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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773584/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-cell-cycle-regulation-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#1
Sofia Pereira, Mariana P Monteiro, Isabelle Bourdeau, Andre Lacroix, Duarte Pignatelli
Adrenocortical carcinomas are rather rare endocrine tumors that often have a poor prognosis. The reduced survival rate associated with these tumors is due to their aggressive biological behavior, combined with the scarcity of effective treatment options that are currently available. The recent identification of the genomic alterations present in ACC have provided further molecular mechanisms to develop consistent strategies for the diagnosis, prevention of progression and treatment of advanced ACCs. Taken together, molecular and genomic advances could be leading the way to develop personalized medicine in ACCs similarly to similar developments in lung or breast cancers...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760304/metyrapone-responsive-ectopic-acth-secreting-pheochromocytoma-with-a-vicious-cycle-via-a-glucocorticoid-driven-positive-feedback-mechanism
#2
Minako Inoue, Ken Okamura, Chie Kitaoka, Fumio Kinoshita, Ryo Namitome, Udai Nakamura, Masaki Shiota, Kenichi Goto, Toshio Ohtsubo, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Yoshinao Oda, Masatoshi Eto, Takanari Kitazono
In ectopic ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma, combined ACTH-driven hypercortisolemia and hyper-catecholaminemia are serious conditions, which can be fatal if not diagnosed and managed appropriately, especially when glucocorticoid-driven positive feedback is suggested with a high ACTH/cortisol ratio. A 46-year-old man presented with headache, rapid weight loss, hyperhidrosis, severe hypertension and hyperglycemia without typical Cushingoid appearance. Endocrinological examinations demonstrated elevated plasma and urine catecholamines, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730040/physiological-mechanisms-mediating-patterns-of-reproductive-suppression-and-alloparental-care-in-cooperatively-breeding-carnivores
#3
Tracy M Montgomery, Erika L Pendleton, Jennifer E Smith
Although cooperation represents a long-standing evolutionary puzzle, field studies on social carnivores have contributed greatly to our understanding of the selective forces favoring cooperative breeding. Despite these insights, our grasp of the proximate mechanisms facilitating cooperation in carnivores remains surprisingly limited. Here we provide an overview of our current knowledge of the endocrine mechanisms mediating cooperative breeding in terrestrial species belonging to the mammalian order Carnivora...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713190/recurrent-candidal-intertrigo-challenges-and-solutions
#4
REVIEW
Ahmet Metin, Nursel Dilek, Serap Gunes Bilgili
Intertrigo is a common inflammatory dermatosis of opposing skin surfaces that can be caused by a variety of infectious agents, most notably candida, under the effect of mechanical and environmental factors. Symptoms such as pain and itching significantly decrease quality of life, leading to high morbidity. A multitude of predisposing factors, particularly obesity, diabetes mellitus, and immunosuppressive conditions facilitate both the occurrence and recurrence of the disease. The diagnosis of candidal intertrigo is usually based on clinical appearance...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705840/intersections-between-neuroimmune-and-microbiota
#5
Colette G Ngo Ndjom, Xavier F Gonzalez, Harlan P Jones
Multidiscipline-based research holds promise toward revealing complex mechanisms that determine health and disease. For decades, scientists have conducted studies defining the relationships between neuroendocrine and immune function culminating into the discipline of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). In addition, the discipline of microbial endocrinology has similarly enhanced our understanding of disease processes. With an increase in genetic-based sequencing technologies, the convergence of neuroendocrine-immunological-microbial research is expected to significantly further such knowledge needed for medical discoveries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705455/the-design-of-visitation-facilities-to-engage-patients-with-their-own-cats-and-dogs
#6
Gerardo Pérez-Camargo, Edward T Creagan
There are voluminous data acknowledging the validity of the animal/human bond. Pharmacologic, endocrinologic, immunologic, and psychologic studies have clearly documented the impact of the companion animal on the health and well-being of patients and families, especially in the medical setting. Our paper is, to our knowledge, the first study outlining the mechanics, engineering concepts, and background of providing the appropriate facility to connect the hospitalized patient with their companion animal. We have summarized the peer-reviewed research in this critical area...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670181/regulation-of-masculinization-androgen-signalling-for-external-genitalia-development
#7
REVIEW
Shoko Matsushita, Kentaro Suzuki, Aki Murashima, Daiki Kajioka, Alvin Resultay Acebedo, Shinichi Miyagawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Yukiko Ogino, Gen Yamada
The biology of masculinization is fundamentally important for understanding the embryonic developmental processes that are involved in the development of the male reproductive tract, external genitalia, and also the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer. The molecular mechanisms of masculinization are of interest to many researchers and clinicians involved in varied fields, including molecular developmental biology, cancer research, endocrinology, and urology. Androgen signalling is mediated by the nuclear androgen receptor, which has fundamental roles in masculinization during development...
April 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661784/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-a-sense-of-time-of-the-glucocorticoid-circadian-clock-from-the-ontogeny-to-the-diagnosis-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#8
Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir Roberto R Antonini, Margaret De Castro
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids has long been recognised within the last 75 years. Since the beginning, researchers have sought to identify basic mechanisms underlying the origin and emergence of the corticosteroid circadian rhythmicity among mammals. Accordingly, Young, Hall and Rosbash, laureates of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as well as Takahashi's group among others, have characterised the molecular cogwheels of the circadian system, describing interlocking transcription/translation feedback loops essential for normal circadian rhythms...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625993/an-observational-study-of-the-association-of-video-versus-text-based-informed-consent-with-multicenter-trial-enrollment-lessons-from-the-palm-study-patient-and-provider-assessment-of-lipid-management
#9
Alexander C Fanaroff, Shuang Li, Laura E Webb, Vincent Miller, Ann Marie Navar, Eric D Peterson, Tracy Y Wang
BACKGROUND: Patient participation in clinical research is low, in part because of the length and complexity of the informed consent process. Video informed consent may enhance the appeal of research and help break down barriers to participation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PALM study (Patient and Provider Assessment of Lipid Management) enrolled 7904 patients at cardiology, endocrinology, and primary care clinics across the United States to evaluate cholesterol management practices...
April 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624102/exogenous-testosterone-does-not-induce-or-exacerbate-the-metabolic-features-associated-with-pcos-among-transgender-men
#10
Kelly J Chan, Jennifer J Liang, Divya Jolly, Jamie D Weinand, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition which can include menstrual irregularity, metabolic derangement, and increased androgen levels. The mechanism of PCOS is unknown. Some suggest that excess production of androgens by the ovaries may cause or exacerbate the metabolic findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased testosterone on metabolic parameters on individuals presumed to be chromosomally female by examination of these parameters in hormone-treated transgender men...
April 6, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593792/gh-igf-1-and-age-are-important-contributors-to-thyroid-abnormalities-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#11
Xia Wu, Lu Gao, Xiaopeng Guo, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Lian, Wei Liu, Jian Sun, Bing Xing
Purpose: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and possible mechanisms of structural and endocrinological changes to the thyroid in acromegaly. Methods: We studied 93 acromegalic patients from PUMCH between January 2013 and December 2013. The demographic and clinical information were recorded. Specimens of pituitary adenomas and thyroid cancer were collected for BRAF mutation assessments. Results: Thyroid morphological abnormalities were found in 72 (77...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563068/pediatric-endocrine-and-metabolic-diseases-and-proteomics
#12
Ioanna Kosteria, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, George P Chrousos, George Th Tsangaris
The principles of Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM) dictate the need to recognize individual susceptibility to disease in a timely fashion and to offer targeted preventive interventions and treatments. Proteomics is a state-of-the art technology- driven science aiming at expanding our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie disease, but also at identifying accurate predictive, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers, that will eventually promote the implementation of PPPM...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561193/estrogen-levels-do-not-rise-with-testosterone-treatment-for-transgender-men
#13
Kelly J Chan, Divya Jolly, Jennifer J Liang, Jamie D Weinand, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVE: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transmasculine treatment, there is a possible need for estrogen-lowering strategies adjunct to testosterone therapy. Further, guidelines advocate consideration of prophylactic female reproductive tissue surgeries for transgender men to avoid the possibility of estrogen-related health risks. Despite the paucity of objective data, some transgender men seek conversion inhibitors. We sought to determine estradiol levels in transgender men treated with testosterone therapy and the change in those levels with treatment, if any...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555118/estradiol-and-reproduction-in-the-south-american-toad-rhinella-arenarum-amphibian-anura
#14
REVIEW
María Florencia Scaia, María Clara Volonteri, Silvia Cristina Czuchlej, Nora Raquel Ceballos
Rhinella arenarum is a South American toad with wide geographic distribution. Testes of this toad produce high amount of androgens during the non reproductive season and shift steroid synthesis from androgens to 5α-pregnanedione during the breeding. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2 ) in males of this species shows seasonal variations but, since testes of R. arenarum do not express aromatase, the source of plasma E2 remained unknown for several years. However, the Bidder's organ (BO), a structure located at one pole of each testis, is proposed to be the main source of E2 in male's toads since it expresses several steroidogenic enzymes and is able to produce E2 from endogenous substrates throughout the year...
March 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550113/symposium-review-microbial-endocrinology-why-the-integration-of-microbes-epithelial-cells-and-neurochemical-signals-in-the-digestive-tract-matters-to-ruminant-health
#15
Mark Lyte, Daniel N Villageliú, Brian A Crooker, David R Brown
The union of microbiology and neurobiology, which has been termed microbial endocrinology, is defined as the study of the ability of microorganisms to produce and respond to neurochemicals that originate either within the microorganisms themselves or within the host they inhabit. It serves as the basis for an evolutionarily derived method of communication between a host and its microbiota. Mechanisms elucidated by microbial endocrinology give new insight into the ways the microbiota can affect host stress, metabolic efficiency, resistance to disease, and other factors that may prove relevant to the dairy industry...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535946/application-of-chromosomal-microarray-for-evaluation-of-idiopathic-short-stature-in-asian-indian-children-a-pilot-study
#16
Hema Singh, Pradeep Tiwari, Vijay Bhavi, Praveen Singh Chaudhary, Prashanth Suravajhala, M Krishna Mohan, Sandeep Kumar Mathur
Background: Human height is a classic polygenic trait and currently available data explains only 10% of the phenotypic variation in height. Almost 60%-80% of the children coming to pediatric and endocrinology outpatient department for the evaluation of short stature are still labeled as idiopathic. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify various chromosomal alterations causing idiopathic short stature (ISS) and short stature with dysmorphic features not pertaining to known genetic syndromes...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494975/variation-in-personality-traits-across-a-metal-pollution-gradient-in-a-free-living-songbird
#17
Andrea S Grunst, Melissa L Grunst, Bert Thys, Thomas Raap, Natasha Daem, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Anthropogenic contaminants could alter traits central to animal behavioral types, or personalities, including aggressiveness, boldness and activity level. Lead and other toxic metals are persistent inorganic pollutants that affect organisms worldwide. Metal exposure can alter behavior by affecting neurology, endocrinology, and health. However, the direction and magnitude of the behavioral effects of metal exposure remain equivocal. Moreover, the degree to which metal exposure simultaneously affects suites of correlated behavioral traits (behavioral syndromes) that are controlled by common mechanisms remains unclear, with most studies focusing on single behaviors...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494890/outcome-of-diabetes-insipidus-in-patients-with-rathke-s-cleft-cysts
#18
Masahiro Oishi, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Yasuo Sasagawa, Daisuke Kita, Osamu Tachibana, Mitsutoshi Nakada
OBJECTIVES: It is well-known that Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) infrequently cause headache, endocrinological dysfunction, and visual disturbance, and in rare cases, cause diabetes insipidus (DI). Although surgical evacuation of the cyst content can result in high rates of symptomatic improvement, not only the treatment efficacy but also the pathophysiology of DI with RCC are undetermined. The aim of this study is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and outcomes of DI associated with RCCs...
April 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459441/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-lessons-from-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-disrupted-mice-are-there-benefits-of-endocrine-defects
#19
REVIEW
Reetobrata Basu, Yanrong Qian, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) is produced primarily by anterior pituitary somatotroph cells. Numerous acute human (h) GH treatment and long-term follow-up studies and extensive use of animal models of GH action have shaped the body of GH research over the past 70 years. Work on the GH receptor (R)-knockout (GHRKO) mice and results of studies on GH-resistant Laron Syndrome (LS) patients have helped define many physiological actions of GH including those dealing with metabolism, obesity, cancer, diabetes, cognition and aging/longevity...
May 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440374/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-pathophysiology-and-potential-metabolic-interventions-state-of-the-art-review
#20
REVIEW
Eylem Levelt, Gaurav Gulsin, Stefan Neubauer, Gerry P McCann
Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including disease-specific myocardial structural, functional and metabolic changes. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of state of the art non-invasive technologies to our understanding of diabetic cardiomyopathy, including data on cardiac disease phenotype, cardiac energy metabolism and energetic deficiency, ectopic and visceral adiposity, diabetic liver disease, metabolic modulation strategies and cardiovascular outcomes with new classes of glucose-lowering therapies...
April 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
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