keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

mechanisms in endocrinology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229106/neonatal-corticosterone-administration-in-rodents-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-maternal-programming-of-emotional-and-immune-domains
#1
Simone Macrì
Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220105/acth-receptor-mc2r-specificity-what-do-we-know-about-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Davids Fridmanis, Ance Roga, Janis Klovins
Coincidentally, the release of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Endocrinology takes place 25 years after the discovery of the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) by Mountjoy and colleagues. In subsequent years, following the discovery of other types of mammalian melanocortin receptors (MCRs), ACTHR also became known as melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). At present, five types of MCRs have been reported, all of which share significant sequence similarity at the amino acid level, and all of which specifically bind melanocortins (MCs)-a group of biologically active peptides generated by proteolysis of the proopiomelanocortin precursor...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217718/pediatric-perioperative-stress-responses-and-anesthesia
#3
Koichi Yuki, Erika Matsunami, Kazumasa Tazawa, Wei Wang, James A DiNardo, Sophia Koutsogiannaki
Surgical stress responses cause an array of endocrinological, metabolic and immunological changes in patients. The landmark studies in the 1980s showed that adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcomes of pediatric surgical patients by attenuating stress hormonal responses, pointing out the harm of 'inadequate' anesthesia. Subsequent studies questioned the role of administering very high-dose anesthetics to further attenuate stress responses. Here we review the feature of surgical stress responses in pediatric patients including their difference from those in adult patients...
2017: Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195061/overview-of-the-preclinical-pharmacological-properties-of-nigella-sativa-black-seeds-a-complementary-drug-with-historical-and-clinical-significance
#4
E Z Dajani, T G Shahwan, N E Dajani
Nigella sativa (N. sativa, black seeds; or sometimes known by many other names such as the blessed seed by the Arabs, black cumin in the Holy Bible, black caraway and Kalonji in South Asia) has been traditionally used for many years not only as a food but also as complementary drug. It is the objective of this communication to review the evidence-based pre-clinical pharmacological actions of N. sativa as a basis of its existing and potential new human clinical uses. Primary PubMed literature searches and secondary Medline searches were conducted to define N...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163695/acth-action-on-messenger-rna-stability-mechanisms
#5
Agnès Desroches-Castan, Jean-Jacques Feige, Nadia Cherradi
The regulation of mRNA stability has emerged as a critical control step in dynamic gene expression. This process occurs in response to modifications of the cellular environment, including hormonal variations, and regulates the expression of subsets of proteins whose levels need to be rapidly adjusted. Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3'-untranslated region regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153489/androgens-in-women-are-essentially-made-from-dhea-in-each-peripheral-tissue-according-to-intracrinology
#6
REVIEW
Fernand Labrie, Céline Martel, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier
The objective is to review how the cell-specific amounts of intracellular androgens are all made in women from circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in each peripheral tissue, independently from the rest of the body. Following 500 million years of evolution, approximately three dozen cell-specific intracrine enzymes have been engineered in human peripheral tissues whereby the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA mainly of adrenal origin is transformed into the appropriate minute intracellular amounts of androgens...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109053/frogs-model-man-in-vivo-thyroid-hormone-signaling-during-development
#7
REVIEW
Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in vivo mechanisms of TH signaling...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098598/science-of-intracrinology-in-postmenopausal-women
#8
Fernand Labrie, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier, Céline Martel, David F Archer, Wulf H Utian
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the marked differences between classical endocrinology that distributes hormones to all tissues of the body through the bloodstream and the science of intracrinology, whereby each cell of each peripheral tissue makes a small and appropriate amount of estrogens and androgens from the inactive precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA being mainly of adrenal origin. Because only the inactivated sex steroids are released in the blood, influence in the other tissues is avoided...
January 16, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#9
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049653/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-diabetes-mellitus-a-state-of-low-bone-turnover-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Katrine Hygum, Jakob Starup-Linde, Torben Harsløf, Peter Vestergaard, Bente L Langdahl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in bone turnover between diabetic patients and controls. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline at PubMed and EMBASE. The free text search terms 'diabetes mellitus' and 'bone turnover', 'sclerostin', 'RANKL', 'osteoprotegerin', 'tartrate-resistant acid' and 'TRAP' were used. Studies were eligible if they investigated bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes compared with controls...
March 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#11
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965654/the-neuro-endocrinological-role-of-microbial-glutamate-and-gaba-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Roberto Mazzoli, Enrica Pessione
Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation, and defense against pathogenic strains) and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens) and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) also supports a communication pathway between the gut microbiota and neural circuits of the host, including the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913612/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-skeletal-muscle-lipotoxicity-in-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-a-causal-mechanism-or-an-innocent-bystander
#13
REVIEW
Charlotte Brøns, Louise Groth Grunnet
Dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). One characteristic of a dysfunctional adipose tissue is the reduced expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leading to ectopic storage of fat in organs and/or tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2D that can cause lipotoxicity. Accumulation of lipids in the skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance, but the majority of previous studies do not prove any causality. Most studies agree that it is not the intramuscular lipids per se that causes insulin resistance, but rather lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols, fatty acyl-CoAs and ceramides and that it is the localization, composition and turnover of these intermediates that play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and T2D...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888003/small-non-coding-rnas-based-bone-regulation-and-targeting-therapeutic-strategies
#14
Ying Yang, Sijie Fang
Small non-coding RNAs, which are 20-25 nucleotide ribonucleic acids, have emerged as an important transformation in the biological evolution over almost three decades. microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are two significant categories of the small RNAs that exert important effects on bone endocrinology and skeletology. Therefore, clarifying the expression and function of these important molecules in bone endocrine physiology and pathology is of great significance for improving their potential therapeutic value for metabolism-associated bone diseases...
November 23, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866819/endocrinology-of-human-female-sexuality-mating-and-reproductive-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Natalie V Motta-Mena, David A Puts
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior...
November 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856292/the-challenge-hypothesis-where-it-began-and-relevance-to-humans
#16
REVIEW
John C Wingfield
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Over 40years ago assay methods that allowed the accurate measurement of circulating levels of hormones were developed for the first time enabling us to sample free-living as well as captive animals. This led to a new concept called "field endocrinology". It quickly became apparent that endocrine profiles of animals under natural conditions were very different from congeners in captivity. Furthermore, hormone data could be organized by functional units (e...
November 14, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760577/the-endocrinology-of-human-caregiving-and-its-intergenerational-transmission
#17
Peter A Bos
Variation in the quality of parental care has a tremendous impact on a child's social-emotional development. Research investigating the predictors of this variability in human caregiving behavior has mostly focused on learning mechanisms. Evidence is currently accumulating for the complementary underlying role of steroid hormones and neuropeptides. An overview is provided of the hormones and neuropeptides relevant for human caregiving behavior. Then the developmental factors are described that stimulate variability in sensitivity to these hormones and neuropeptides, which may result in variability in the behavioral repertoire of caregiving...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760420/risks-of-metformin-in-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-lessons-learned-from-taiwanese-data
#18
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754851/the-impact-of-foxo-on-dopamine-and-octopamine-metabolism-in-drosophila-under-normal-and-heat-stress-conditions
#19
Nataly E Gruntenko, Natalya V Adonyeva, Elena V Burdina, Evgenia K Karpova, Olga V Andreenkova, Daniil V Gladkikh, Yury Y Ilinsky, Inga Yu Rauschenbach
The forkhead boxO transcription factor (FOXO) is a component of the insulin signalling pathway and plays a role in responding to adverse conditions, such as oxidative stress and starvation. In stressful conditions, FOXO moves from the cytosol to the nucleus where it activates gene expression programmes. Here, we show that FOXO in Drosophila melanogaster responds to heat stress as it does to other stressors. The catecholamine signalling pathway is another component of the stress response. In Drosophila, dopamine and octopamine levels rise steeply under heat, nutrition and mechanical stresses, which are followed by a decrease in the activity of synthesis enzymes...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748448/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-regulation-of-androgen-bioactivity-in-vivo-validation-of-the-free-hormone-hypothesis
#20
Michaël R Laurent, Geoffrey L Hammond, Marco Blokland, Ferran Jardí, Leen Antonio, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Saskia S Sterk, Evelien Gielen, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Tom Fiers, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
103915
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"