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mechanisms in endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138801/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-influences-the-erk-pathway-and-protects-against-neurological-deficits-and-neuronal-death
#1
Jie Yuan, Xin Guo, Zhengang Liu, Xiuqin Zhao, Yan Feng, Sixin Song, Changmeng Cui, Pei Jiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that global cerebral ischemia (GCI) causes neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Calcitriol, a biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its endocrinological influence via nuclear vitamin D receptor. It is being assessed as an emerging therapeutic strategy in models of various medical conditions, including acute brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of calcitriol on GCI and further refine the potential underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120925/noonan-syndrome-an-update-on-growth-and-development
#2
Armelle Yart, Thomas Edouard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent developments on Noonan syndrome with a special focus on endocrinology, bone, and metabolism aspects. The key issues still to be resolved and the future therapeutic perspectives will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The discovery of the molecular genetic causes of Noonan syndrome and Noonan-syndrome-related disorders has permitted us to better understand the mechanisms underlying the different symptoms of these diseases and to establish genotype-phenotype correlations (in growth patterns for example)...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051074/pairing-ultrasonography-with-endocrinology-to-elucidate-underlying-mechanisms-of-successful-pregnancy-in-the-northern-fur-seal-callorhinus-ursinus
#3
Michelle R Shero, Don R Bergfelt, J Ward Testa, Gregg P Adams
Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042391/korean-obesity-surgical-treatment-study-kobess-protocol-of-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-on-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#4
Young Suk Park, Do Joong Park, Joo Ho Lee, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Tae Kyung Ha, Yong-Jin Kim, Seung-Wan Ryu, Sang-Moon Han, Moon-Won Yoo, Sungsoo Park, Sang-Uk Han, Yoonseok Heo
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery effectively induces long-term weight loss in Western populations. However, its effectiveness in Asians remains to be confirmed objectively. The Korean Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery proposes the first prospective cohort study on Koreans undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Korean OBEsity Surgical treatment Study (KOBESS) is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, observational, cohort study on morbidly obese patients who undergo primary sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in Korea...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035404/-biological-significance-of-chromium-iii-for-the-human-organism
#5
REVIEW
Anna Piotrowska, Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Gabriel Nowak
Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III...
October 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#6
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982961/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-maternal-thyroid-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-and-behavioural-and-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Dagnachew Muluye Fetene, Kim S Betts, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy may lead to persistent neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring appearing in later life. This study aimed to review the available evidence concerning the relationship between maternal thyroid status during pregnancy and offspring behavioural and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Systematic electronic database searches were conducted using PubMed, Embase, PsycNET, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library...
November 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928975/a-unique-association-of-noonan-syndrome-and-47-xyy-syndrome-in-a-male-presenting-with-failure-to-thrive
#8
Edward J Bellfield, Zohra Shad
We describe a 24-month-old male patient who presented to our Genetics-Endocrinology Clinic with a history of failure to thrive, short stature and cryptorchidism. Soon after birth he was diagnosed with 47,XYY syndrome, but due unusual facial features had further diagnostic workup which revealed Noonan syndrome (NS) as well. This report illustrates significant phenotypic-cytogenetic variability within the clinical presentation of NS and 47,XYY syndrome, as well as the need to investigate patients for other genetic defects when phenotype does not correlate with genotype...
September 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924486/expression-of-transcription-factors-in-men1-associated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#9
Yasutaka Takeda, Yukihiro Fujita, Kentaro Sakai, Tomoe Abe, Tomonobu Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Yanagimachi, Hidemitsu Sakagami, Jun Honjo, Atsuko Abiko, Yuichi Makino, Masakazu Haneda
MEN1-associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) may potentially express distinct hormones, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. Transcription factors such as MafA and Pdx1 have been identified to lead to beta cell differentiation, while Arx and Brn4 to alpha cell differentiation in developing pancreas. We hypothesized those transcription factors are important to produce specific hormones in pNETs, similarly to developing pancreas, and examined the expression of transcription factors in a case of MEN1 who showed immunohistological coexistence of several hormone-producing pNETs including insulinoma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904008/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-clinical-and-pharmacogenetic-aspects-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-polymorphism
#10
REVIEW
Cesar L Boguszewski, Edna J L Barbosa, Per-Arne Svensson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Camilla A M Glad
Pharmacogenetics aims to maximize the beneficial effects of a medical therapy by identifying genetic finger prints from responders and non-responders and, thereby improving safety and efficacy profile of the drug. Most subjects who are deficient in growth hormone (GHD) are candidates for recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy. To date, it is well established that even after adjustments for several clinical variables, such as age, gender, body composition and the age at onset of the GHD, response to rhGH treatment is highly variable among individuals, part of which is believed to be due to genetic factors within the GH system...
December 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898878/development-of-laboratory-investigations-in-disorders-of-sex-development
#11
Laura Audí, Núria Camats, Mónica Fernández-Cancio, María L Granada
Scientific knowledge to understand the biological basis of sex development was prompted by the observation of variants different from the 2 most frequent body types, and this became one of the fields first studied by modern pediatric endocrinology. The clinical observation was supported by professionals working in different areas of laboratory sciences which led to the description of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, the enzymes involved, and the different deficiencies. Steroid hormone measurements evolved from colorimetry to radioimmunoassay (RIA) and automated immunoassays, although gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are now the gold standard techniques for steroid measurements...
September 13, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884050/ready-aim-fire-targeting-the-right-medical-science-journal
#12
Timothy C Hardman, James M Serginson
OBJECTIVE: Inadvertently submitting a paper to a journal that is unlikely to publish it is a waste of resources and ultimately delays dissemination of one's research. A high proportion of manuscripts are rejected by their author's first-choice journal. The aim of the present work was to review guidance provided within the literature for journal selection that might minimize the chance of manuscript rejection. We also consider papers that encompass more than one main medical science and describe the selection process that we used with a paper that was published in Cardiovascular Endocrinology...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873390/gastrointestinal-hormones-induced-the-birth-of-endocrinology
#13
Martin Wabitsch
The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873381/the-changing-concept-of-gut-endocrinology
#14
Jens F Rehfeld
Gastrointestinal hormones are released from enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are expressed, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body. At present, it is feasible to conceive the hormones under 5 headings: the structural homology groups most hormones into 9 families, each of which is assumed to originate from a single gene. Today's hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated maturation of the prohormone...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864535/cardiovascular-manifestations-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Jessica Pepe, Cristiana Cipriani, Chiara Sonato, Orlando Raimo, Federica Biamonte, Salvatore Minisola
Data on cardiovascular disease in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are controversial; indeed, at present, cardiovascular involvement is not included among the criteria needed for parathyroidectomy. Aim of this narrative review is to analyze the available literature in an effort to better characterize cardiovascular involvement in PHPT. Due to physiological effects of both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium on cardiomyocyte, cardiac conduction system, smooth vascular, endothelial and pancreatic beta cells, a number of data have been published regarding associations between symptomatic and mild PHPT with hypertension, arrhythmias, endothelial dysfunction (an early marker of atherosclerosis), glucose metabolism impairment and metabolic syndrome...
December 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855921/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-and-its-implications-for-paediatric-endocrinology
#16
REVIEW
Huseyin Demirbilek, Sofia A Rahman, Gonul Gulal Buyukyilmaz, Khalid Hussain
Glucose homeostasis requires appropriate and synchronous coordination of metabolic events and hormonal activities to keep plasma glucose concentrations in a narrow range of 3.5-5.5 mmol/L. Insulin, the only glucose lowering hormone secreted from pancreatic β-cells, plays the key role in glucose homeostasis. Insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is mainly regulated by intracellular ATP-generating metabolic pathways. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH), the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children, is the inappropriate secretion of insulin which occurs despite low plasma glucose levels leading to severe and persistent hypoketotic hypoglycaemia...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854581/unexplained-recurrent-miscarriages-are-associated-with-an-aberrant-sperm-protamine-mrna-content
#17
Nina Rogenhofer, Johannes Ott, Adrian Pilatz, Julia Wolf, Christian J Thaler, Lisa Windischbauer, Undraga Schagdarsurengin, Klaus Steger, Viktoria von Schönfeldt
STUDY QUESTION: Are unexplained recurrent miscarriages associated with abnormal protamine-1 and protamine-2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both protamine-1 and protamine-2 mRNA levels as well as the protamine-1 to protamine-2 mRNA ratio in spermatozoa from men whose female partners experienced two or more consecutive miscarriages were significantly different compared to those from both healthy control men and subfertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Aberrant sperm protamine ratios are known to be associated with male-factor infertility...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780001/endocrinology-meets-metabolomics-achievements-pitfalls-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Janina Tokarz, Mark Haid, Alexander Cecil, Cornelia Prehn, Anna Artati, Gabriele Möller, Jerzy Adamski
The metabolome, although very dynamic, is sufficiently stable to provide specific quantitative traits related to health and disease. Metabolomics requires balanced use of state-of-the-art study design, chemical analytics, biostatistics, and bioinformatics to deliver meaningful answers to contemporary questions in human disease research. The technology is now frequently employed for biomarker discovery and for elucidating the mechanisms underlying endocrine-related diseases. Metabolomics has also enriched genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in this area by providing functional data...
August 2, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757465/mini-encyclopaedia-of-the-wound-healing-opportunities-for-integrating-multi-omic-approaches-into-medical-practice
#19
Lara Stolzenburg-Veeser, Olga Golubnitschaja
Wound healing is a highly complex life-important repair process triggered by plenty of local and/or systemic organ and tissue damaging events, such as an acute surgical invasion, accidental organ and tissue damages, acute and chronic diseases, aggressive local and systemic therapeutic approaches (e.g. irradiation and systemic chemotherapy). Individual health condition determines over the quality of wound healing. Impaired wound healing, in turn, may lead, for example, to post-surgical complications frequently observed in elderly, chronic ulcers in diabetic patients, hindered and ineffective pain management, etc...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756245/understanding-variation-in-migratory-movements-a-mechanistic-approach
#20
REVIEW
Heather E Watts, Jamie M Cornelius, Adam M Fudickar, Jonathan Pérez, Marilyn Ramenofsky
Spatial and temporal fluctuations in resource availability have led to the evolution of varied migration patterns. In order to appropriately time movements in relation to resources, environmental cues are used to provide proximate information for timing and the endocrine system serves to integrate these external cues and behavioral and physiological responses. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms underlying migratory timing have rarely been compared across a broad range of migratory patterns. First, we offer an updated nomenclature of migration using a mechanistic perspective to clarify terminology describing migratory types in relation to ecology, behavior and endocrinology...
July 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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