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pseudomonas aeruginosa review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120408/exolysin-shapes-the-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clonal-outliers
#1
REVIEW
Emeline Reboud, Pauline Basso, Antoine P Maillard, Philippe Huber, Ina Attrée
Bacterial toxins are important weapons of toxicogenic pathogens. Depending on their origin, structure and targets, they show diverse mechanisms of action and effects on eukaryotic cells. Exolysin is a secreted 170 kDa pore-forming toxin employed by clonal outliers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa providing to some strains a hyper-virulent behaviour. This group of strains lacks the major virulence factor used by classical strains, the Type III secretion system. Here, we review the structural features of the toxin, the mechanism of its secretion and the effects of the pore formation on eukaryotic cells...
November 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118863/a-novel-cystic-fibrosis-gene-mutation-c-2490inst-in-a-palestinian-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Hassan Chami, Samer Abou Arbid, Rebecca Badra, Chantal Farra
We report the case of a 19-year-old male patient of Palestinian descent, who presented with a 1-year history of recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and a normal chloride sweat test. A panel for common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations test was also negative. Cystic fibrosis (CF) was still clinically suspected thus, full CFTR gene sequencing was performed, which revealed a homozygous unreported mutation c.2490insT (GenBank accession number: BankIt2019289 seq1 MF167456)...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105824/wound-culture-isolated-antibiograms-and-caregiver-reported-skin-care-practices-in-children-with-epidermolysis-bullosa
#3
Hannah M Singer, Laura E Levin, Maria C Garzon, Christine T Lauren, Paul J Planet, Nicole W Kittler, Susan Whittier, Kimberly D Morel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) require intensive daily wound care and individualized treatment plans. Understanding patient's home skin care routines and emerging antibiotic resistance patterns in EB wounds is necessary to optimize treatment recommendations. The objective was to identify patterns of antimicrobial resistance in EB wounds and characterize patient's home practices of skin care and bathing. METHODS: This was an observational study of 23 children with EB at an outpatient pediatric dermatology practice in New York City from 2012 to 2014...
November 6, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100671/-nettling-the-host-breaking-of-tolerance-in-chronic-inflammation-and-chronic-infection
#4
REVIEW
Sladjana Skopelja-Gardner, Jonathan D Jones, William F C Rigby
How and why we break tolerance to self-proteins still remains a largely unanswered question. Neutrophils have been identified as a rich source of autoantigens in a wide array of autoimmune diseases that arise as a consequence of different environmental and genetic factors, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, vasculitis, cystic fibrosis (CF) etc. Specifically, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation has been identified as a link between innate and adaptive immune responses in autoimmunity. Autoantigens including neutrophil granular proteins (targeted by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, ANCA) as well as post-translationally modified proteins, i...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095463/analogues-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-signalling-molecules-to-tackle-infections
#5
REVIEW
Eoin Ó Muimhneacháin, F Jerry Reen, Fergal O'Gara, Gerard P McGlacken
The emergence of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of investment by pharmaceutical companies necessitates a new look at how we tackle bacterial infections. An intriguing tactic is the interruption of bacterial communication systems. This non-biocidal approach would circumvent the evolutionary pressure on bacteria to mutate and develop resistance. In many pathogenic microorganisms, communication systems, collectively termed quorum sensing (QS), have been observed to control a number of bacterial behaviours including expression of virulence factors and the development of biofilms...
November 2, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090104/late-ps-aeruginosa-inguinal-mesh-infection-12-years-after-the-initial-operation-report-of-the-case-and-short-review-of-the-literature
#6
Dimitrios Filippou
Inguinal hernia mesh repair is one of the most frequent operations performed worldwide. The Lichtenstein technique and its various modifications are the most popular operations for groin hernia repair. The rate of surgical site infection (SSI) following inguinal hernia repair ranges between 0 and 14% in various series. Most of these infections developed early postoperatively. The incidence of late mesh infection following open inguinal hernia repair still remains unclear and highly variable. Late deep mesh infections are relatively rare specially after more than 10 years...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081265/bacterial-infections-in-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-comparison-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Christiaan Dm Wijers, James F Chmiel, Benjamin M Gaston
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with severely impaired mucociliary clearance caused by defects in ciliary structure and function. Although recurrent bacterial infection of the respiratory tract is one of the major clinical features of this disease, PCD airway microbiology is understudied. Despite the differences in pathophysiology, assumptions about respiratory tract infections in patients with PCD are often extrapolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) airway microbiology...
November 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077527/the-rationale-and-evidence-for-use-of-inhaled-antibiotics-to-control-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#8
Rajiv Dhand
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible dilation of the bronchi, symptoms of persistent cough and expectoration, and recurrent infective exacerbations. The prevalence of NCFBE is on the increase in the United States and Europe, but no licensed therapies are currently available for its treatment. Although there are many similarities between NCFBE and cystic fibrosis (CF) in terms of respiratory symptoms, airway microbiology, and disease progression, there are key differences, for example, in response to treatment, suggesting differences in pathogenesis...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073317/the-diagnostic-yield-of-noninvasive-microbiologic-sputum-sampling-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-clinically-diagnosed-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Elliot L Naidus, Mary T Lasalvia, Edward R Marcantonio, Shoshana J Herzig
The clinical predictors of positive sputum culture have not been previously reported in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and data on yield of sputum culture in this setting are scant. Current Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for HAP recommend noninvasive sputum sampling, though the data for this practice are limited. We assessed the yield of sputum culture in HAP cases at an academic medical center from January 2007 to July 2013. HAP cases were identifi ed by International Classifi cation of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modifi cation codes for bacterial pneumonia and all cases were validated by chart review...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065453/an-update-on-the-sociomicrobiology-of-quorum-sensing-in-gram-negative-biofilm-development
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Passos da Silva, Melissa C Schofield, Matthew R Parsek, Boo Shan Tseng
Bacteria are social creatures that are able to interact and coordinate behaviors with each other in a multitude of ways. The study of such group behaviors in microbes was coined "sociomicrobiology" in 2005. Two such group behaviors in bacteria are quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation. At a very basic level, QS is the ability to sense bacterial density via cell-to-cell signaling using self-produced signals called autoinducers, and biofilms are aggregates of cells that are attached to one another via a self-produced, extracellular matrix...
October 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055132/gram-negative-bacterial-toe-web-infection-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Till Weidner, Jörg Tittelbach, Tanja Illing, Peter Elsner
Gram-negative bacterial toe web infection (GNBTWI) is a frequent therapeutic challenge in clinical practice with high recurrence rates and frequent need of systemic drugs. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an updated overview and evidence-based data on pathogens, risk-factors and treatment of GNBTWI along with promoting a consistent international terminology. This systematic review is based on a search in PubMed database for English and German articles published between 1980 and 2016. A total of 7 articles were considered appropriate for inclusion in this review regarding to treatment and outcome...
October 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053557/bacterial-keratitis-isolated-organisms-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-in-san-francisco
#12
Michelle Y Peng, Vicky Cevallos, Stephen D McLeod, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
PURPOSE: Understanding the spectrum of pathogens in a given geographic region is important when deciding on empiric antibiotic therapy. In this study, we evaluate the spectrum of bacterial organisms cultured from corneal samples and their antibiotic sensitivities to guide initial treatment of keratitis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case review of cultures from suspected infectious keratitis cases at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, from 1996 through 2015...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044738/overview-of-mechanisms-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-an-ocular-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Dinesh Subedi, Ajay Kumar Vijay, Mark Willcox
Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye infections often becomes a challenge due to the ability of this bacterium to be resistant to antibiotics via intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. Transfer of resistance due to interchangeable genetic elements is an important mechanism for the rapid transfer of antibiotic resistance in this pathogen. As a result, drug-resistant strains are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. This review systematically analyses data from recent publications to describe the global prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of ocular P...
October 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033275/mechanisms-of-humoral-immune-response-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Renan Marrichi Mauch, Peter Østrup Jensen, Claus Moser, Carlos Emilio Levy, Niels Høiby
P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and is characterized by a biofilm mode of growth, increased levels of specific IgG antibodies and immune complex formation. However, despite being designed to combat this infection, such elevated humoral response is not associated with clinical improvement, pointing to a lack of anti-pseudomonas effectiveness. The mode of action of specific antibodies, as well as their structural features, and even the background involving B-cell production, stimulation and differentiation into antibody-producing cells in the CF airways are poorly understood...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029112/diversity-and-regulation-of-intrinsic-%C3%AE-lactamases-from-non-fermenting-and-other-gram-negative-opportunistic-pathogens
#15
Carlos Juan, Gabriel Torrens, Mar González-Nicolau, Antonio Oliver
This review deeply addresses for the first time the diversity, regulation and mechanisms leading to mutational overexpression of intrinsic β-lactamases from non-fermenting and other non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. After a general overview of the intrinsic β-lactamases described so far in these microorganisms, including circa. 60 species and 100 different enzymes, we review the wide array of regulatory pathways of these β-lactamases. They include diverse LysR-type regulators, which control the expression of β-lactamases from relevant nosocomial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenothrophomonas maltophilia or two-component regulators, with special relevance in Aeromonas spp...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994125/propionibacterium-acnes-as-an-emerging-pathogen-in-skull-base-osteomyelitis-a-case-series
#16
Heather K Schopper, Jonathan L Hatch, Ted A Meyer
Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is recognized as a potentially life-threatening infection that has been classically attributed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, growing data shows that the bacteriology of SBO is changing. Traditionally thought of as commensal bacterium, P. acnes has been implicated as a serious pathogen in other specialties. Building on a previous case report from our institution, we have identified three patients with SBO who are culture-positive for Propionibacterium acnes as a single isolate...
October 10, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993066/clinical-and-microbiological-profile-of-infectious-keratitis-in-an-area-of-madrid-spain
#17
Soraya Mediero, Ana Boto de Los Bueis, Karina Spiess, Mariana Díaz-Almirón, Almudena Del Hierro Zarzuelo, Isabel Villalaín Rodes, Adela García Perea
INTRODUCTION: To study antibiotic susceptibility in bacterial keratitis (BK), its profile over 10 years and its influence on ophthalmological practice. METHODS: Retrospective review of BK with positive corneal scraping over a 10-year period. Risk factors for keratitis, visual acuity (VA), empirical topical treatment, corneal infection characteristics and outcomes were analyzed for BK due to Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Propionibacterium acnes...
October 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990312/cyclic-di-gmp-regulation-of-virulence-in-bacterial-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Cherisse L Hall, Vincent T Lee
Signaling pathways allow bacteria to adapt to changing environments. For pathogenic bacteria, signaling pathways allow for timely expression of virulence factors and the repression of antivirulence factors within the mammalian host. As the bacteria exit the mammalian host, signaling pathways enable the expression of factors promoting survival in the environment and/or nonmammalian hosts. One such signaling pathway uses the dinucleotide cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and many bacterial genomes encode numerous proteins that are responsible for synthesizing and degrading c-di-GMP...
October 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988663/risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infection-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Li-Hsin Tsao, Chih-Yi Hsin, Hsin-Yi Liu, Han-Chuan Chuang, Li-Yuan Chen, Yuarn-Jang Lee
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) related healthcare-associated infection (HAI) has increased in recent year worldwide. This study is to investigate the risk factors associated with CRPA infections in a university hospital setting in Taiwan to provide more information for clinician and infection control system. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2014...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986386/bacterial-isolates-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-from-odontogenic-abscesses-in-rabbits-48-cases
#20
Sara Gardhouse, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Joanne Paul-Murphy, Barbara A Byrne, Michelle G Hawkins
The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched from 2000 through 2014 for records of client-owned rabbits with positive cultures from odontogenic abscesses. Data reviewed included sex, age, abscess location, sampling technique, previous antimicrobial treatments, microorganisms identified and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacteria. Forty-eight client owned rabbits with one or more odontogenic abscesses and culture results were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-five isolates (52 aerobic, 133 anaerobic) were identified from 61 positive cultures from odontogenic abscesses...
October 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
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