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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330892/in-vitro-susceptibility-testing-of-tedizolid-against-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#1
Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Richard J Wallace
Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with improved in vitro and intracellular potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug resistant strains, and some species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) compared with linezolid.Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended method of broth microdilution, susceptibility testing of 170 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria showed equivalent or lower (1- to 8-fold MIC50 and/or MIC90 values) for tedizolid compared to linezolid...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314920/-new-antibiotics-standstill-or-progress
#2
J Rademacher, T Welte
The development of resistance to antibiotics has been ignored for a long time. But nowadays, increasing resistance is an important topic. For a decade no new antibiotics had been developed and it is not possible to quickly close this gap of new resistance and no new drugs. This work presents six new antibiotics (ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, solithromycin, tedizolid, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam). In part, only expert opinions are given due to lack of study results.The two 5th generation cephalosporins ceftaroline and ceftobiprole have beside their equivalent efficacy to ceftriaxone (ceftaroline) and cefipim (ceftobiprole) high activity against MRSA...
March 17, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284617/detection-of-novel-oxazolidinone-and-phenicol-resistance-gene-optra-in-enterococcal-isolates-from-food-animals-and-animal-carcasses
#3
Migma Dorji Tamang, Dong Chan Moon, Su-Ran Kim, Hee Young Kang, Kichan Lee, Hyang-Mi Nam, Geum-Chan Jang, Hee-Soo Lee, Suk-Chan Jung, Suk-Kyung Lim
Altogether 7720 Enterococcus faecalis and 3939 E. faecium isolated from food animals and animal carcasses during 2003-2014 in Korea were investigated to determine if linezolid-resistant (LR) enterococci (≥8μg/ml) are present. Overall, 12 E. faecalis and 27 E. faecium recovered from chickens (n=32), pigs (n=6), and cattle (n=1) were resistant to linezolid and were further characterized using molecular methods Most LR isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol (97.44%) and florfenicol (92.31%). Molecular analysis showed no mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA and in the ribosomal protein L3...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279932/enantioselective-recognition-of-radezolid-by-cyclodextrin-modified-capillary-electrokinetic-chromatography-and-electronic-circular-dichroism
#4
Katarzyna Michalska, Ewa Gruba, Wojciech Bocian, Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
A method for the enantioseparation of radezolid (RAD), an analogue of a truly new class of antibacterial agents, oxazolidinones, was developed based on capillary electrokinetic chromatography using a cyclodextrin as a chiral pseudophase (CD-cEKC). The mechanism of RAD separation, together with its precursor, were investigated to directly define the relationship between the oxazolidinone structure and the complexation process. During the development of the method, anionic single isomer cyclodextrins were tested...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273820/in-vitro-activities-of-lcb-01-0648-a-novel-oxazolidinone-against-gram-positive-bacteria
#5
Sang-Hun Oh, Josep Kim, Sung-Yoon Baek, Sang-Eun Chae, Hee-Soo Park, Young-Lag Cho, Jin-Hwan Kwak
Oxazolidinones are a novel class of synthetic antibacterial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Here, we synthesized and tested a series of oxazolidinone compounds containing cyclic amidrazone. Among these compounds, we further investigated the antibacterial activities of LCB01-0648 against drug-susceptible or resistant Gram-positive cocci in comparison with those of six reference compounds. LCB01-0648 showed the most potent antimicrobial activities against clinically isolated Gram-positive bacteria...
March 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266144/an-experimental-and-theoretical-study-on-the-unexpected-catalytic-activity-of-triethanolamine-for-the-carboxylative-cyclization-of-propargylic-amines-with-co2
#6
Yuling Zhao, Jikuan Qiu, Zhiyong Li, Huiyong Wang, Maohong Fan, Jian Ji Wang
The chemical conversion of CO2 under atmospheric pressure and metal-free conditions remains a great challenge. In this work, a series of alkylolamines, low-cost and biodegradable bases, were used to catalyze the carboxylative cyclization of propargyl amines with CO2. It was found that among these alkylolamines, triethanolamine (TEOA) was shown to be a highly efficient organocatalyst for this important transformation at atmospheric pressure, and a series of desired products were synthesized in good to excellent yields...
March 7, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262667/integrated-co2-capture-fixation-chemistry-via-interfacial-ionic-liquid-catalyst-in-laminar-gas-liquid-flow
#7
Niraj K Vishwakarma, Ajay K Singh, Yoon-Ho Hwang, Dong-Hyeon Ko, Jin-Oh Kim, A Giridhar Babu, Dong-Pyo Kim
Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas-liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209400/multidrug-resistant-enterococcal-infections-new-compounds-novel-antimicrobial-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Roel M van Harten, Rob J L Willems, Nathaniel I Martin, Antoni P A Hendrickx
Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197728/linezolid-resistant-enterococci-in-polish-hospitals-species-clonality-and-determinants-of-linezolid-resistance
#9
I Gawryszewska, D Żabicka, W Hryniewicz, E Sadowy
The significant increase of the linezolid-resistant enterococci (LRE) has been observed in Polish hospitals since 2012 and our study aimed at elucidating the possible reasons for this phenomenon. Polish LRE isolates were analysed by multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) and multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to establish clonal relatedness and mechanism of linezolid resistance, respectively...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197303/optimization-of-3-pyrimidin-4-yl-oxazolidin-2-ones-as-allosteric-and-mutant-specific-inhibitors-of-idh1
#10
Julian R Levell, Thomas Caferro, Gregg Chenail, Ina Dix, Julia Dooley, Brant Firestone, Pascal D Fortin, John Giraldes, Ty Gould, Joseph D Growney, Michael D Jones, Raviraj Kulathila, Fallon Lin, Gang Liu, Arne Mueller, Simon van der Plas, Kelly Slocum, Troy Smith, Remi Terranova, B Barry Touré, Viraj Tyagi, Trixie Wagner, Xiaoling Xie, Ming Xu, Fan S Yang, Liping X Zhou, Raymond Pagliarini, Young Shin Cho
High throughput screening and subsequent hit validation identified 4-isopropyl-3-(2-((1-phenylethyl)amino)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxazolidin-2-one as a potent inhibitor of IDH1(R132H). Synthesis of the four separate stereoisomers identified the (S,S)-diastereomer (IDH125, 1f) as the most potent isomer. This also showed reasonable cellular activity and excellent selectivity vs IDH1(wt). Initial structure-activity relationship exploration identified the key tolerances and potential for optimization. X-ray crystallography identified a functionally relevant allosteric binding site amenable to inhibitors, which can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, and aided rational optimization...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193240/substitution-of-ethambutol-with-linezolid-during-the-intensive-phase-of-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicenter-randomized-open-label-phase-ii-trial
#11
Ji Yeon Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Jung-Kyu Lee, Ho Il Yoon, Ina Jeong, Eunyoung Heo, Young Sik Park, Jae Ho Lee, Sung Soo Park, Sang-Min Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jinwoo Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Jong Sun Park, Joon-Sung Joh, Young-Jae Cho, Yeon Joo Lee, Se Joong Kim, Young Ran Hwang, Hyeonjeong Kim, Jongeun Ki, Hyungsook Choi, Jiyeon Han, Heejung Ahn, Seokyung Hahn, Jae-Joon Yim
BACKGROUND: Linezolid, an oxazolidinone, substantially improves treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We started a trial to test whether the use of linezolid instead of ethambutol could increase the rate of sputum culture conversion as of 8 weeks of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a phase II, multicenter, randomized study with three arms. We are enrolling patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without rifampicin resistance screened by the Xpert MTB/RIF® assay...
February 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187378/development-of-an-analytical-method-for-detecting-nitrofurans-in-bee-pollen-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Mi Sun Park, Kyung Tae Kim, Jong Seong Kang
Bee pollen collected by honeybees, which is in powdered form, is a good nutritional supplement. Nitrofuran antibiotics are assumed not to be present in bee pollen, which is important as the level of antibiotics in bee pollen is strongly regulated in many countries. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to detect nitrofurans in honey has been developed, but this method is not suitable for bee pollen because of it being in powdered form. During preparation of bee pollen samples, the dispersal of powder particles in an aqueous solution often makes them susceptible to forming an emulsion with solvent components such as hexane and ethyl acetate...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168646/synthesis-of-lactones-and-other-heterocycles
#13
REVIEW
Xi Liu, Liang-Nian He
Chemical fixation of CO2 into value-added chemicals represents a promising field in view of sustainable development and green synthesis. In this aspect, the construction of heterocyclic compounds from CO2 and readily available starting materials is particularly appealing in both organic and pharmaceutical fields since CO2 can be regarded as carbon and oxygen resource with advantages of abundance, renewability, non-toxicity, and non-flammability. In this chapter, we have summarized elegant protocols with elaborately designed substrates for the direct incorporation of entire CO2 molecule or "CO" or "C" fragments into lactones and other heterocycles such as oxazolidinones, cyclic carbonates, quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, etc...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167545/single-and-multiple-dose-study-to-determine-the-safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-food-effect-of-oral-mrx-i-versus-linezolid-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#14
Paul B Eckburg, Yigong Ge, Barry Hafkin
A multipart Phase 1 study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and food effect of the novel oral oxazolidinone, MRX-I, in healthy adults, as well as the tolerability of longer-term exposure of both oral MRX-I and linezolid.Thirty subjects in Part 1 received single ascending doses of MRX-I or placebo under fasting or fed condition in a double-blind crossover design. Twelve subjects in Part 2, received MRX-I 800 mg q12h for 14 days in double-blind, placebo-controlled design. In Part 3, 24 subjects were randomized to receive 28 days of MRX-I 800 mg q12h or oral linezolid 600 mg q12h for 28 days in a double-blind, double-dummy design...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154311/synthesis-of-linezolid-metabolites-pnu-142300-and-pnu-142586-toward-the-exploration-of-metabolite-related-events
#15
Kengo Hanaya, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Yuta Yokoyama, Junko Kizu, Mitsuru Shoji, Takeshi Sugai
Linezolid (1) is an oxazolidinone antibiotic that is partially metabolized in vivo via ring cleavage of its morpholine moiety to mainly form two metabolites, PNU-142300 (2) and PNU-142586 (3). It is supposed that accumulation of 2 and 3 in patients with renal insufficiency may cause thrombocytopenia, one of the adverse effects of linezolid. However, the poor availability of 2 and 3 has hindered further investigation of the clinical significance of the accumulation of these metabolites. In this paper, we synthesized metabolites 2 and 3 via a common synthetic intermediate, 4; this will encourage further exploration of events related to these metabolites and lead to improved clinical use of linezolid...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140693/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-tedizolid-for-the-treatment-of-skin-infections
#16
REVIEW
Darrell McBride, Tamara Krekel, Kevin Hsueh, Michael J Durkin
Tedizolid is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Although tedizolid shares many similar properties with linezolid, another oxazolidinone used to treat ABSSSI, the two antibiotics have several key differences. Areas covered: This review provides a detailed summary of the overall pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of tedizolid for the treatment of ABSSSI. Expert opinion: Compared to other antibiotics used for ABSSSI, tedizolid has several advantages...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137816/effects-of-tedizolid-phosphate-on-survival-outcomes-and-suppression-of-production-of-staphylococcal-toxins-in-a-rabbit-model-of-mrsa-necrotizing-pneumonia
#17
Vien T M Le, Hoan N Le, Marcos Gabriel Pinheiro, Kenneth J Hahn, Mary L Dinh, Kajal B Larson, Shawn D Flanagan, Cedric Badiou, Gerard Lina, Christine Tkaczyk, Bret R Sellman, Binh An Diep
The protective efficacy of tedizolid phosphate, a second-generation oxazolidinone that potently inhibits bacterial protein synthesis, was compared to those of linezolid, vancomycin, or saline in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia. A rabbit dosing regimen of 6 mg/kg tedizolid phosphate IV twice daily, which yielded AUC0-24h values approximating those in humans, was used. Overall survival rate was 83% for rabbits treated with 6 mg/kg tedizolid phosphate twice daily and 83% for those treated with 50 mg/kg linezolid thrice daily (P=0...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134678/what-is-new-in-the-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-2016
#18
Garyphallia Poulakou, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Sotirios Tsiodras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments and hospital admissions in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology and management of SSTIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence trends of SSTIs were increasing worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci predominating and methicillin-resistant S...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129816/-update-on-antibiotic-resistance-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#19
Carmen Lozano, Carmen Torres
Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, especially in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a serious threat to public health. These microorganisms have multiple resistance mechanisms to agents currently used in clinical practice. Many of these resistance mechanisms are common to all 4 of these bacterial species, but other mechanisms seem to be more specific. The prevalence and dissemination of these mechanisms varies considerably, depending on the microorganism...
January 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127613/recent-advances-in-reactions-of-aryl-sulfonyl-isocyanates
#20
REVIEW
Dayun Huang, Guobing Yan
Aryl sulfonyl isocyanates are important intermediates in organic synthesis. They are used as electrophilic reagents and easily react with nucleophiles to form amides, sulfonyl ureas, pyrrolidine derivatives, lactams, oxazolidinones, and so on. Although there are some reviews on the applications of isocyanates in chemistry, few are concerned about aryl sulfonyl isocyanates. This review focuses on recent advances related to aryl sulfonyl isocyanates in organic synthesis, mainly including three special characteristics...
January 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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