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diabetes cortisol

Roberta Lupoli, Pasquale Ambrosino, Anna Tortora, Livia Barba, Gelsy Arianna Lupoli, Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in Cushing's syndrome (CS). We performed a meta-analysis on the impact of CS on major markers of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Studies on intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaques prevalence and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in CS patients and controls were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and EMBASE. Differences between cases and controls were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for continuous variables, and as Odds Ratio (OR) with 95%CI for dichotomous variables...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Xiaojing Wang, Fan Ping, Cuijuan Qi, Xinhua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. METHODS: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years' history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
V Morelli, A Scillitani, M Arosio, I Chiodini
Recently, the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) published new guidelines on the management of adrenal incidentalomas. At the same time Lopez and coworkers published on the Annals of Internal Medicine an important study showing that even patients with non-functioning adrenal tumors have an increased risk of incident diabetes. In consideration of previous data and of the results of the study of Lopez and coworkers, some points emerge from the ESE Guidelines that deserve attention. Firstly, it must be observed that the term "autonomous cortisol secretion," introduced by the ESE Panel in the place of the commonly used "subclinical hypercortisolism," seems questionable, since the guidelines do not suggest determining the adrenocorticotroph hormone levels that could give the certain proof of a truly autonomous cortisol secretion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Henrike Knacke, Maik Pietzner, Kieu Trinh Do, Werner Römisch-Margl, Gabi Kastenmüller, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Jan Krumsiek, Anna Artati, Henri Wallaschofski, Matthias Nauck, Karsten Suhre, Jerzy Adamski, Nele Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) is known for its various physiological and severe pathophysiological effects on human metabolism, however underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unsolved. To reveal possible molecular mechanisms mediating these effects, for the first time we associated serum IGF-I levels with multi-fluid untargeted metabolomics data. METHODS: Plasma/urine samples of 995 non-diabetic participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were characterized by mass spectrometry...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gassan Darwiche, Peter Höglund, Bodil Roth, Ewa Larsson, Trygve Sjöberg, Björn Wohlfart, Stig Steen, Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis was that a modified diet would improve blood glucose control with beneficial impact on weight management and overall health in established diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This prospective interventional study investigated the clinical effect of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet on anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients. DESIGN: Food was prepared and delivered to 30 type 2 diabetes patients...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
David Krahulik, Darina Aleksijevic, Vratislav Smolka, Eva Klaskova, Petra Venhacova, Miroslav Vaverka, Vladimir Mihal, Jirina Zapletalova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies of TBI have found a neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in 23 to 60% of adults and 15 to 21% of children. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction in children following brain injury, assess its relationship to the type of injury and the course of the acute post-traumatic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Body development (growth, pubertal development, and skeletal maturity) were evaluated in 58 patients (21 girls) after a brain injury rated 3 to 12 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
September 19, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Meryem Kurek Eken, Abdülhamit Tüten, Enis Özkaya, Güner Karatekin, Ateş Karateke
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of outcome in terms of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival of neonates from women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). METHODS: A population-based retrospective study including three hundred thirty-one singleton pregnant women with PPROM at 24-34 gestational weeks between January 2013 and December 2015 was conducted. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, newborn gender, maternal age,oligohydramnios, premature retinopathy (ROP), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, fetal growth retardation (FGR), intracranial hemorrhagia (ICH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), congenital cardiac disease (CCD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), use of cortisol (betamethasone) and maternal complications including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and chorioamnionitis were used to predict neonatal outcomes in terms of length of stay in the NICU and survival...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
John Porter, Joanne Blair, Richard J Ross
Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm with low concentrations at night, rising in the early hours of the morning, peaking on waking and declining over the day to low concentrations in the evening. Loss of this circadian rhythm, as seen in jetlag and shift work, is associated with fatigue in the short term and diabetes and obesity in the medium to long term. Patients with adrenal insufficiency on current glucocorticoid replacement with hydrocortisone have unphysiological cortisol concentrations being low on waking and high after each dose of hydrocortisone...
August 31, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Julie Ann Wagner, Angela Bermudez-Millan, Grace Damio, Sofia Segura-Perez, Jyoti Chhabra, Cunegundo Vergara, Richard Feinn, Rafael Perez-Escamilla
AIMS: To test the efficacy of a community health worker (CHW) delivered stress management (SM) intervention on psychosocial, glycemic, and cortisol outcomes among U.S. Latinos with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial compared CHW-delivered diabetes education (DE; one group session) to DE plus CHW-delivered SM (DE+SM; 8 group sessions). Psychosocial variables and urinary cortisol were measured at baseline and posttreatment. HbA1c was measured at baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up...
October 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Masafumi Kurajoh, Manabu Kadoya, Akiko Morimoto, Mariko Naka, Akio Miyoshi, Akinori Kanzaki, Miki Kakutani-Hatayama, Kae Hamamoto, Takuhito Shoji, Yuji Moriwaki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Masaaki Inaba, Mitsuyoshi Namba, Hidenori Koyama
Fatigue induced by complex dysfunctions of the central nervous system is frequently complained by patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Although leptin is considered to regulate the central nervous system, there are no reports regarding its association with fatigue in those patients. This cross-sectional study included 347 patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Fatigue score and plasma leptin concentration were measured. In addition, abdominal fat accumulation, systemic inflammation, sleep condition, and functions of hypothalamus-pituitary axis and autonomic system were estimated...
August 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ermina Bach, Andreas B Møller, Jens O L Jørgensen, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Niels Jessen, Steen B Pedersen, Thomas S Nielsen, Niels Møller
OBJECTIVE: Acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses are generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release of hormones are not clearly identified. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HPs) (in the absence of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary hormone responses)...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Farida Chentli, Nadia Terki, Said Azzoug
AIM: Ovarian corticosteroid-producing tumors are exquisitely rare. Our aim was to describe the first case observed in our practice. CASE HISTORY: A 34-year-old female was referred for Cushing's syndrome (CS) occurring in the postpartum period. Clinical examination showed severe CS with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a large mass in the right lower abdomen. Biochemistry demonstrated corticotropin (ACTH)-independent CS (cortisol=1900ng/mL (n=50-250), ACTH<10pg/mL (n=20-46)) with estradiol and testosterone overproduction...
October 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Daniele Santi, Antonio Rm Granata, Elisa Pignatti, Tommaso Trenti, Laura Roli, Roberto Bozic, Stefano Zaza, Chiara Pacchioni, Vincenzo Rochira, Cesare Carani, Manuela Simoni
To investigate whether long-term, chronic treatment with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil affects adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis in diabetic men, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A longitudinal, prospective, investigator-started, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical-trial was carried out, enrolling 54 male patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed within the last 5 years. In total, 26 and 28 patients were followed for 1 year and assigned to the study and placebo group, respectively...
August 11, 2016: Endocrine
H Matthew Lehrer, Susan K Dubois, Julie Maslowsky, Mark L Laudenslager, Mary A Steinhardt
BACKGROUND: African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. PURPOSE: We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults...
October 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michio Otsuki, Tetsuhiro Kitamura, Daisuke Tamada, Yukiko Tabuchi, Kosuke Mukai, Shinya Morita, Soji Kasayama, Iichiro Shimomura, Masafumi Koga
It is shown that glucocorticoids have discordant effects on plasma glucose concentration through their effects on hepatic glycogen deposition, gluconeogenesis and peripheral insulin resistance. Cushing's syndrome caused by cortisol overproduction is frequently accompanied with diabetes mellitus, but fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and post-glucose load plasma glucose levels are not examined in patients with Cushing's syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate FPG, HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h PG and their relationship in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in comparison with control subjects...
August 5, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Jessica G Abell, Tobias Stalder, Jane E Ferrie, Martin J Shipley, Clemens Kirschbaum, Mika Kivimäki, Meena Kumari
Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been suggested to reflect long-term integrated cortisol levels, but most evidence of associations with co-variates is from small samples of healthy volunteers. The objective of this study was to describe the collection of hair samples in a large cohort study and report associations of demographic and health measures with HCC. We examined HCC measured from the 3cm hair segment near the scalp in 3507 participants (aged 59-83y) from The Whitehall II occupational cohort study of British civil servants...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rachel M Saroka, Michael P Kane, Lawrence Robinson, Robert S Busch
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid replacement is commonly required to treat secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgical resection of unilateral cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas in which the preoperative use of mifepristone therapy was associated with recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, eliminating the need for postoperative glucocorticoid replacement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity was hospitalized for Fournier's gangrene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Diana Lopez, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Amy Steele, Gail K Adler, Alexander Turchin, Anand Vaidya
Background: Benign adrenal tumors are commonly discovered on abdominal imaging. Most are classified as nonfunctional and are considered to pose no health risk, but some are considered functional because they secrete hormones that increase risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis that nonfunctional adrenal tumors (NFATs) increase risk for cardiometabolic outcomes compared with absence of adrenal tumors. Design: Cohort study...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
A Ya Kravchenko, I E Esaulenko, V V Sahnenko, A V Budnevskyj, S N Podvygyn
The clinical significance of type 2 diabetes mellitus is not confined to metabolic disorders. A serious problem is also affective pathology that occurs in the majority (30-70%) of patients. However, diagnostics and correction of anxiety and depressive disorders associated with diabetes are often given insufficient attention. Many studies showed relationship between affective disorders and low adherence to the prescribed treatment resulting in general deterioration of clinical prognosis of diabetes. This review article describes the basic mechanisms behind the interrelation of affective disorders and diabetes...
2016: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
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