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mechanisms in endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348113/genetics-in-endocrinology-the-expanding-genetic-horizon-of-primary-aldosteronism
#1
Silvia Monticone, Fabrizio Buffolo, Martina Tetti, Franco Veglio, Barbara Pasini, Paolo Mulatero
Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid hormone in humans and plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte homeostasis. Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by autonomous aldosterone overproduction by the adrenal glands, affects 6% of the general hypertensive population and can be either sporadic or familial. Aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) are the two most frequent subtypes of sporadic PA, and 4 forms of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH-I to FH-IV) have been identified...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325624/sex-chromosome-aneuploidies
#2
David Skuse, Frida Printzlau, Jeanne Wolstencroft
Sex chromosome aneuploidies comprise a relatively common group of chromosome disorders characterized by the loss or gain of one or more sex chromosomes. We discuss five of the better-known sex aneuploidies: Turner syndrome (XO), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), trisomy X (XXX), XYY, and XXYY. Despite their prevalence in the general population, these disorders are underdiagnosed and the specific genetic mechanisms underlying their phenotypes are poorly understood. Although there is considerable variation between them in terms of associated functional impairment, each disorder has a characteristic physical, cognitive, and neurologic profile...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324833/evidence-for-pmat-and-oct-like-biogenic-amine-transporters-in-a-probiotic-strain-of-lactobacillus-implications-for-interkingdom-communication-within-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#3
Mark Lyte, David R Brown
The ability of prokaryotic microbes to produce and respond to neurochemicals that are more often associated with eukaryotic systems is increasingly recognized through the concept of microbial endocrinology. Most studies have described the phenomena of neurochemical production by bacteria, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which microbe- or host-derived neuroactive substances can be recognized by bacteria. Based on the evolutionary origins of eukaryotic solute carrier transporters, we hypothesized that bacteria may possess an analogous uptake function for neuroactive biogenic amines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322398/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Fabiani, Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Mario Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine disorder encompassing multifactorial mechanisms, and chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC) is a multifaceted disorder, associated with extrahepatic manifestations, including endocrinological disorders. CHC and T2DM are associated, but the subject remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating such association, searching on PubMed until February 29, 2016. Inclusion criteria were: 1) presence of at least one internal control group age- and gender-matched (non-hepatopathic controls; and/or hepatopathic, not HCV-positive, controls); 2) sufficient data to calculate odds ratio and relative risk...
January 11, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305886/steroid-and-the-brain-50years-of-research-conceptual-shifts-and-the-ascent-of-non-classical-and-membrane-initiated-actions
#5
REVIEW
Jacques Balthazart, Elena Choleris, Luke Remage-Healey
This brief commentary reviews key steps in the history of endocrinology that have resulted in important conceptual shifts. Our understanding of the "Fast Effects of Steroids" has now made substantial progress, including the major concept that steroids act rapidly on a variety of physiological and behavioral responses, via mechanisms that are too fast to be fully accounted for by classical receptor-dependent regulation of gene transcription. Several so-called 'non-classical' mechanisms have been identified and include binding to membrane receptors and regulating non genomic signaling cascades...
January 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249963/exploring-the-association-between-alzheimer-s-disease-oral-health-microbial-endocrinology-and-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247785/ecdysteroid-and-juvenile-hormone-biosynthesis-receptors-and-their-signaling-in-the-freshwater-microcrustacean-daphnia
#7
REVIEW
Hitoshi Miyakawa, Tomomi Sato, You Song, Knut E Tollefsen, Taisen Iguchi
The two essential insect hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, are possessed not only by insects, but also widely by arthropods, and regulate various developmental and physiological processes. In contrast to the abundant information about molecular endocrine mechanisms in insects, the knowledge of non-insect arthropod endocrinology is still limited. In this review, we summarize recent reports about the molecular basis of these two major insect hormones in the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia, a keystone taxon in limnetic ecology and a bioindicator in environmental studies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207322/identification-of-a-vte-rich-population-in-pediatrics-critically-ill-children-with-central-venous-catheters
#8
Minh Tran, Steven L Shein, Xinge Ji, Sanjay P Ahuja
BACKGROUND: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is rising among inpatients in US hospitals, especially among kids with central venous catheters (CVCs) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). OBJECTIVES: To identify a sub-group of "VTE-rich" population among PICU children, and to assess the effect of VTE on morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Data was extracted from a multicenter Virtual PICU Database, or VPS, for children with a CVC and presence of a VTE...
January 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206731/enteral-feeding-practices-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease-across-european-picus-a-european-society-of-pediatric-and-neonatal-intensive-care-survey
#9
Lyvonne N Tume, Reinis Balmaks, Eduardo da Cruz, Lynne Latten, Sascha Verbruggen, Frédéric V Valla
OBJECTIVES: To describe enteral feeding practices in pre and postoperative infants with congenital heart disease in European PICUs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional electronic survey. SETTING: European PICUs that admit infants with congenital heart disease pre- and postoperatively. PARTICIPANTS: One senior PICU physician or designated person per unit. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-nine PICUs from 18 European countries responded to the survey...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198528/an-integrative-review-of-the-enjoyment-of-sadness-associated-with-music
#10
REVIEW
Tuomas Eerola, Jonna K Vuoskoski, Henna-Riikka Peltola, Vesa Putkinen, Katharina Schäfer
The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels of explanation - biological, psycho-social, and cultural - to compare and integrate the existing findings in a meaningful way. First, we review the evidence pertinent to experiences of pleasure associated with sad music from the fields of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and endocrinology...
November 23, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184812/fertility-counseling-and-preservation-considerations-for-the-pediatric-endocrinologist
#11
REVIEW
Amanda J Saraf, Leena Nahata
Infertility is a distressing consequence of numerous pediatric medical conditions and treatments. The field of pediatric fertility preservation has expanded rapidly over the past decade, and clinical guidelines emphasize the importance of discussing infertility risk and fertility preservation options with patients and families in a timely manner. Understanding the various mechanisms and presentations of fertility issues across diagnoses is imperative to provide counseling to patients and families, and identify individuals who may benefit from fertility preservation...
October 2017: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138801/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-influences-the-erk-pathway-and-protects-against-neurological-deficits-and-neuronal-death
#12
Jie Yuan, Xin Guo, Zhengang Liu, Xiuqin Zhao, Yan Feng, Sixin Song, Changmeng Cui, Pei Jiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that global cerebral ischemia (GCI) causes neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Calcitriol, a biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its endocrinological influence via nuclear vitamin D receptor. It is being assessed as an emerging therapeutic strategy in models of various medical conditions, including acute brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of calcitriol on GCI and further refine the potential underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120925/noonan-syndrome-an-update-on-growth-and-development
#13
Armelle Yart, Thomas Edouard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent developments on Noonan syndrome with a special focus on endocrinology, bone, and metabolism aspects. The key issues still to be resolved and the future therapeutic perspectives will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The discovery of the molecular genetic causes of Noonan syndrome and Noonan-syndrome-related disorders has permitted us to better understand the mechanisms underlying the different symptoms of these diseases and to establish genotype-phenotype correlations (in growth patterns for example)...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051074/pairing-ultrasonography-with-endocrinology-to-elucidate-underlying-mechanisms-of-successful-pregnancy-in-the-northern-fur-seal-callorhinus-ursinus
#14
Michelle R Shero, Don R Bergfelt, J Ward Testa, Gregg P Adams
Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042391/korean-obesity-surgical-treatment-study-kobess-protocol-of-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-on-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#15
Young Suk Park, Do Joong Park, Joo Ho Lee, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Tae Kyung Ha, Yong-Jin Kim, Seung-Wan Ryu, Sang-Moon Han, Moon-Won Yoo, Sungsoo Park, Sang-Uk Han, Yoonseok Heo
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery effectively induces long-term weight loss in Western populations. However, its effectiveness in Asians remains to be confirmed objectively. The Korean Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery proposes the first prospective cohort study on Koreans undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Korean OBEsity Surgical treatment Study (KOBESS) is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, observational, cohort study on morbidly obese patients who undergo primary sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in Korea...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035404/-biological-significance-of-chromium-iii-for-the-human-organism
#16
REVIEW
Anna Piotrowska, Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Gabriel Nowak
Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III...
October 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#17
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982961/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-maternal-thyroid-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-and-behavioural-and-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Dagnachew Muluye Fetene, Kim S Betts, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy may lead to persistent neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring appearing in later life. This study aimed to review the available evidence concerning the relationship between maternal thyroid status during pregnancy and offspring behavioural and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Systematic electronic database searches were conducted using PubMed, Embase, PsycNET, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library...
November 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928975/a-unique-association-of-noonan-syndrome-and-47-xyy-syndrome-in-a-male-presenting-with-failure-to-thrive
#19
Edward J Bellfield, Zohra Shad
We describe a 24-month-old male patient who presented to our Genetics-Endocrinology Clinic with a history of failure to thrive, short stature and cryptorchidism. Soon after birth he was diagnosed with 47,XYY syndrome, but due unusual facial features had further diagnostic workup which revealed Noonan syndrome (NS) as well. This report illustrates significant phenotypic-cytogenetic variability within the clinical presentation of NS and 47,XYY syndrome, as well as the need to investigate patients for other genetic defects when phenotype does not correlate with genotype...
September 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924486/expression-of-transcription-factors-in-men1-associated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#20
Yasutaka Takeda, Yukihiro Fujita, Kentaro Sakai, Tomoe Abe, Tomonobu Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Yanagimachi, Hidemitsu Sakagami, Jun Honjo, Atsuko Abiko, Yuichi Makino, Masakazu Haneda
MEN1-associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) may potentially express distinct hormones, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. Transcription factors such as MafA and Pdx1 have been identified to lead to beta cell differentiation, while Arx and Brn4 to alpha cell differentiation in developing pancreas. We hypothesized those transcription factors are important to produce specific hormones in pNETs, similarly to developing pancreas, and examined the expression of transcription factors in a case of MEN1 who showed immunohistological coexistence of several hormone-producing pNETs including insulinoma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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