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pseudomonas aeruginosa review

Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Valerie F L Yong, Min Min Soh, Tavleen Kaur Jaggi, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous "quorum sensing" (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones...
March 14, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Hong Wang, Xiao-Bin Ji, Bei Mao, Cheng-Wei Li, Hai-Wen Lu, Jin-Fu Xu
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) occupies an important niche in the pathogenic microbiome of bronchiectasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of P. aeruginosa in Chinese adult patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This retrospective and follow-up study enrolled 1188 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012. The patients' clinical data including anthropometry, clinical symptoms, serum biomarkers, radiographic manifestations and lung function indices were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Sakshi Mathur Dhar, Matthew D Breite, Stephen L Barnes, Jacob A Quick
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary contusions are thought to worsen outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effects of pulmonary contusion on mechanically ventilated trauma subjects with severe thoracic injuries and hypothesized that contusion would not increase morbidity. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of 163 severely injured trauma subjects (injury severity score ≥ 15) with severe thoracic injury (chest abbreviated injury score ≥ 3), who required mechanical ventilation for >24 h at a verified Level 1 trauma center...
March 13, 2018: Respiratory Care
Kanefumi Yamashita, Daisuke Kato, Takamitsu Sasaki, Hironari Shiwaku, Fuminori Ishii, Shigetoshi Naito, Yuichi Yamashita, Suguru Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Appropriate bacterial infection control in the perioperative period of a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is important to prevent and manage serious complications including postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). In the present study, the clinical impact of bacterial contamination of intra-abdominal discharge on the rate of POPF after PD was analysed retrospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data for 82 consecutive patients who had undergone PD at our hospital between January 2009 and July 2014 were retrospectively analysed to review patient characteristics and perioperative and postoperative parameters...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Laura Reisfeld, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Laura Ippolito, Bruna Silvatti, José Soares Ferreira Neto, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Fernando C W Rosas, José Anselmo Neto, Vera M F da Silva
An adult male Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis under human care presented with 3 circular cutaneous lesions on the dorsal aspect of the rostrum and between the nostrils (plenum). Initially these lesions were superficial, hypopigmented, without warmth and non-painful. Microbiological cultures of skin swabs isolated Candida sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and topical treatment with antiseptic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medication was instituted. This treatment strategy did not lead to any clinical improvement, and after 6 mo, the lesions progressed to a confluent abscess (5...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Rashmi Shingde, L Ines Habachou, Vaishnavi Calisa, Jonathan C Craig, Allison Tong, Sharon C-A Chen, Germaine Wong
BACKGROUND: Unexpected donor-derived transmission of infections is rare, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to provide an overview of published cases on unexpected infectious transmissions. METHODS: We systematically reviewed all published evidence describing any unexpected donor-derived viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections in kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS: In all, 119 studies (case reports [n = 36], case series [n = 78], cohort studies [n = 2], and case-control studies [n = 3]) involving 139 donors and 207 kidney recipients were included...
March 6, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Ilyas Alav, J Mark Sutton, Khondaker Miraz Rahman
Efflux pumps are widely implicated in antibiotic resistance because they can extrude the majority of clinically relevant antibiotics from within cells to the extracellular environment. However, there is increasing evidence from many studies to suggest that the pumps also play a role in biofilm formation. These studies have involved investigating the effects of efflux pump gene mutagenesis and efflux pump inhibitors on biofilm formation, and measuring the levels of efflux pump gene expression in biofilms. In particular, several key pathogenic species associated with increasing multidrug resistance, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, have been investigated, whilst other studies have focused on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism and problematic pathogen...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Dae Woon Song, Byung Kwan Park, Suk Won Suh, Seung Eun Lee, Jong Won Kim, Joong-Min Park, Hye Ryoun Kim, Mi-Kyung Lee, Yoo Shin Choi, Beom Gyu Kim, Yong Gum Park
PURPOSE: Essential treatment of acute appendicitis is surgical resection with the use of appropriate antibiotics. In order to effectively treat acute appendicitis, it is important to identify the microorganism of acute appendicitis and evaluate the effective antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 694 patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis and had positive microbial result between 2006 and 2015 were recruited. For microbial assessment, luminal contents of the appendix were swabbed after appendectomy...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Martti Vaara
Polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) are bactericidal pentacationic lipopeptides that act specifically on Gram-negative bacteria, first by disrupting their outermost permeability barrier, the outer membrane (OM), and then damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. The discovery of both polymyxin B and colistin was published independently by three laboratories as early as in 1947. They were subsequently used in intravenous therapy. Unfortunately, they also exhibit significant and dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. Therefore, polymyxins were reserved as agents of last-line defense...
February 27, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
J Mensa, J Barberán, A Soriano, P Llinares, F Marco, R Cantón, G Bou, J González Del Castillo, E Maseda, J R Azanza, J Pasquau, C García-Vidal, J M Reguera, D Sousa, J Gómez, M Montejo, M Borges, A Torres, F Alvarez-Lerma, M Salavert, R Zaragoza, A Oliver
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by a notable intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, mainly mediated by the expression of inducible chromosomic β-lactamases and the production of constitutive or inducible efflux pumps. Apart from this intrinsic resistance, P. aeruginosa possess an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to nearly all available antimicrobials through selection of mutations. The progressive increase in resistance rates in P. aeruginosa has led to the emergence of strains which, based on their degree of resistance to common antibiotics, have been defined as multidrug resistant, extended-resistant and panresistant strains...
February 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Su Yu Tang, Shun Wen Zhang, Jiang Dong Wu, Fang Wu, Jie Zhang, Jiang Tao Dong, Peng Guo, Da Long Zhang, Jun Ting Yang, Wan Jiang Zhang
It is currently unknown whether antibiotic monotherapy or combination therapy is a more effective treatment for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia. The present study consists of a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies in associated studies. The treatment options of monotherapy and combination therapy have been compared, to determine which is more effective against P. aeruginosa bacteraemia. Several electronic bibliographic databases were systematically searched and clinical studies that compared combination therapy with monotherapy for P...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Trey A Ronnebaum, Audrey L Lamb
Microbes synthesize small, iron-chelating molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from the environment. One way siderophores are generated is by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The bioactive peptides generated by NRPS enzymes have unique chemical features, which are incorporated by accessory and tailoring domains or proteins. The first part of this review summarizes recent progress in NRPS structural biology. The second part uses the biosynthesis of pyochelin, a siderophore from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as a case study to examine enzymatic methods for generating the observed diversity in NRPS-derived natural products...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Sanjay Merchant, Emma M Proudfoot, Hafsa N Quadri, Heather J McElroy, William R Wright, Ankur Gupta, Eric M Sarpong
Treating infections of Gram-negative pathogens, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is a challenge for clinicians in the Asia-Pacific region due to inherent and acquired resistance to antimicrobials. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides updated information of the risk factors for P. aeruginosa infections in Asia-Pacific, and consequences (e.g., mortality, costs) of initial inappropriate antimicrobial therapy (IIAT). EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for Asia-Pacific studies reporting the consequences of IIAT versus initial appropriate antimicrobial therapy (IAAT) in Gram-negative infections, and risk factors for serious P...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Rifaqat A K Rao
Use of silver and silver salts is as old as human civilization but the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has only recently been recognized. They have been specifically used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidants. It has been demonstrated that Ag NPs arrest the growth and multiplication of many bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter koseri, Salmonella typhii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and fungus Candida albicans by binding Ag/Ag + with the biomolecules present in the microbial cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Simona Pollini, Claudia Mugnaioli, Daniela Dolce, Silvia Campana, Anna Silvia Neri, Giovanni Taccetti, Gian Maria Rossolini
BACKGROUND: The significance of chronic lung infection by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) transplanted patients remains controversial, and the available information is overall limited. Here we describe the case of a chronic infection, sustained by a metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa strain, in a CF patient following lung transplantation. METHODS: Twelve P. aeruginosa isolates collected from a CF patient over a 15-years follow-up period after lung transplantation were analysed for their antibiotic susceptibility profile, MBL production and clonal relatedness...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Ahmed Olowo-Okere, Yakubu Kokori Enevene Ibrahim, Busayo Olalekan Olayinka
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacterial isolates from patients with surgical site infections (SSIs) at a tertiary healthcare facility in Abuja, Nigeria. METHOD: Consecutive, non-duplicate, wound swabs were collected, over three months period, from wounds of patients who had SSI and cultured appropriately. Bacterial isolates were identified using rapid identification kits. Modified disc diffusion method was used for antibiotics susceptibility testing and the phenotypic ESBL activity of the isolates was determined using the Double Discs Synergy Test (DDST)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Sarah Christina Jane Jorgensen, Michael Joseph Rybak
Vaborbactam (VAB; formerly RPX7009) is a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor based on a cyclic boronic acid pharmacophore with potent inhibitory activity against Ambler class A and C beta-lactamases. It has been co-formulated with meropenem to restore its activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC). VAB does not inhibit class B or D carbapenemases, nor does it improve the activity of meropenem against multidrug-resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, notably Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
February 10, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Bryan T Mogle, Jeffrey M Steele, Stephen J Thomas, KarenBeth H Bohan, Wesley D Kufel
Delafloxacin is a novel anionic fluoroquinolone (FQ) approved for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) caused by a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms including MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The unique chemical structure of delafloxacin renders it a weak acid and results in increased potency in acidic environments. In Phase III studies, delafloxacin had similar outcomes to comparator regimens for treatment of ABSSSIs, and was well tolerated overall. Similar to other FQs, delafloxacin is available in both intravenous and oral formulations, but differs in that delafloxacin exerts a minimal effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and on the corrected QT interval...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
James M Kidd, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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