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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920799/presumptive-pit-viper-envenomation-in-psittacines-in-a-brazilian-zoo
#1
Mathias Dislich, Peter Wohlsein, Anna Sophie Croukamp, Ulrich Neumann
Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913414/diversity-of-aerobic-bacteria-isolated-from-oral-and-cloacal-cavities-from-free-living-snakes-species-in-costa-rica-rainforest
#2
Allan Artavia-León, Ariel Romero-Guerrero, Carolina Sancho-Blanco, Norman Rojas, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro
Costa Rica has a significant number of snakebites per year and bacterial infections are often complications in these animal bites. Hereby, this study aims to identify, characterize, and report the diversity of the bacterial community in the oral and cloacal cavities of venomous and nonvenomous snakes found in wildlife in Costa Rica. The snakes where captured by casual encounter search between August and November of 2014 in the Quebrada González sector, in Braulio Carrillo National Park. A total of 120 swabs, oral and cloacal, were taken from 16 individuals of the Viperidae and Colubridae families...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878925/severe-japanese-mamushi-gloydius-blomhoffii-bite
#3
Ezekiel Wong Toh Yoon, Yuichiro Otani, Syu Kabuto
Venomous snake bites can be life threatening, occasionally requiring intensive care. For Mamushi bites, conservative treatment may be possible in mild cases but for severe cases or in cases where symptoms do not improve, a horse-derived antivenom is indicated.
September 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876572/haemoperitoneum-secondary-to-snake-bite
#4
S Rahim
BACKGROUND: Literature supports that very rarely the venom of "Hemotoxic Snake" (Russell's Vipers) affect haemostasis by secreting thrombin-like enzyme which promotes formation of unstable clots. Such clots could lead to fibrin deposition in micro circulation that in turn consume platelets and coagulation factors (consumption coagulopathy). Clinical presentation is mainly spontaneous bleeding and coagulopathy. In this case the significant effects of altered coagulation were observed in retropetitoneum and the patient presented in casuality as acute abdomen...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842354/fatal-stroke-after-bothrops-snakebite-in-the-amazonas-state-brazil-a-case-report
#5
Sâmella Silva de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida Freitas-de-Sousa, Eliane Campos Alves, Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira, Iran Mendonça da Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Hui Wen Fan, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Bothrops atrox is the snake responsible for the majority of snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon. Patients generally evolve to local manifestations such as edema, pain and ecchymoses. Systemic effects of B. atrox venom are usually restricted to blood incoagulability and spontaneous bleeding. However, in a few cases, bleeding in the central nervous system may occur, which can lead to sequels and deaths. Here, we report a case of a 59 year-old woman who presented edema, pain and ecchymoses on the right foot, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hypertension and blood incoagulability after the bite by Bothrops snake in the Brazilian Amazon...
August 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835176/locked-in-syndrome-post-snake-bite-a-rare-presentation
#6
Aditya Singh Kutiyal, Chetanya Malik, Gitika Hyanki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831315/an-unexpected-case-of-black-mamba-dendroaspis-polylepis-bite-in-switzerland
#7
Verena Quarch, Lukas Brander, Luca Cioccari
Mambas (genus Dendroaspis) are among the most feared venomous African snakes. Without medical treatment, mamba bites are frequently fatal. First-aid treatment includes lymphatic retardation with the pressure immobilization technique. Medical management comprises continuous monitoring, securing patency of the airway, ensuring adequate ventilation, symptomatic measures, and administration of specific antivenin. We report an unusual case of a snake breeder bitten by a black mamba in Switzerland, report the clinical course, and review the lifesaving emergency management of mamba bites...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830630/false-positive-immunoassay-for-acetyl-choline-receptor-antibody-achr-ab-in-patients-exposed-to-polyvalent-antisnake-venom
#8
Kaushik Sundar, Shankar Venkatasubramanian, Sundar Shanmugam, Preetam Arthur, Ramakrishnan Subbaraya, Philo Hazeena
Acute flaccid paralysis is a neuromuscular emergency characterized by rapidly worsening weakness that evolves quickly to cause diaphragmatic failure. The challenge for the treating physician is to stabilize the patient, generate the differential diagnosis and determine the management; all in quick time. Neurotoxic snake bites have inadequate signs of inflammation and are easily missed. Myasthenic crisis, on the other hand, could be the first sign of myasthenia gravis in up to 20% of patients. Both present with acute respiratory failure and inadequate history...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830248/naja-atra-snakebite-in-taiwan
#9
Yan-Chiao Mao, Po-Yu Liu, Liao-Chun Chiang, Chih-Sheng Lai, Kuo-Lung Lai, Cheng-Hsuan Ho, Te-Huo Wang, Chen-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND: Naja atra snakebite is uncommon in Taiwan and causes distinct effects on its victims. Although the Taiwan government produces its own specific antivenom, little information on the management of N. atra snakebite is available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 183 patients admitted to two medical centers. Of these, 45 were identified as definite cases of N. atra snakebite, 86 as suspected cases, and 52 as clinical cases. Demographic data, symptomatology, and management were compared between these case groups...
August 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799310/venomous-snake-bite-in-india-why-do-50-000-indians-die-every-year
#10
Jaideep C Menon, Joseph K Joseph, Romulus E Whitaker
Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. An estimated 50,000 Indians die due to venomous snakebite every year, seventy percent of whom are males between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Along with the associated morbidity and mortality, snakebite leads to a significant financial burden on the victim, both by way of hospital bills and labour hours lost. Snakebite is also a cause for considerable psychological stress among survivors...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768797/has-snake-fang-evolution-lost-its-bite-new-insights-from-a-structural-mechanics-viewpoint
#11
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis
Venomous snakes-the pinnacle of snake evolution-are characterized by their possession of venom-conducting fangs ranging from grooved phenotypes characterizing multiple lineages of rear-fanged taxa to tubular phenotypes present in elapids, viperids and atractaspidines. Despite extensive research, controversy still exists on the selective pressures involved in fang phenotype diversification. Here, we test the hypothesis that larger fangs and consequently a shift to an anterior position in the maxilla evolved to compensate for the costs of structural changes, i...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764620/the-australian-snakebite-project-2005-2015-asp-20
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Colin B Page, Nicholas A Buckley, Simon Ga Brown, Margaret A O'Leary, Geoffrey K Isbister
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre study of data on patients with snakebites recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project (2005-2015) and data from the National Coronial Information System. Setting, participants: Patients presenting to Australian hospitals with suspected or confirmed snakebites from July 2005 to June 2015 and consenting to participation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, circumstances of bites, clinical effects of envenoming, results of laboratory investigations and snake venom detection kit (SVDK) testing, antivenom treatment and adverse reactions, time to discharge, deaths...
August 7, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764224/paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-due-to-venomous-snake-bite
#13
Samarth Virmani, Rama Bhat, Raghavendra Rao, Raahat Kapur, Savio Dsouza
Snake bites are common all around the world with a great prevalence in South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Although they are associated with common complications such as local swelling, bleeding at site of bite, coagulopathy, etc., few rare cardiac complications such as myocardial infarctions and arrhythmias have also been described in literature. The following is a case report of a patient who had a snake bite with a Russell's viper which resulted in atrial fibrillation, which resolved on treatment with anti snake venom...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761270/medicinal-plants-and-bone-healing
#14
REVIEW
Vibha Singh
Fracture is defined as complete or incomplete separation in the continuity of bone Fracture healing is a complex physiological process that involves the coordinated participation of hematopoietic and immune cells within bone marrow. It conjunction with vascular and skeletal cell precursors it also includes mesenchymal stem cells which are recruited from the circulation and the surrounding tissues. It is estimated that 80% of the population in developing countries still rely on the traditional herbal medicines...
January 2017: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735968/epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#15
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, P E A N Ranathunga, S A M Kularatne
Green pit viper is a venomous endemic snake in Sri Lanka. But little is known regarding its envenoming in the country. This study was carried out in order to find out epidemiology and clinical profile of its bites. A series of 17 patients with Sri Lankan Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) bites was prospectively studied over 4 years. The mean age was 36 ½ years (range 12-61 years) and comprised 14 (82%) males. Except one case, all bites occurred during day time (0600 h-1800 h) due to inadvertent provocation...
July 21, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726133/iron-protects-porcine-plasma-coagulation-kinetics-from-degradation-by-crotalus-atrox-venom
#16
Christine S Olver, Vance G Nielsen
While the administration of antivenom to treat hemotoxic snake bite injury remains the gold standard of therapy, we have demonstrated that modifying human fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide renders it resistant to fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes. In order to translate these findings into a possible biometal-based therapy complementary to antivenom administration, a preclinical model that possesses fibrinogen that closely mimics the human molecule in response to iron and carbon monoxide needed to be identified...
July 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703020/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-snakebite-in-the-elderly-a-toxic-database-study
#17
Meghan B Spyres, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Rais Vohra, Eric Smith, Angela Padilla-Jones
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic studies of snakebites in the United States report typical victims to be young men. Little is known regarding other demographics including children and the elderly. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of snake bite in elderly patients reported to the ToxIC (Toxicology Investigators Consortium) North American Snakebite Registry (NASBR) Methods: This was a multicenter analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of patients with snakebite reported to the ToxIC NASBR between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698056/daboia-vipera-palaestinae-envenomation-in-horses-clinical-and-hematological-signs-risk-factors-for-mortality-and-construction-of-a-novel-severity-scoring-system
#18
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Reut Solomovich, Judith Comte, Gila A Sutton, Amir Steinman
Daboia palaestinae is the most common venomous snake in Israel and an important cause of envenomations in humans and animals. Although specific antivenom is produced from horses, little documentation exists regarding the characteristics of envenomed horses. This survey was constructed to describe the clinical, hematological and biochemical characteristics of D. palaestinae envenomation in horses, to identify risk factors for fatality and to construct a prognostic snakebite severity scale (SSS) to be used by veterinarians in the field...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696521/characterization-of-the-rabbit-as-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-model-to-assess-the-effects-of-fibrinogenolytic-activity-of-snake-venom-on-coagulation
#19
Vance G Nielsen, Elda E Sánchez, Daniel T Redford
Several in vitro investigations have demonstrated that anticoagulant effects of fibrinogenolytic snake venom metalloproteinases have been abrogated in human plasma by modifying fibrinogen with iron (Fe) and carbon monoxide (CO) to prevent catalysis or by directly inhibiting these enzymes with CO. To translate these findings, we chose to assess the rabbit as a model of envenomation with Crotalus atrox venom. It was determined with thrombelastography that 15 times the concentration of venom noted to compromise coagulation in plasma in vitro was required to cause coagulopathy in vivo, likely secondary to venom binding to blood cells and being cleared from the circulation rapidly...
July 11, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691277/crotalus-atrox-venom-exposed-to-carbon-monoxide-has-decreased-fibrinogenolytic-activity-in-vivo-in-rabbits
#20
Vance G Nielsen
Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood...
July 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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