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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726133/iron-protects-porcine-plasma-coagulation-kinetics-from-degradation-by-crotalus-atrox-venom
#1
Christine S Olver, Vance G Nielsen
While the administration of antivenom to treat hemotoxic snake bite injury remains the gold standard of therapy, we have demonstrated that modifying human fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide renders it resistant to fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes. In order to translate these findings into a possible biometal-based therapy complementary to antivenom administration, a preclinical model that possesses fibrinogen that closely mimics the human molecule in response to iron and carbon monoxide needed to be identified...
July 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703020/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-snakebite-in-the-elderly-a-toxic-database-study
#2
Meghan B Spyres, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Rais Vohra, Eric Smith, Angela Padilla-Jones
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic studies of snakebites in the United States report typical victims to be young men. Little is known regarding other demographics including children and the elderly. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of snake bite in elderly patients reported to the ToxIC (Toxicology Investigators Consortium) North American Snakebite Registry (NASBR) Methods: This was a multicenter analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of patients with snakebite reported to the ToxIC NASBR between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698056/daboia-vipera-palaestinae-envenomation-in-horses-clinical-and-hematological-signs-risk-factors-for-mortality-and-construction-of-a-novel-severity-scoring-system
#3
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Reut Solomovich, Judith Comte, Gila A Sutton, Amir Steinman
Daboia palaestinae is the most common venomous snake in Israel and an important cause of envenomations in humans and animals. Although specific antivenom is produced from horses, little documentation exists regarding the characteristics of envenomed horses. This survey was constructed to describe the clinical, hematological and biochemical characteristics of D. palaestinae envenomation in horses, to identify risk factors for fatality and to construct a prognostic snakebite severity scale (SSS) to be used by veterinarians in the field...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696521/characterization-of-the-rabbit-as-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-model-to-assess-the-effects-of-fibrinogenolytic-activity-of-snake-venom-on-coagulation
#4
Vance G Nielsen, Elda E Sánchez, Daniel T Redford
Several in vitro investigations have demonstrated that anticoagulant effects of fibrinogenolytic snake venom metalloproteinases have been abrogated in human plasma by modifying fibrinogen with iron (Fe) and carbon monoxide (CO) to prevent catalysis or by directly inhibiting these enzymes with CO. In order to translate these findings, we chose to assess the rabbit as a model of envenomation with Crotalus atrox venom. It was determined with thrombelastography that 15-fold the concentration of venom noted to compromise coagulation in plasma in vitro was required to cause coagulopathy in vivo, likely secondary to venom binding to blood cells and being cleared from the circulation rapidly...
July 11, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691277/crotalus-atrox-venom-exposed-to-carbon-monoxide-has-decreased-fibrinogenolytic-activity-in-vivo-in-rabbits
#5
Vance G Nielsen
Envenomation by hemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood...
July 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683119/the-socio-economic-burden-of-snakebite-in-sri-lanka
#6
Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Andrew Dawson, Geoff K Isbister, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Data from a representative nation-wide community based household survey were used to estimate the number of bites and deaths nationally, and household and out of pocket costs were derived from household questionnaires...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677550/snake-bite-envenoming-a-priority-neglected-tropical-disease
#7
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669099/bilateral-simultaneous-acute-angle-closure-attack-triggered-by-an-over-the-counter-flu-medication
#8
Simona Delia Nicoară, Ioana Damian
Most of the rare bilateral acute angle closure (AAC) cases are precipitated by systemic factors, such as drug intake, snake bite or general anaesthesia. We present a case of simultaneous bilateral AAC in a middle-aged male, precipitated by the use of medication for flu, containing an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist and an anticholinergic agent. In our case, axial length was shorter, anterior chamber depth was narrower, and the lens was thicker than normal, including the patient within the risk group for AAC...
July 1, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652957/a-retrospective-study-of-acute-renal-failure-in-children-its-incidence-etiology-complications-and-prognosis
#9
Kadar Ismail Hassan, Jama Hodan M, Chunfu Li
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) developed due to various causes and may lead to significant morbidity and mortality among pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to determine the incidence, etiology, outcome of treatment and clinical presentation of ARF in pediatric patients in Somalia. METHODS: Comprehensive case history of 39 pediatric patients below 12 years of age, admitted with renal diseases in four tertiary care hospitals in Hargeisa and Borama cities in Somalia during December 2015 to November 2016...
May 25, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647179/euphorbia-neriifolia-l-review-on-botany-ethnomedicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-biological-activities
#10
REVIEW
Prashant Y Mali, Shital S Panchal
The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#11
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627854/swiss-and-tropical-snakebites-the-clinical-management
#12
Laurence Rochat, Gabriel Alcoba
With increasing trips to tropical areas, as well as a high number of venomous snake holders in the country, the frequency of snake bites is likely to increase. Even if in 50 % of cases, the bites do not lead to clinical envenoming, rapid and effective management is essential to successful treatment, which includes supply with the polyvalent or specific antivenom and recognition of the signs and symptoms justifying its administration. We will deal here mainly with local and tropical snake envenoming that Swiss practitioners could encounter in their offices or the emergency rooms and propose scenarios according to the syndromes...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595590/shortcomings-in-snake-bite-management-in-rural-cameroon-a-case-report
#13
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Christian Akem Dimala, Vitalis Fambombi Feteh
BACKGROUND: Snake bites are an important public health problem in developing countries with most bites occurring in rural areas. Severe envenomation often occurs in children and following bites to the face. Prompt administration of potent anti-venom remains the mainstay of management. However in Cameroon, the use of anti-venoms is limited by non-availability, high cost (where available) and poor mastery of treatment guidelines. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 10-year-old muslim Cameroonian child from an enclaved rural area, brought to the hospital 12 h after a snake bite to the face, with signs of severe envenomation...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592212/low-dose-versus-high-dose-anti-snake-venom-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-haematotoxic-snake-bite-in-south-india
#14
Imanto M Joseph, Cijoy K Kuriakose, Anand Vimal Dev, George A Philip
Most of the studies on the appropriate dose of anti-snake venom (ASV) are from tertiary hospitals and the guidelines are unclear. Our observational study compared the outcomes of two prevalent treatment regimes for haematotoxic snake bite in a secondary care hospital in South India. The time to normalisation of whole blood clotting time, mortality and complications were not different between the groups. The average dose of ASV required in the low and high dose groups were 106 mL and 246 mL, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579478/absolute-venomics-absolute-quantification-of-intact-venom-proteins-through-elemental-mass-spectrometry
#15
Francisco Calderón-Celis, Laura Cid-Barrio, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan J Calvete
We report the application of a hybrid element and molecular MS configuration for the parallel absolute quantification of μHPLC-separated intact sulfur-containing venom proteins, via ICP triple quadrupole MS and (32)S/(34)S isotope dilution analysis, and identification by ESI-QToF-MS of the toxins of the medically important African black-necked spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis (Tanzania); New Guinea small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka; and Papuan black snake, Pseudechis papuanus. The main advantage of this approach is that only one generic sulfur-containing standard is required to quantify each and all intact Cys- and/or Met-containing toxins of the venom proteome...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574015/clinical-profile-complications-of-neurotoxic-snake-bite-comparison-of-two-regimens-of-polyvalent-anti-snake-venom-in-its-treatment
#16
Krishna Sarin, Tarun Kumar Dutta, K V Vinod
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The optimal anti-snake venom (ASV) dose required to treat neurotoxic snake envenomation is not known. Low-dose ASV (national protocol: maximum dose 200 ml) may be as efficacious as the conventional regimen (100 ml six hourly till all symptoms disappear), but a direct comparison of the regimens is not available. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of low-dose ASV regimen against the conventional high-dose regimen. METHODS: The clinical profile of 51 patients with neurotoxic snake envenomation was studied...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573238/kirkia-acuminata-oliv-a-review-of-its-ethnobotany-and-pharmacology
#17
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571206/spontaneous-intracerebral-bleed-post-snake-envenomation
#18
Girish Menon, Lakshman I Kongwad, Rajesh Parameshwaran Nair, Anmol Nagaraj Gowda
Snakebite envenomation is a commonly encountered emergency in tropical countries with potentially fatal complications. Life threatening neurosurgical complications are rare and infrequently documented in literature. We discuss the case of 28-year-old gentleman, managed successfully for an intracerebral haemorrhage following a viper bite and attempt to obviate some management dilemmas often encountered in viperine envenomation.
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562767/infrared-thermography-to-diagnose-and-manage-venomous-animal-bites-and-stings
#19
Carlos Roberto de Medeiros, Marcos Leal Brioschi, Solange Nogueira de Souza, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Infrared imaging (IR) is a noninvasive technique that quantifies body surface temperature, producing a digital color image. IR has been used to study diseases in which skin temperature can reflect the presence of inflammation. METHODS: This was an observational pilot study of eight patients envenomed by snakes, spiders, and scorpions. All patients were examined using a thermal camera. RESULTS: In all cases, we obtained infrared images that corroborated clinical findings indicating localized effects of venom, specifically inflammation...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542227/health-beliefs-of-school-age-rural-children-in-podoconiosis-affected-families-a-qualitative-study-in-southern-ethiopia
#20
Abebayehu Tora, Getnet Tadele, Abraham Aseffa, Colleen M McBride, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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