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mechanisms in endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538228/glycemic-control-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#1
Wilfred Ip, Mark G Kirchhof
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as scaly erythematous plaques as a consequence of keratinocyte hyperproliferation and inflammation. It is commonly associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. While there are numerous approved treatment options available, they have limitations including availability, toxicities such as immunosuppression, and high cost. There is increasing evidence to suggest that several hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones and biguanides, exert beneficial effects in psoriasis...
May 25, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487297/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-towards-the-clinical-translation-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#2
Daniel Espes, Joey Lau Börjesson, Per-Ola Carlsson
Insulin producing cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have for long been a promising, but elusive treatment far from clinical translation into type 1 diabetes therapy. However, the field is now on the verge of moving such insulin-producing cells into clinical trials. Although stem cell therapies provide great opportunities, there are also potential risks such as teratoma formation associated with the treatment. Many considerations are needed on how to proceed with clinical translation, including whether to use hESCs or iPSCs, and whether encapsulation of tissue will be needed...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450305/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-update-on-pathogenesis-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency-beyond-steroid-enzyme-deficiency-and-autoimmune-adrenal-destruction
#3
Christa Flueck
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is potentially life threatening, but rare. In children genetic defects prevail, while adults suffer mostly from acquired forms. The spectrum of genetic defects has increased in recent years with the use of next generation sequencing methods and reaches now far beyond genetic defects in known enzymes of steroidogenesis. Cofactor disorders such as P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency manifesting as a complex form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with a broad clinical phenotype have come to the forth...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428227/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-the-multiple-facets-of-gh-lessons-from-lifetime-untreated-isolated-gh-deficiency-due-to-ghrh-receptor-mutation
#4
Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira, Anita Ho Souza, Carla R Oliveira, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Roberto Salvatori
Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. The most striking physical findings of these IGHD individuals are the proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voice, and visceral obesity with reduced fat free mass...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426724/cloning-retinoid-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-nuclear-receptors-of-the-pacific-oyster-and-in-silico-binding-to-environmental-chemicals
#5
Susanne Vogeler, Tamara S Galloway, Michail Isupov, Tim P Bean
Disruption of nuclear receptors, a transcription factor superfamily regulating gene expression in animals, is one proposed mechanism through which pollution causes effects in aquatic invertebrates. Environmental pollutants have the ability to interfere with the receptor's functions through direct binding and inducing incorrect signals. Limited knowledge of invertebrate endocrinology and molecular regulatory mechanisms, however, impede the understanding of endocrine disruptive effects in many aquatic invertebrate species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403787/role-of-tissue-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-chymase-angiotensin-1-12-axis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Abdullah S Alhomida, Carlos M Ferrario, Sarfaraz Ahmad
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major diabetes complication and the leading cause for vision loss and blindness in the adult human population. Diabetes, being an endocrinological disorder dysregulate a number of hormonal systems including the renin angiotensin system (RAS), which thereby may damage both vascular and neuronal cells in the retina. Angiotensin II (Ang II), an active component of the RAS is increased in diabetic retina, and may play a significant role in neurovascular damage leading to the progression of DR...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381451/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-genetic-regulation-of-bone-formation-from-monogenic-to-complex-bone-disorders
#7
Eveline Boudin, Wim Van Hul
Throughout life, bone is continuously remodelled to be able to fulfil its multiple functions. The importance of strictly regulating the bone remodelling process, which is defined by the sequential actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, is shown by a variety of disorders with abnormalities in bone mass and strength. The best known and most common example of such a disorder is osteoporosis which is marked by a decreased bone mass and strength that consequently results in an increased fracture risk. As osteoporosis is a serious health problem, a large amount of studies focusses on elucidating the aetiology of the disease as well as on the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteoporotic patients...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377377/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-children-born-to-mothers-with-thyroid-dysfunction-evidence-of-fetal-programming
#8
Stine Linding Andersen, Allan Carle, Jesper Scot Karmisholt, Inge Bülow Pedersen, Stig Andersen
Fetal programming is a long-standing, but still evolving, concept that links exposures during pregnancy to the later development of disease in the offspring. A fetal programming effect has been considered within different endocrine axes and in relation to different maternal endocrine diseases. In this critical review, we describe and discuss the hypothesis of fetal programming by maternal thyroid dysfunction in the context of fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Thyroid hormones are important regulators of early brain development, and evidence from experimental and observational human studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in the brain caused by lack or excess of thyroid hormone during fetal brain development...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272006/solitary-metastasis-of-clear-renal-cell-carcinoma-to-thyroid-gland-three-reported-cases-with-review-of-the-literature
#9
Jaromir Astl, Abdulrahman Ali Bahannan, Jaroslava Dušková, Z Novák, P Vlcek, Jan Betka
Metastasis to the head and neck and more specifically to the thyroid gland from distant primary tumors is less common in comparison to the local regional metastasis of squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract. Preoperative diagnosis of these cases can be difficult. The authors present three cases with distant solitary metastases of clear renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland with ambiguous mechanism of tumor spread to the thyroid. Solitary metastases of clear renal cell carcinomas are an uncommon variant of metastasis of this tumor and may imitate thyroid well differentiated carcinoma which most commonly affects the thyroid gland...
January 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264815/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-aging-and-anti-aging-a-combo-endocrinology-overview
#10
REVIEW
Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Maurizio Dattilo, Djuro Macut, Leonidas Duntas, Efstathios S Gonos, Dimitrios G Goulis, Christina Kanaka Gantenbein, Marianna Kapetanou, Eftychia Koukkou, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Marina Michalaki, Shahla Eftekhari-Nader, Renato Pasquali, Melpomeni Peppa, Marinella Tzanela, Evangeline Vassilatou, Andromachi Vryonidou
Aging and its underlying pathophysiological background has always attracted the attention of the scientific society. Defined as the gradual, time-dependent, heterogeneous decline of physiological functions, aging is orchestrated by a plethora of molecular mechanisms, which vividly interact to alter body homeostasis. The ability of an organism to adjust to these alterations, in conjunction with the dynamic effect of various environmental stimuli across lifespan, promotes longevity, frailty or disease. Endocrine function undergoes major changes during aging, as well...
June 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246151/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-endocannabinoids-and-metabolism-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Vincent Simon, Daniela Cota
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), including cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R), endogenous ligands called endocannabinoids and their related enzymatic machinery, is known to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. Past information generated on the ECS, mainly focused on the involvement of this system in the central nervous system regulation of food intake, while at the same time clinical studies pointed out the therapeutic efficacy of brain penetrant CB1R antagonists like rimonabant for obesity and metabolic disorders...
June 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246045/characterisation-of-the-transcriptome-of-male-and-female-wild-type-guppy-brains-with-rna-seq-and-consequences-of-exposure-to-the-pharmaceutical-pollutant-17%C3%AE-ethinyl-estradiol
#12
Minna Saaristo, Bob B M Wong, Laura Mincarelli, Allison Craig, Christopher P Johnstone, Mayumi Allinson, Kai Lindström, John A Craft
Waterways are increasingly being contaminated by chemical compounds that can disrupt the endocrinology of organisms. One such compound is 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in the contraceptive pill. Despite considerable research interest in the effects of EE2 on reproduction and gene expression, surprisingly, only a few studies have capitalised on technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), to uncover the molecular pathways related to EE2 exposure. Accordingly, using high-throughput sequencing technologies, the aim of our study was to explore the effects of EE2 on brain transcriptome in wild-type male and female guppy (Poecilia reticulata)...
February 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239427/food-components-and-contaminants-as-anti-androgenic-molecules
#13
REVIEW
Daniele Marcoccia, Marco Pellegrini, Marco Fiocchetti, Stefano Lorenzetti, Maria Marino
Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual differentiation during development, sperm production beginning from puberty, and maintenance of prostate homeostasis. Several substances present in the environment, now classified as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), strongly interfere with androgen actions in reproductive and non-reproductive tissues...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229106/neonatal-corticosterone-administration-in-rodents-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-maternal-programming-of-emotional-and-immune-domains
#14
Simone Macrì
Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220105/acth-receptor-mc2r-specificity-what-do-we-know-about-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Davids Fridmanis, Ance Roga, Janis Klovins
Coincidentally, the release of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Endocrinology takes place 25 years after the discovery of the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) by Mountjoy and colleagues. In subsequent years, following the discovery of other types of mammalian melanocortin receptors (MCRs), ACTHR also became known as melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). At present, five types of MCRs have been reported, all of which share significant sequence similarity at the amino acid level, and all of which specifically bind melanocortins (MCs)-a group of biologically active peptides generated by proteolysis of the proopiomelanocortin precursor...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217718/pediatric-perioperative-stress-responses-and-anesthesia
#16
Koichi Yuki, Erika Matsunami, Kazumasa Tazawa, Wei Wang, James A DiNardo, Sophia Koutsogiannaki
Surgical stress responses cause an array of endocrinological, metabolic and immunological changes in patients. The landmark studies in the 1980s showed that adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcomes of pediatric surgical patients by attenuating stress hormonal responses, pointing out the harm of 'inadequate' anesthesia. Subsequent studies questioned the role of administering very high-dose anesthetics to further attenuate stress responses. Here we review the feature of surgical stress responses in pediatric patients including their difference from those in adult patients...
2017: Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195061/overview-of-the-preclinical-pharmacological-properties-of-nigella-sativa-black-seeds-a-complementary-drug-with-historical-and-clinical-significance
#17
E Z Dajani, T G Shahwan, N E Dajani
Nigella sativa (N. sativa, black seeds; or sometimes known by many other names such as the blessed seed by the Arabs, black cumin in the Holy Bible, black caraway and Kalonji in South Asia) has been traditionally used for many years not only as a food but also as complementary drug. It is the objective of this communication to review the evidence-based pre-clinical pharmacological actions of N. sativa as a basis of its existing and potential new human clinical uses. Primary PubMed literature searches and secondary Medline searches were conducted to define N...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163695/acth-action-on-messenger-rna-stability-mechanisms
#18
Agnès Desroches-Castan, Jean-Jacques Feige, Nadia Cherradi
The regulation of mRNA stability has emerged as a critical control step in dynamic gene expression. This process occurs in response to modifications of the cellular environment, including hormonal variations, and regulates the expression of subsets of proteins whose levels need to be rapidly adjusted. Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3'-untranslated region regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153489/androgens-in-women-are-essentially-made-from-dhea-in-each-peripheral-tissue-according-to-intracrinology
#19
REVIEW
Fernand Labrie, Céline Martel, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier
The objective is to review how the cell-specific amounts of intracellular androgens are all made in women from circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in each peripheral tissue, independently from the rest of the body. Following 500 million years of evolution, approximately three dozen cell-specific intracrine enzymes have been engineered in human peripheral tissues whereby the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA mainly of adrenal origin is transformed into the appropriate minute intracellular amounts of androgens...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109053/frogs-model-man-in-vivo-thyroid-hormone-signaling-during-development
#20
REVIEW
Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in vivo mechanisms of TH signaling...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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