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mechanisms in endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272006/solitary-metastasis-of-clear-renal-cell-carcinoma-to-thyroid-gland-three-reported-cases-with-review-of-the-literature
#1
Jaromir Astl, Abdulrahman Ali Bahannan, Jaroslava Dušková, Z Novák, P Vlcek, Jan Betka
Metastasis to the head and neck and more specifically to the thyroid gland from distant primary tumors is less common in comparison to the local regional metastasis of squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract. Preoperative diagnosis of these cases can be difficult. The authors present three cases with distant solitary metastases of clear renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland with ambiguous mechanism of tumor spread to the thyroid. Solitary metastases of clear renal cell carcinomas are an uncommon variant of metastasis of this tumor and may imitate thyroid well differentiated carcinoma which most commonly affects the thyroid gland...
January 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264815/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-aging-and-anti-aging-endocrinology-a-combo-overview
#2
Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Maurizio Datillo, Djuro Macut, Leonidas H Duntas, Efstathios Gonos, Dimitrios Goulis, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Marianna Kapetanou, Eftychia G Koukkou, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Marina Michalaki, Shahla Nader-Eftekhari, Renato Pasquali, Melpomeni Peppa, Marinella Tzanela, Evangeline Vassilatou, Andromachi Vryonidou
Aging and its underlying pathophysiological background has always attracted the attention of the scientific society. Defined as the gradual, time-dependent, heterogenous decline of physiological functions, aging is orchestrated by a plethora of molecular mechanisms, which vividly interact to alter body homeostasis. The ability of an organism to adjust to these alterations, in conjunction with the dynamic effect of various environmental stimuli across lifespan, promotes longevity, frailty or disease. Endocrine function undergoes major changes during ageing, as well...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246151/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-endocannabinoids-and-metabolism-past-present-and-future
#3
Vincent Simon, Daniela Cota
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), including cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R), endogenous ligands called endocannabinoids and their related enzymatic machinery, is known to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. Past information generated on the ECS, mainly focused on the involvement of this system in the central nervous system regulation of food intake, while at the same time clinical studies pointed out the therapeutic efficacy of brain-penetrant CB1R antagonists like rimonabant for obesity and metabolic disorders...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246045/characterisation-of-the-transcriptome-of-male-and-female-wild-type-guppy-brains-with-rna-seq-and-consequences-of-exposure-to-the-pharmaceutical-pollutant-17%C3%AE-ethinyl-estradiol
#4
Minna Saaristo, Bob B M Wong, Laura Mincarelli, Allison Craig, Christopher P Johnstone, Mayumi Allinson, Kai Lindström, John A Craft
Waterways are increasingly being contaminated by chemical compounds that can disrupt the endocrinology of organisms. One such compound is 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in the contraceptive pill. Despite considerable research interest in the effects of EE2 on reproduction and gene expression, surprisingly, only a few studies have capitalised on technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), to uncover the molecular pathways related to EE2 exposure. Accordingly, using high-throughput sequencing technologies, the aim of our study was to explore the effects of EE2 on brain transcriptome in wild-type male and female guppy (Poecilia reticulata)...
February 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239427/food-components-and-contaminants-as-anti-androgenic-molecules
#5
REVIEW
Daniele Marcoccia, Marco Pellegrini, Marco Fiocchetti, Stefano Lorenzetti, Maria Marino
Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual differentiation during development, sperm production beginning from puberty, and maintenance of prostate homeostasis. Several substances present in the environment, now classified as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), strongly interfere with androgen actions in reproductive and non-reproductive tissues...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229106/neonatal-corticosterone-administration-in-rodents-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-maternal-programming-of-emotional-and-immune-domains
#6
Simone Macrì
Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220105/acth-receptor-mc2r-specificity-what-do-we-know-about-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Davids Fridmanis, Ance Roga, Janis Klovins
Coincidentally, the release of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Endocrinology takes place 25 years after the discovery of the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) by Mountjoy and colleagues. In subsequent years, following the discovery of other types of mammalian melanocortin receptors (MCRs), ACTHR also became known as melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). At present, five types of MCRs have been reported, all of which share significant sequence similarity at the amino acid level, and all of which specifically bind melanocortins (MCs)-a group of biologically active peptides generated by proteolysis of the proopiomelanocortin precursor...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217718/pediatric-perioperative-stress-responses-and-anesthesia
#8
Koichi Yuki, Erika Matsunami, Kazumasa Tazawa, Wei Wang, James A DiNardo, Sophia Koutsogiannaki
Surgical stress responses cause an array of endocrinological, metabolic and immunological changes in patients. The landmark studies in the 1980s showed that adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcomes of pediatric surgical patients by attenuating stress hormonal responses, pointing out the harm of 'inadequate' anesthesia. Subsequent studies questioned the role of administering very high-dose anesthetics to further attenuate stress responses. Here we review the feature of surgical stress responses in pediatric patients including their difference from those in adult patients...
2017: Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195061/overview-of-the-preclinical-pharmacological-properties-of-nigella-sativa-black-seeds-a-complementary-drug-with-historical-and-clinical-significance
#9
E Z Dajani, T G Shahwan, N E Dajani
Nigella sativa (N. sativa, black seeds; or sometimes known by many other names such as the blessed seed by the Arabs, black cumin in the Holy Bible, black caraway and Kalonji in South Asia) has been traditionally used for many years not only as a food but also as complementary drug. It is the objective of this communication to review the evidence-based pre-clinical pharmacological actions of N. sativa as a basis of its existing and potential new human clinical uses. Primary PubMed literature searches and secondary Medline searches were conducted to define N...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163695/acth-action-on-messenger-rna-stability-mechanisms
#10
Agnès Desroches-Castan, Jean-Jacques Feige, Nadia Cherradi
The regulation of mRNA stability has emerged as a critical control step in dynamic gene expression. This process occurs in response to modifications of the cellular environment, including hormonal variations, and regulates the expression of subsets of proteins whose levels need to be rapidly adjusted. Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3'-untranslated region regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153489/androgens-in-women-are-essentially-made-from-dhea-in-each-peripheral-tissue-according-to-intracrinology
#11
REVIEW
Fernand Labrie, Céline Martel, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier
The objective is to review how the cell-specific amounts of intracellular androgens are all made in women from circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in each peripheral tissue, independently from the rest of the body. Following 500 million years of evolution, approximately three dozen cell-specific intracrine enzymes have been engineered in human peripheral tissues whereby the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA mainly of adrenal origin is transformed into the appropriate minute intracellular amounts of androgens...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109053/frogs-model-man-in-vivo-thyroid-hormone-signaling-during-development
#12
REVIEW
Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in vivo mechanisms of TH signaling...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098598/science-of-intracrinology-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Fernand Labrie, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier, Céline Martel, David F Archer, Wulf H Utian
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the marked differences between classical endocrinology that distributes hormones to all tissues of the body through the bloodstream and the science of intracrinology, whereby each cell of each peripheral tissue makes a small and appropriate amount of estrogens and androgens from the inactive precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA being mainly of adrenal origin. Because only the inactivated sex steroids are released in the blood, influence in the other tissues is avoided...
January 16, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#14
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049653/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-diabetes-mellitus-a-state-of-low-bone-turnover-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Katrine Hygum, Jakob Starup-Linde, Torben Harsløf, Peter Vestergaard, Bente L Langdahl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in bone turnover between diabetic patients and controls. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline at PubMed and EMBASE. The free text search terms 'diabetes mellitus' and 'bone turnover', 'sclerostin', 'RANKL', 'osteoprotegerin', 'tartrate-resistant acid' and 'TRAP' were used. Studies were eligible if they investigated bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes compared with controls...
March 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#16
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965654/the-neuro-endocrinological-role-of-microbial-glutamate-and-gaba-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Roberto Mazzoli, Enrica Pessione
Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation, and defense against pathogenic strains) and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens) and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) also supports a communication pathway between the gut microbiota and neural circuits of the host, including the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913612/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-skeletal-muscle-lipotoxicity-in-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-a-causal-mechanism-or-an-innocent-bystander
#18
REVIEW
Charlotte Brøns, Louise Groth Grunnet
Dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). One characteristic of a dysfunctional adipose tissue is the reduced expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leading to ectopic storage of fat in organs and/or tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2D that can cause lipotoxicity. Accumulation of lipids in the skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance, but the majority of previous studies do not prove any causality. Most studies agree that it is not the intramuscular lipids per se that causes insulin resistance, but rather lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols, fatty acyl-CoAs and ceramides and that it is the localization, composition and turnover of these intermediates that play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and T2D...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888003/small-non-coding-rnas-based-bone-regulation-and-targeting-therapeutic-strategies
#19
Ying Yang, Sijie Fang
Small non-coding RNAs, which are 20-25 nucleotide ribonucleic acids, have emerged as an important transformation in the biological evolution over almost three decades. microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are two significant categories of the small RNAs that exert important effects on bone endocrinology and skeletology. Therefore, clarifying the expression and function of these important molecules in bone endocrine physiology and pathology is of great significance for improving their potential therapeutic value for metabolism-associated bone diseases...
November 23, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866819/endocrinology-of-human-female-sexuality-mating-and-reproductive-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Natalie V Motta-Mena, David A Puts
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior...
November 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
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