada, Shinichiro Doi, Ryo Naito, Hirokazu Konishi, Shuta Tsuboi, Manabu Ogita, Takatoshi Kasai, Shinya Okazaki, Kikuo Isoda, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: The prognostic long-term impact of body mass index (BMI) on East Asian patients with coronary artery disease remains unclear. METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort study was carried out involving 3571 patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 2000 to 2013. Patients were divided into the following five groups according to baseline BMI: Group 1 (underweight 1, BMI ≤20.0kg/m2 ); Group 2 (underweight 2, BMI=20.1-22...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Antonio Vitiello, Vincenzo Pilone, Luca Ferraro, Pietro Forestieri
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective treatment for obesity. A recent worldwide survey demonstrated that Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure, while Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) has been almost abandoned. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare 5-year results of LSG and LAGB at our Institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective maintained database of our Institution was reviewed to find all patients who had undergone LSG between January 2009 and December 2011...
March 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Marcos D Machado-Fragua, Ellen A Struijk, Auxiliadora Graciani, Pilar Guallar-Castillon, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Esther Lopez-Garcia
PURPOSE: Habitual coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since these diseases are main determinants of functional limitations, we have tested the hypothesis that coffee intake is associated with lower risk of physical function impairment, frailty and disability in older adults. We focused on women and those with obesity, hypertension or type 2 diabetes because they are at higher risk of functional limitations. METHODS: Prospective study with 3289 individuals ≥ 60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Kornelia Johann, Marlen Colleen Reis, Lisbeth Harder, Beate Herrmann, Sogol Gachkar, Jens Mittag, Rebecca Oelkrug
Stimulation of thermogenic pathways appears to be a promising approach to find new ways of tackling metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Thermogenic, weight reducing and insulin sensitizing effects of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors have recently been postulated, suggesting that modulators of endogenous cGMP signaling have the therapeutic potential to treat metabolic disorders. However, most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals that were not glucose intolerant. We, thus, aimed to test the metabolic effects of the PDE 5 inhibitor sildenafil by treating diet-induced obese (DIO) mice orally for 8 days...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Daniela Stefania Trifu, Anna Kamocka, Julia Álvarez Hernández
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has beneficial effects on obesity and associated comorbidities such as glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and renal and hepatic function. Nevertheless, this surgery is not free of complications and possible side effects due to restrictive and/or malabsorptive related components. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 60-year-old woman whose past medical history included morbid obesity, hypertension and Scopinaro biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with duodenal switch in 1998...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Eva Gerdts, Raffaele Izzo, Costantino Mancusi, Maria Angela Losi, Maria Virginia Manzi, Grazia Canciello, Nicola De Luca, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni de Simone
BACKGROUND: In general, women have lower risk for cardiovascular disease. We tested whether this sex-specific protection persists also in the presence of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS: 12,329 women and men with hypertension and free from prevalent cardiovascular disease enrolled in the prospective Campania Salute Network registry were followed over a median of 4.1years. Subjects were grouped according to the absence or the presence of LVH identified by echocardiography using validated sex-specific cut-off values of LV mass index (>47g/m2...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Basmah Safdar, Gail D'Onofrio, James Dziura, Raymond R Russell, Caitlin Johnson, Albert J Sinusas
AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is common in patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries but has not been described in low-risk symptomatic patients. We therefore assessed the prevalence and characteristics of CMD in low to moderate risk patients with chest pain in an emergency department. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used three-dimensional Rb82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography to diagnose coronary artery disease (known or new regional defect, any coronary calcification) and CMD (low coronary flow reserve without coronary artery disease) in chest pain patients after being ruled out for acute myocardial infarction...
March 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Francesco Caso, Marco Tasso, Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola, Dario Di Minno, Roberta Lupoli, Livio Criscuolo, Paolo Caso, Francesco Ursini, Antonio Del Puente, Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Rosario Peluso
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that affects 14%-30% of patients with skin and/or nail psoriasis and leading to severe physical limitations and disability. It has been included in the group of spondyloarthropathy with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features in addition to familial and genetic relationship. Beyond skin and joint involvement, psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a high prevalence of extra-articular manifestation and comorbidities, such as autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Erika Aparecida Silveira, Liana Lima Vieira, Jacqueline Danesio de Souza
Rapid population aging and abdominal obesity (AO) are worldwide public health problems among the elderly and have been insufficiently investigated. This article sets out to identify the prevalence of AO among the elderly, its association with different morbidities, sociodemographic variables, and lifestyle according to sex. It is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of elderly people resident in Goiânia, Brazil. Home visits were conducted to measure weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, and to fill out a standardized form...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Zhenyun Lin, Binbin Zhu, Xiuming Jin
RATIONALE: The association between human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) with its associated diseases is far from complete. The role of HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility is still not known, although many suggestions have been proposed. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 46-year-old policeman with a history of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. He was a Shaolin lay disciple who fasted at the Shaolin temple for at least 1 week each year since 2014. DIAGNOSES: The patient suffered three different HLA-B27-associated diseases including acute anterior uveitis, ulcerative colitis, and ankylosing spondylitis, from 2014 to 2016 because of prolonged fasting...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pasquale Pignatelli, Danilo Menichelli, Daniele Pastori, Francesco Violi
The role of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and its impact on the development of cardiovascular events has been widely described. Thus, an increased oxidative stress has been described in several atherosclerotic risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, peripheral artery disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. Among others, specific oxidative pathways involving both pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes seem to play a major role in the production of reactive oxidant species (ROS), such as NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase...
March 14, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Stefanie R van Mil, L Ulas Biter, Gert-Jan M van de Geijn, Erwin Birnie, Martin Dunkelgrun, Jan N M IJzermans, Noelle van der Meulen, Guido H H Mannaerts, Manuel Castro Cabezas
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are both related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Early atherosclerotic vascular changes can be detected by non-invasive tests like carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Both cIMT and PWV are significantly impaired in T2DM patients and in obese patients, but the additional effect of T2DM on these vascular measurements in obese subjects has not been evaluated. METHODS: Two hundred morbidly obese patients with or without T2DM were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and underwent extensive laboratory testing, including cIMT and PWV measurements...
March 13, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Arundhati G Diwan, Aniket A Kuvalekar, Siddharth Dharamsi, Aditya M Vora, Vivek A Nikam, Abhijit A Ghadge
Introduction: Indian phenotype includes higher waist circumference despite lower body mass index, thereby making Indians more prone to diabetes and its complications. Aim: The present study aimed to analyze the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in the participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity and their correlation with hypertension and dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: In the study, 50 diabetics and 50 controls aged between 40 and 60 years were included in the study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
J Faber, A Wingerter, M A Neu, N Henninger, S Eckerle, T Münzel, K J Lackner, M E Beutel, M Blettner, W Rathmann, A Peters, C Meisinger, B Linkohr, H Neuhauser, P Kaatsch, C Spix, A Schneider, H Merzenich, M Panova-Noeva, J H Prochaska, P S Wild
Aims: The cardiac and vascular late sequelae in long-term survivors of childhood cancer (CVSS)-study aimed to quantify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in German childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and results: In the CVSS-study (NCT02181049), 1002 CCS (age range 23-48 years) diagnosed with neoplasia prior to 15 years of age between 1980 and 1990 prospectively underwent a systematic, standardized clinical and laboratory cardiovascular screening, identical to the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort...
March 9, 2018: European Heart Journal
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Annette J Dobson, Mark Jones
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity (co-occurrence of two or three of these conditions) has increased rapidly. Little is known about how the three conditions progress from one to another sequentially through the life course. We aimed to delineate this progression in middle-aged women and to determine the roles of common risk factors in the accumulation of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 13,714 women aged 45-50 years without a history of any of the three conditions...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
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