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pseudomonas aeruginosa review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317840/an-antibiotic-stewardship-exercise-in-the-icu-building-a-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-based-on-local-epidemiology-and-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#1
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316554/skin-infections-due-to-bacteria-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-review
#2
Muneeb Ilyas, Nishita Maganty, Zachary Ginsberg, Amit Sharma
Though there is an abundance of information on cutaneous malignancies in transplant recipients, cutaneous infections in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are underrepresented in the dermatological literature. Our paper provides a comprehensive review of bacterial cutaneous infections within the solid organ transplant population. Cutaneous bacterial infections may lead to significant morbidity and even mortality in this immunosuppressed population. Thus, it is to the benefit of both dermatologists and other transplant care providers to better understand and recognize the features of cutaneous bacterial infections in SOTRs...
January 10, 2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310949/antibiotic-resistance-rates-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-respiratory-and-bloodstream-isolates-among-the-veterans-affairs-healthcare-system-from-2009-to-2013
#3
Haley J Appaneal, Aisling R Caffrey, Lan Jiang, David Dosa, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections and resistance among isolates is an increasing burden. The study purpose was to describe national resistance rates for clinical P. aeruginosa respiratory and bloodstream cultures and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa within the Veterans Affairs (VA). MDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one drug in at least 3 of the following 5 categories: carbapenems, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin/tazobactam...
December 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310479/therapies-for-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-nosocomial-infections-a-perilous-journey-toward-molecularly-targeted-therapy
#4
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Alina Iovleva, Mohamad Yasmin, Brigid Wilson, Federico Perez, Robert A Bonomo
Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli are at the center of the antimicrobial resistance epidemic. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are both designated with a threat level to human health of "serious" by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Two other major non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia complex, while not as prevalent, have devastating effects on vulnerable populations, such as those with cystic fibrosis, as well as immunosuppressed or hospitalized patients...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#5
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286008/update-on-the-main-mdr-pathogens-prevalence-and-treatment-options
#6
Silvano Esposito, Giuseppe De Simone
In recent years the proportion of multi-drug resistance (MDR) among the bacterial pathogens causing infections, particularly those acquired in healthcare settings, has risen worryingly worldwide. It poses a serious public health threat as the multiple patterns of resistance limit the effective treatment options for such infections. Although many bacterial species have developed reduced susceptibility to a wide array of antimicrobial molecules, a particular group of pathogens acronymically referred to as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274345/risk-factors-for-imipenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-in-south-china
#7
Yunbei Rao, Zhuxiao Ren, Junjuan Zhong, Xiuming Zhong, Bei Cao, Dongmei Chen, Xinnian Pan, Yanping Jia, Pingming Gao, Bingyan Yang, Qiao Zhong, Jie Yang
This multi-centre retrospective study was designed to investigate the risk factors for infection with imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) in south China. All patients with confirmed P. aeruginosa infection from 8 NICU in south China were divided into two groups: imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa (ISPA) and IRPA. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were performed for statistical analyses. A total of 188 medical records were reviewed. In multivariate logistic analysis, imipenem treatment within two weeks of isolation of PA was the only independent risk factor (OR=6...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273244/bacterial-keratitis-treated-by-strengthened-antibiotic-eye-drops-an-18-months-review-of-clinical-cases-and-antibiotic-susceptibilities
#8
J Saillard, L Spiesser-Robelet, P Gohier, T Briot
PURPOSE: To describe, in patients treated for infectious keratitis, the microorganisms identified and their antibiotic susceptibility over a period of 18 months. METHOD: Retrospective, descriptive, non-comparative study. Medical and biological data were extracted from the patients' file treated with strengthened antibiotic eye drops at Angers University Hospital between January 2015 and June 2016. The main elements noted were the bacteria involved and their susceptibility to antibiotics...
December 19, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258848/exoy-an-actin-activated-nucleotidyl-cyclase-toxin-from-p-aeruginosa-a-minireview
#9
Alexander Belyy, Undine Mechold, Louis Renault, Daniel Ladant
ExoY is one of four well-characterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effectors. It is a nucleotidyl cyclase toxin that is inactive inside the bacteria, but becomes potently activated once it is delivered into the eukaryotic target cells. Recently, filamentous actin was identified as the eukaryotic cofactor that stimulates specifically ExoY enzymatic activity by several orders of magnitude. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the biochemistry of nucleotidyl cyclase activity of ExoY and its regulation by interaction with filamentous actin...
December 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228202/activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-problem-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-uk-2015-16
#10
David M Livermore, Danièle Meunier, Katie L Hopkins, Michel Doumith, Robert Hill, Rachel Pike, Peter Staves, Neil Woodford
Background: Ceftazidime/avibactam combines an established oxyimino-cephalosporin with the first diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor to enter clinical use. We reviewed its activity against Gram-negative isolates, predominantly from the UK, referred for resistance investigation in the first year of routine testing, beginning in July 2015. Methods: Isolates were as received from referring laboratories; there is a bias to submit those with suspected carbapenem resistance...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186029/muc1-the-first-respiratory-mucin-with-an-anti-inflammatory-function
#11
REVIEW
Kosuke Kato, Erik P Lillehoj, Wenju Lu, Kwang Chul Kim
MUC1 is a membrane-bound mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of most mucosal epithelial cells. In normal lung epithelia, MUC1 is a binding site for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen of great clinical importance. It has now been established that MUC1 also serves an anti-inflammatory role in the airways that is initiated late in the course of a bacterial infection and is mediated through inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. MUC1 expression was initially shown to interfere with TLR5 signaling in response to P...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186015/establishing-genotype-to-phenotype-relationships-in-bacteria-causing-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-prelude-to-the-application-of-clinical-metagenomics
#12
REVIEW
Etienne Ruppé, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Vladimir Lazarevic, Stéphane Emonet, Jacques Schrenzel
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity...
November 29, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185941/cell-wall-recycling-and-synthesis-in-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-their-role-in-the-development-of-resistance
#13
Supurna Dhar, Hansi Kumari, Deepak Balasubramanian, Kalai Mathee
The bacterial cell-wall that forms a protective layer over the inner membrane is called the murein sacculus - a tightly cross-linked peptidoglycan mesh unique to bacteria. Cell-wall synthesis and recycling are critical cellular processes essential for cell growth, elongation and division. Both de novo synthesis and recycling involve an array of enzymes across all cellular compartments, namely the outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane and cytoplasm. Due to the exclusivity of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell-wall, these players are the target of choice for many antibacterial agents...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184412/a-6-year-study-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-southern-china-prevalence-antibiotic-resistance-clinical-and-economic-outcomes
#14
Xiaoyan Li, Yunqin Chen, Weiguo Gao, Hao Ye, Zhongchao Shen, Zehuai Wen, Jia Wei
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common nosocomial infections. This study evaluated the prevalence, pathogens, antibiotic resistances, clinical outcomes, and hospitalization costs associated with complicated UTIs in southern China, and risk factors delaying patient discharge. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 4,284 (61.4% women) complicated UTI-related hospitalizations from 2008 to 2013. Average patient age was 61.1 years and median hospital stay was 11 days. Pathogens were isolated from 1,071 urine and 148 blood specimens...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181890/acute-kidney-injury-induced-by-concomitant-use-of-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-pediatrics
#15
Manal Abouelkheir, Sarah Alsubaie
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is very commonly used in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) as an initial empiric therapy for moderate to severe infections, whenever coverage for both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required. The combination of vancomycin and PTZ in adults has recently been reported to significantly increase the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) relative to vancomycin monotherapy; such reports in pediatrics are sparse...
November 27, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178851/bacterial-profile-of-ocular-infections-a-systematic-review
#16
Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus, Ataklti Hailu Atsbaha, Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom, Muthupandian Saravanan
BACKGROUND: Bacteria are the major contributor of ocular infections worldwide. Ocular infections, if left untreated, can damage the structures of the eye with possible blindness and visual impairments. This work was aimed to review the bacterial profile of ocular infections. METHODS: Literature search was made in different electronic databases; the review was systematically made to get concrete findings. RESULTS: As far as this review, Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the leading isolates in ocular infections...
November 25, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175802/review-ethnomedicinal-phytochemical-and-antibacterial-activities-of-medicinal-flora-of-pakistan-used-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-review
#17
Roqaia Bibi, Akash Tariq, Sakina Mussarat, Shahid Niaz Khan, Hazir Rahman, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Riaz Ullah, Muhammad Adnan
Medicinal plants have been used from ancient time against different infectious diseases caused by microorganisms across the globe. The present review represents different medicinal plants of Pakistan used traditionally for the treatment of variety of ailments caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, their in-vitro activities against P. aeruginosa and phytochemistry. These plants were extracted with different solvents that showed good in-vitro activities against P. aeruginosa, due to the presence of active phytoconstituents including alkaloids, terpenoids etc...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164118/infections-caused-by-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-saprophytic-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-environment
#18
Eva Raphael, Lee W Riley
Background: Drug-resistance genes found in human bacterial pathogens are increasingly recognized in saprophytic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from environmental sources. The clinical implication of such environmental GNBs is unknown. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to determine how often such saprophytic GNBs cause human infections. Methods: We queried PubMed for articles published in English, Spanish, and French between January 2006 and July 2014 for 20 common environmental saprophytic GNB species, using search terms "infections," "human infections," "hospital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162982/future-directions-and-molecular-basis-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu
Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving treatment and has complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) that lead to high morbidity and mortality. Moreover VAP is the second most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric intensive care units. Although it is still not well understood, understanding molecular pathogenesis is essential for preventing and treating pneumonia. A lot of microbes are detected as a causative agent of VAP. The most common isolated VAP pathogens in pediatric patients are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram negative bacteria...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120408/exolysin-shapes-the-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clonal-outliers
#20
REVIEW
Emeline Reboud, Pauline Basso, Antoine P Maillard, Philippe Huber, Ina Attrée
Bacterial toxins are important weapons of toxicogenic pathogens. Depending on their origin, structure and targets, they show diverse mechanisms of action and effects on eukaryotic cells. Exolysin is a secreted 170 kDa pore-forming toxin employed by clonal outliers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa providing to some strains a hyper-virulent behaviour. This group of strains lacks the major virulence factor used by classical strains, the Type III secretion system. Here, we review the structural features of the toxin, the mechanism of its secretion and the effects of the pore formation on eukaryotic cells...
November 9, 2017: Toxins
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