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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242964/-bone-substitute-materials-as-local-drug-carriers-current-status-of-substitutes-of-various-origins
#1
REVIEW
K-D Kühn, C Berberich, H Bösebeck
BACKGROUND: Autologous bone grafts (autografts) are used in surgery for defect filling and impaction grafting during hip socket and femur reconstruction. Because of their superior osteoinductive capacity, autografts are considered the "gold standard" for these treatments. However, because of a better cost-benefit ratio, allografts are also often used. In the case of limited donor availability for autologous or allogenic bone grafts, bone substitute materials (BSMs) are a reasonable alternative or supplement...
December 14, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233104/tlr4-nox2-axis-regulates-the-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-macrophages
#2
Jingzhu Lv, Xiaoyan He, Hongtao Wang, Zhaohua Wang, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaojing Wang, Yin Chen, Ting Wang, Zhongqing Qian
BACKGROUND: Macrophages stand at the forefront of both innate and adapted immunity through their capacities to recognize, engulf, and eliminate foreign particles, and to stimulate adapted immune cells. They are also involved in controlling pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Macrophage activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) has been shown to involve Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and ROS production. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), through TLR4, could activate macrophages, improve their bactericidal ROS production, and facilitate anti-infective immune responses...
December 12, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232589/peptides-having-antimicrobial-activity-and-their-complexes-with-transition-metal-ions
#3
REVIEW
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229273/mannose-functionalized-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-are-effective-in-targeting-alveolar-macrophages
#4
Ana Costa, Bruno Sarmento, Vítor Seabra
Mannose receptor is highly expressed on alveolar macrophages, being a potential target to promote the specific local drug delivery of anti-tuberculosis agents through the use of functionalized nanocarriers. In this work, isoniazid (Isn)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), reinforced with stearylamine (SA) were produced by double emulsion technique and further surface-functionalized with mannose in a straightforward chemical approach. Upon pre-formulation assessment, SLN close to 500 nm average size, positively charged and with association efficiency of ISN close to 50% were obtained...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228436/the-effect-of-ventilator-mask-atomization-inhalation-of-ipratropium-bromide-and-budesonide-suspension-liquid-in-the-treatment-of-copd-in-acute-exacerbation-period-on-circulating-levels-of-inflammation-and-prognosis
#5
D-H Jiang, X Wang, L-S Liu, D-D Ji, N Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ventilator mask atomization inhalation of ipratropium bromide and budesonide suspension liquid in the treatment of acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) on circulating levels of inflammatory factors and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 86 cases of patients on ventilator support were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 43 cases each. The control group was administered routine treatment including basic disease treatment, anti-infection, maintenance of a stable internal environment, nutritional support, oxygen inhalation and so on...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223972/intravaginal-boric-acid-is-it-an-alternative-therapeutic-option-for-vaginal-trichomoniasis
#6
Nicola Thorley, Jonathan Ross
OBJECTIVES: Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Current guidance in the UK is to treat TV with a nitroimidazole antibiotic. The high prevalence of TV, high rate of antibiotic resistance and limited tolerability to nitroimidazoles suggest that alternative treatment regimens are needed. Intravaginal boric acid (BA) has been used safely for the treatment of candida vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis, and in vitro studies suggest BA is active against TV...
December 9, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222712/categorization-and-association-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-adverse-drug-events
#7
REVIEW
Lina Zhou, Anamika Paul Rupa
PURPOSE: Adverse drug events (ADE) are among the leading causes of morbidity and hospitalization. This review analyzes risk factors for ADE, particularly their categorizations and association patterns, the prevalence, severity, and preventability of ADE, and method characteristics of reviewed studies. METHODS: Literature search was conducted via PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. A review was conducted of research articles that reported original data about specific risk factors for ADE since 2000...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210342/antibiotics-potentiating-potential-of-catharanthine-against-superbug-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Gaurav Raj Dwivedi, Rekha Tyagi, Sanchita Gupta, Shubhandra Tripathi, Sanghamitra Pati, Santosh K Srivastava, Mahendra P Darokar, Ashok Sharma
Multidrug resistance (MDR) put an alarming situation like preantibiotic era which compels us to invigorate the basic science of anti-infective chemotherapy. Hence the drug resistant genes/proteins were explored as promising drug targets. Keeping this thing in mind, proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 was explored, which resulted in the identification of tripartite protein complexes (MexA, MexB and OprM) as promising drug target for the screening of natural and synthetic inhibitors. The purpose of present investigation was to explore the drug resistance reversal potential mechanism of catharanthine isolated from the leaves of Catharanthus roseous...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202138/effects-and-time-kill-assessment-of-amoxicillin-used-in-combination-with-chloramphenicol-against-bacteria-of-clinical-importance
#9
Olufunmiso O Olajuyigbe, Roger M Coopoosamy, Anthony J Afolayan
With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms in an era when drug development faces challenges causing pharmaceutical companies to curtail or abandon research on anti-infective agents, the use of combined existing antimicrobial agents may be an alternative. This study evaluated the effects of combining amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, to which many bacteria have become resistant, in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar diffusion, checkerboard and time-kill assays. The test isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0...
November 30, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201023/a-marine-actinomycete-rescues-caenorhabditis-elegans-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-through-restitution-of-lysozyme-7
#10
Siti N Fatin, Tan Boon-Khai, Alexander Chong Shu-Chien, Melati Khairuddean, Amirul Al-Ashraf Abdullah
The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to conventional antimicrobial treatment is a major scourge in healthcare. Therefore, it is crucial that novel potent anti-infectives are discovered. The aim of the present study is to screen marine actinomycetes for chemical entities capable of overcoming P. aeruginosa infection through mechanisms involving anti-virulence or host immunity activities. A total of 18 actinomycetes isolates were sampled from marine sediment of Songsong Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Upon confirming that the methanolic crude extract of these isolates do not display direct bactericidal activities, they were tested for capacity to rescue Caenorhabditis elegans infected with P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197867/topical-coconut-oil-in-very-preterm-infants-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Tobias Strunk, Sameer Pupala, Julie Hibbert, Dorota Doherty, Sanjay Patole
BACKGROUND: The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on skin condition in very preterm infants. METHODS: An open-label randomised controlled trial in preterm infants <30 weeks' gestation was conducted...
December 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188475/current-perspectives-on-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#12
REVIEW
Marianne Lerch, Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Thomas Harr
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are considered a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to drugs. They represent true medical emergencies and an early recognition and appropriate management is decisive for the survival. SJS/TEN manifest with an "influenza-like" prodromal phase (malaise, fever), followed by painful cutaneous and mucous membrane (ocular, oral, and genital) lesions, and other systemic symptoms. The difference between SJS, SJS/TEN overlap, and TEN is defined by the degree of skin detachment: SJS is defined as skin involvement of < 10%, TEN is defined as skin involvement of > 30%, and SJS/TEN overlap as 10-30% skin involvement...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184076/deciphering-how-cpl-7-cell-wall-binding-repeats-recognize-the-bacterial-peptidoglycan
#13
Noemí Bustamante, Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga, Noelia Bernardo-García, Noella Silva-Martín, Guadalupe García, María A Campanero-Rhodes, Esther García, Isabel Usón, Rubén M Buey, Pedro García, Juan A Hermoso, Marta Bruix, Margarita Menéndez
Endolysins, the cell wall lytic enzymes encoded by bacteriophages to release the phage progeny, are among the top alternatives to fight against multiresistant pathogenic bacteria; one of the current biggest challenges to global health. Their narrow range of susceptible bacteria relies, primarily, on targeting specific cell-wall receptors through specialized modules. The cell wall-binding domain of Cpl-7 endolysin, made of three CW_7 repeats, accounts for its extended-range of substrates. Using as model system the cell wall-binding domain of Cpl-7, here we describe the molecular basis for the bacterial cell wall recognition by the CW_7 motif, which is widely represented in sequences of cell wall hydrolases...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182728/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-aloe-vera-and-licorice-extracts-on-the-course-of-experimental-pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-infection-in-pigeons
#14
D Dziewulska, T Stenzel, M Smialek, B Tykalowski, A Koncicki
The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1...
November 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182353/impact-of-health-reform-on-young-adult-prescription-medication-utilization
#15
Amy Pakyz, Hui Wang, Peter Cunningham
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act dependent coverage provision on outpatient prescription expenditures among young adults and to characterize medication types that are prescribed for young adults. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. METHODS: Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2009 and 2011 to 2013, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses estimated the provision's impact among young adults aged 19 to 25 years versus those aged 26 to 34 years...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181597/from-lighthouse-to-hothouse-hospital-hygiene-antibiotics-and-the-evolution-of-infectious-disease-1950-1990
#16
Christoph Gradmann
Upon entering clinical medicine in the 1940s, antibiotic therapy seemed to complete a transformation of hospitals that originated in the late nineteenth century. Former death sinks had become harbingers of therapeutic progress. Yet this triumph was short-lived. The arrival of pathologies caused by resistant bacteria, and of nosocomial infections whose spread was helped by antibiotic therapies, seemed to be intimately related to modern anti-infective therapy. The place where such problems culminated were hospitals, which increasingly appeared as dangerous environments where attempts to combat infectious diseases had instead created hothouses of disease evolution...
November 27, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171114/prescription-drug-use-in-pregnancy-and-variations-according-to-prior-psychiatric-history
#17
Katja G Ingstrup, Xiaoqin Liu, Christiane Gasse, Jean-Christophe P Debost, Trine Munk-Olsen
PURPOSE: Prescription drug use during pregnancy has increased during the past decades. However, little is known about prescription drug use for high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of redeemed prescriptions in Danish pregnant women with and without previous psychiatric history. METHODS: A Danish population-based descriptive study of 981 392 pregnancies ending in live-born singletons by 586 988 women aged 15 to 55 years between 1997 and 2012, of which 113 449 (11...
November 24, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170656/double-face-meets-the-bacterial-world-the-opportunistic-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#18
Felipe Lira, Gabriele Berg, José L Martínez
Most studies on bacterial virulence focus on the pathogen itself. However, it is important to recall that the in-host behavior and the virulence of bacterial pathogens constitute a complex situation that depends on both the microorganisms and the infected host. While healthy people (the community) is infected by classical pathogenic microorganisms, able to cope with the anti-infection defenses of the host, in the case of people with basal diseases, debilitated or immunodepressed, the range of pathogens able to cause infection is wider and includes the so-named opportunistic pathogens, which lack the inherent ability to cause disease in healthy hosts and rarely produce infections in the community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170111/tat-modified-self-assembled-cationic-peptide-nanoparticles-as-an-efficient-antibacterial-agent
#19
Bi He, Shiyi Ma, Guifu Peng, Daohang He
The increasing emergence of drug resistant pathogenic bacteria poses a great challenge to clinical therapy and a threat to public health. Cationic peptides have received great attention for their unique antibacterial mechanism and ability to combat drug-resistant bacteria. In this study, we designed a TAT-modified cationic peptide PA-28 which self-assembled into nanoparticles of about 150nm. These nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including drug-resistant bacteria...
November 20, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168046/procalcitonin-guided-antibiotic-therapy-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Hui-Bin Huang, Jin-Min Peng, Li Weng, Chun-Yao Wang, Wei Jiang, Bin Du
BACKGROUND: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration is used to guide antibiotic decisions in choice, timing, and duration of anti-infection therapy to avoid antibiotic overuse. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to seek evidence of different PCT-guided antimicrobial strategies for critically ill patients in terms of predefined clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library up to 25 February 2017...
November 22, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
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