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Jia Jia, Ke-Qin Gao
A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th-45th parallel north) to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes...
2016: PeerJ
Enrico Bellato, Roberto Rotini, Alessandro Marinelli, Enrico Guerra, Shawn W O'Driscoll
BACKGROUND: Chronic coronoid deficiency can occur subsequent to coronoid fracture malunion/nonunion or to coronoid hypoplasia or dysplasia resulting from injury during development. Several surgical options have been described to treat this difficult condition, but results are equivocal. We hypothesized that a modified coronoid reconstruction using a radial head osteochondral graft could restore elbow stability and congruity and that a technique involving rigid internal fixation would promote graft union...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Robert Ndou
Assessment of the range of motion at a joint is among the methods employed by orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists to determine courses of therapy and joint recovery. Females tend to have a greater range of motion at the elbow joint than males. In the present case-control study, the elbow extension angle was compared between males and females with and without the supratrochlear aperture. A total of 453 dry humeri and their corresponding ulnae were included in the study, and elbow extension angle was measured using a goniometer...
October 11, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Ufuk Çorumlu, Cem Kopuz, Mehmet Tevfik Demir, Mennan Ece Pirzirenli
Elongation or hyperplasia of coronoid process of mandible is rare condition characterized by abnormal bone development which cause malocclusion and the limited mouth opening. In this study, in an Anatolian skull, a case of bilateral elongation of mandibular coronoid process was presented. Levandoski panographic analysis was performed on the panoramic radiographie to determine the hyperplasia of the coronoid process. The right condylar process was exactly hyperplastic. The measurements of Kr-Go/Cd-Go were 95...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Eduardo-Rodrigues Fregnani, Amanda-Almeida Leite, Claudia-Joffily Parahyba, Ana-Cristina-Alo Nesrallah, Flávia-Maria-de Moraes Ramos-Perez, Danyel-Elias-da Cruz Perez
The occurrence of a mandibular lesion as the first sign of multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. This report describes a case of MM diagnosed because of a mandibular lesion. A 62-year-old woman presented a destructive radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular ramus. The lesion caused rupture of the anterior cortical bone and extended from the retromolar area to the coronoid process. An incisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed numerous pleomorphic plasma cells, some with binucleated nuclei...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Eva Coppieters, Bernadette Van Ryssen, Henri van Bree, Geert Verhoeven, Bart Broeckx, Evelien de Bakker, Dieter Deforce, Ingrid Gielen
Medial compartment erosion is an advanced stage of medial coronoid disease, an important cause of elbow lameness in dogs, with treatment and the expected prognosis depending on the extent of the cartilage lesions. The identification of specific computed tomographic (CT) findings might facilitate the nonsurgical diagnosis and add to treatment decision making. Aims of this retrospective, analytical, method comparison study were to describe CT findings in elbows of dogs arthroscopically diagnosed with medial compartment erosion and to compare CT vs...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
A Villamonte-Chevalier, W Dingemanse, B J G Broeckx, A Van Caelenberg, A Agut, L Duchateau, H van Bree, I Gielen
The aims of this study were: (1) to determine the inter-observer repeatability of particular regions of the canine elbow joints; (2) to assess the effect of age, bodyweight and breed on bone density in healthy young dogs; (3) to compare Hounsfield units (HU) and bone density (BD) measurements between normal elbow joints and diseased elbow joints; and (4) to determine the sensitivity and specificity for HU and BD measurements in specific regions in the canine elbow joint. Regions with the highest repeatability were located at the medial coronoid process (MCP) base and apex, and at the level of the humerus, on the sagittal and sagittal oblique planes of the elbow joint...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
R Paul Scofield, Kieren J Mitchell, Jamie R Wood, Vanesa L De Pietri, Scott Jarvie, Bastien Llamas, Alan Cooper
The relationships of the extinct New Zealand ravens (Corvus spp.) are poorly understood. We sequenced the mitogenomes of the two currently recognised species and found they were sister-taxa to a clade comprising the Australian raven, little raven, and forest raven (C.coronoides, C. mellori and C. tasmanicus respectively). The divergence between the New Zealand ravens and Australian raven clade occurred in the latest Pliocene, which coincides with the onset of glacial deforestation. We also found that the divergence between the two putative New Zealand species C...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nabil Ail Elsheikh, Yasser M Amr
BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy is the main treatment for management of trigeminal neuralgia. However, many patients become refractory to drugs. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding calcitonin to local anesthetic and methylprednisolone using a modified coronoid approach in management of trigeminal neuralgia pain involving the mandibular and/or maxillary branches. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized double blind clinical trial...
September 2016: Pain Physician
F Xu, L Jiang, C Man
Two different surgical methods for the treatment of unilateral traumatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis with a medially displaced residual condyle are described. Eighteen patients with unilateral traumatic TMJ ankylosis and a medially displaced residual condyle, treated between 2008 and 2013, were included in this study. Group A patients (n=10) were treated with an autogenous coronoid process graft (ACPG) for reconstruction of the mandibular condyle, while group B patients (n=8) were treated by lateral arthroplasty (LAP); a temporalis myofascial flap (TMF) was used as interpositional material in both groups...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Probodh K Chattopadhyay, Shakil Ahmed Nagori, Rahul P Menon, Balasundaram Thanneermalai
In the maxillofacial area, osteomyelitis generally involves the mandible more commonly than the maxilla. Osteomyelitis of the mandible more often than not is odontogenic in origin and the dentate part is usually affected. In this context, involvement of the condyle and coronoid processes is very rare. This report describes 2 unique cases of condylar involvement with osteomyelitis. In these cases, the etiologies were unknown and were successfully managed by condylectomy and antibiotics. A comprehensive review of the English-language literature showed only 18 cases of osteomyelitis of the condyle...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Sunil Dixit Khandavilli, Neeraj Pattni, Pradyumna Reddy Naredla, Rhodri Williams
BACKGROUND: Mandibular coronoid hyperplasia is a rare condition associated with gradual reduction in mouth opening. Its aetiology is unknown but increased temporalis activity, endocrine stimulus, trauma and familial causes have been proposed. CASE REPORT: In this article, we present a case of bilateral coronoid hyperplasia presenting with limited mouth opening in 16-year-old Caucasian twin sisters. DISCUSSION: This report gives a new perspective to the aetiology of coronoid hyperplasia since it describes its occurrence in monozygotic twins and hence provides a strong argument in support of a genetic aetiology...
September 16, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Arman T Serebrakian, Michael S Golinko, Michael Alperovich, Christopher M Runyan, David A Staffenberg
Craniofacial microsomia remains the second most common craniofacial deformity after cleft lip and palate. Mandibular pathology has been classically scored from type I to type III by the modified Pruzansky-Kaban classification. The authors report a case of a 5-year-old patient with Goldenhar syndrome and bilateral type III craniofacial macrosomia. The patient had absence of bilateral glenoid fossas, condyles, coronoids, and rami as well as hypoplasia of the symphysis, parasymphysis, and mandibular body. Reconstruction was performed using 2 costochondral rib autografts to reconstruct a ramus and assist in the development of a neo-glenoid fossa at the cranial base...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sujata Mohanty, Himanshu Gupta, Jitender Dabas, Priyadarshan Kumar
Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues...
May 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
K Schmidt-Horlohé, S Buschbeck, D Wincheringer, M Weißenberger, R Hoffmann
Radial head fractures are common injuries in elbow trauma. Non-displaced fractures are best treated conservatively. Simple but displaced fractures require anatomic reduction and fixation, typically using screws. The treatment course for complex fractures with multiple fragments is still being debated, as results are less predictable. Radial head resection is not advised if concomitant injuries of the coronoid process or the collateral ligaments with instability are present. Favorable outcomes following open reduction and fixation using plates were reported recently...
October 2016: Der Orthopäde
J Geßmann, M Königshausen, T A Schildhauer, D Seybold
The high stability of the elbow joint is provided by the congruent articular surfaces in combination with soft tissue stabilizers. The main osseous contributor of elbow stability is the coronoid, which is therefore referred to as a primary stabilizer. The radial head as a secondary stabilizer together with the medial collateral ligament assures valgus stability and together with the coronoid it assures posterolateral stability. Insufficiency of the osseous stabilizers may lead to difficulties in the treatment of chronic dislocation and complex instability...
October 2016: Der Orthopäde
Satish Udare, Karishma Hemmady
A dermatoscope is an important tool in a dermatologist's armamentarium as it can eliminate the need for a biopsy in a wide array of conditions. Porokeratosis was described by Mibelli and Respighi in 1893, as a disorder of keratinization which on the basis of distribution patterns was described as five clinical variants that portrayed a coronoid lamella on histopathology. We describe a case of asymptomatic, long-standing palmar and plantar pits, which on dermatoscopy showed features suggestive of porokeratosis, which was later reconfirmed by histopathologic sections...
July 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Nawaf Aljudaibi, Yasmine Bennis, Veronique Duquennoy-Martinot, Daniel Labbé, Pierre Guerreschi
Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a well-established procedure for dynamic palliative reanimation of the lip in facial palsy sequelae. The particularity of this technique is that the entire temporal muscle is transferred from the coronoid process to the upper half of the lip without interposition of aponeurotic tissue. To date, no video describing the technique was available. This is the first video describing the entire procedure, from preoperative markings through postoperative rehabilitation. In the video presented herein, the authors craft virtual three-dimensional animations in addition to a live operation on a patient performed by Daniel Labbé, who first described this technique 20 years ago...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
K Samatha, Sujata Mohan Byahatti, Renuka Anand Ammanagi, Praveena Tantradi, Chandan Kaur Sarang, Prachi Shivpuje
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the usefulness of mandibular ramus as an aid in sex determination. (2) To evaluate Anteroposterior | superioinferior angle of mandibular condyle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using orthopantomographs of 60 males and 60 females, which were taken using Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric System (73 kVp, 12 mA, 13.9 s). The age group ranged between 18 - 45 years. Mandibular ramus measurements were carried out using Master View 3...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ajit Damera, Jonnala Mohanalakhsmi, Pavan Kumar Yellarthi, Begum Mohammed Rezwana
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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