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mechanisms in endocrinology

Peter A Bos
Variation in the quality of parental care has a tremendous impact on a child's social-emotional development. Research investigating the predictors of this variability in human caregiving behavior has mostly focused on learning mechanisms. Evidence is currently accumulating for the complementary underlying role of steroid hormones and neuropeptides. An overview is provided of the hormones and neuropeptides relevant for human caregiving behavior. Then the developmental factors are described that stimulate variability in sensitivity to these hormones and neuropeptides, which may result in variability in the behavioral repertoire of caregiving...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
Nataly E Gruntenko, Natalya V Adonyeva, Elena V Burdina, Evgenia K Karpova, Olga V Andreenkova, Daniil V Gladkikh, Yury Y Ilinsky, Inga Yu Rauschenbach
The Forkhead BoxO transcription factor (FOXO) is a component of the insulin signalling pathway and plays a role in responding to adverse conditions, such as oxidative stress and starvation. In stressful conditions, FOXO moves from the cytosol to the nucleus where it activates gene expression programmes. Here, we show that FOXO in Drosophila melanogaster responds to heat stress as it does to other stressors. The catecholamine signalling pathway is another component of the stress response. In Drosophila, dopamine and octopamine levels rise steeply under heat, nutrition and mechanical stresses, which is followed by a decrease in the activity of synthesis enzymes...
October 17, 2016: Biology Open
Michaël R Laurent, Geoffrey L Hammond, Marco Blokland, Ferran Jardí, Leen Antonio, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Saskia S Sterk, Evelien Gielen, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Tom Fiers, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ivan Šterzl, Karolína Absolonová, Petr Matucha
Historically endocrinologists and psychiatrists are aware that disturbances in thyroid disease in beginning or even in clinically intensified states of thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism exhibit pathological mental manifestations, masking or potentiating the underlying disease. Immune system disorders cause thyroid organ-specific autoimmune process. This autoimmune thyroid disease binds with a number of disorders in both endocrine or non-endocrine organs. This appears in vascular, neurological, skin, connective tissue, gastrointestinal tract and mental pathology...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
K C Koenen, J A Sumner, P Gilsanz, M M Glymour, A Ratanatharathorn, E B Rimm, A L Roberts, A Winning, L D Kubzansky
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been declared 'a life sentence' based on evidence that the disorder leads to a host of physical health problems. Some of the strongest empirical research - in terms of methodology and findings - has shown that PTSD predicts higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite mounting evidence, PTSD is not currently acknowledged as a risk factor by cardiovascular or endocrinological medicine. This view is unlikely to change absent compelling evidence that PTSD causally contributes to cardiometabolic disease...
October 4, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Richard J Santen, Anju Joham, Lauren Fishbein, Kristen R Vella, Peter R Ebeling, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Helena Teede
CONTEXT: Challenges and opportunities face the next generation (Next-Gen) of endocrine researchers and clinicians, the lifeblood of the field of endocrinology for the future. A symposium jointly sponsored by the Endocrine Society and the Endocrine Society of Australia was convened to discuss approaches to addressing present and future Next-Gen needs. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Data collection by literature review, assessment of previously completed questionnaires, commissioning of a new questionnaire, and summarization of symposium discussions...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Olga Papalou, Eleni Kandaraki, Georgia Kassi
Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Marcel D Waldinger
For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Emil Martinka, Mariana Rončáková, Michaela Mišániková, Arash Davani
BACKGROUND: It is not always easy to classify diabetes (DM) diagnosed in adults, with a significant group of patients initially classified and treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2T) presenting signs indicating the presence of autoimmune insulitis (AI), which is characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1T), or latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA). GOAL: Identify the proportion of patients entered with DM2T who present AI signs, and the number of patients of that proportion, who at the same time present low insulin secretion, and what clinical and laboratory manifestations could be used to differentiate between these patients...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
T Pamminger, A Buttstedt, V Norman, A Schierhorn, C Botías, J C Jones, K Basley, W O H Hughes
Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Hugo H Ortega, Pablo U Diaz, Natalia R Salvetti, Gustavo J Hein, Belkis E Marelli, Fernanda M Rodríguez, Antonela Stassi, Florencia Rey
Ovarian cystic follicles are the sign of important causes of reproductive failure in numerous species. In this review, some morphological, endocrinological and clinical aspects of cystic follicles in women, cows, mares, sows and bitches are discussed. Follicular cysts are the consequence of the failure of a mature follicle to ovulate at the appointed time of ovulation in the estrous cycle. Although the etiology of follicular cysts remains unknown, this review examines the evidence about the role of endocrine signaling systems in the specific disease or syndrome in each of the species mentioned above...
August 4, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chiara Verdelli, Sabrina Corbetta
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrine disease. Kidney is a target of both chronic elevated PTH and calcium in PHPT. The classic PHPT complications of symptomatic kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis have become rare and the PHPT current presentation is asymptomatic with uncertain and long lasting progression. Nonetheless, the routinely use of imaging and of biochemical determinations have revealed the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic kidney stones, hypercalciuria and reduced kidney function in asymptomatic PHPT patients...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
James P Higham
In the past few decades, research on nonhuman primate endocrinology has moved from the lab to the field, leading to a huge increase in both the breadth and depth of primate field studies. Here, I discuss the past, present, and future of primate field endocrinology. I review the history of the field, and go on to discuss methodological developments and the issues that they sometimes entail. Next, I consider ways in which we might conceptualize the role of hormones, and focus on the need to distinguish proximate from ultimate levels of explanation...
August 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Hwa-Young Lee, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Sun-Young Park, Han-Jung Chae, Jong-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: In bone metabolism, Ca(2+) disturbance and oxidative damage are the main biochemical factors related to pathology. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that also control bone endocrinology. Endocrine hormones and proteins are matured, folded, and secreted in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress has emerged as a new pathological mechanism to explain bone disturbance. Here we studied the role of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPHs) in the regulation of ER stress. METHODS: Cell viability was determined in vitro using trypan blue dye exclusion...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Iacopo Chiodini, Cristina Eller-Vainicher, Valentina Morelli, Serena Palmieri, Elisa Cairoli, Antonio Stefano Salcuni, Massimiliano Copetti, Alfredo Scillitani
In the recent years the condition of subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) has become a topic of growing interest. This is due to the fact that the SH prevalence is not negligible (0.8%-2% in the general population) and that, although asymptomatic, this subtle cortisol excess is not harmless, being associated with an increased risk of complications, in particular of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Since in SH the specific symptoms of hypercortisolism are absent, the SH diagnosis relies only on biochemical tests and it is a challenge for physicians...
July 13, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Mikael Mokkonen, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes, Suzanne C Mills
Conflict between mates, as well as conflict between parents and offspring are due to divergent evolutionary interests of the interacting individuals. Hormone systems provide genetically based proximate mechanisms for mediating phenotypic adaptation and maladaptation characteristic of evolutionary conflict between individuals. Testosterone (T) is among the most commonly studied hormones in evolutionary biology, and as such, its role in shaping sexually dimorphic behaviors and physiology is relatively well understood, but its role in evolutionary conflict is not as clear...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Melvin Khee-Shing Leow
The existence of a phase of prolonged suppression of TSH despite normalization of serum thyroid hormones over a variable period of time during the recovery of thyrotoxicosis has been documented in literature. Conversely, a temporary elevation of TSH despite attainment of euthyroid levels of serum thyroid hormones following extreme hypothyroidism has also been observed. This rate-independent lag time in TSH recovery is an evidence of a "persistent memory" of the history of dysthyroid states the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis has encountered after the thyroid hormone perturbations have faded out, a phenomenon termed "hysteresis...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Suheyla Gorar, Bulent Alioglu, Esranur Ademoglu, Seyit Uyar, Handan Bekdemir, Zehra Candan, Beylan Saglam, Gonul Koc, Cavit Culha, Yalcin Aral
CONTEXT: Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the coagulation system, dynamics involved at a pathophysiological level and the exact mechanism remain unclear. AIMS: To evaluate the association between diabetes-related parameters and hemostatic factors to search for a tendency of thrombosis in GDM. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Nineteen pregnant women who had GDM, 16 healthy pregnant and 13 healthy nonpregnant controls admitted to the Endocrinology outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study...
July 2016: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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