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Eosinophil, asthma pathogenesis, copd

Koji Tamai, Harukazu Yoshimatsu, Toshiharu Saito, Hirofumi Matsuoka, Nobuhiko Okada, Yasuko Koma, Akiko Otsuka, Nao Oda, Sayaka Inoue, Sachie Kume, Yujiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune involvement in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been proposed, and autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmunity. This study aimed to compare the autoantibody profiles of asthma and COPD, and the relationship between autoantibodies and features of these diseases. METHODS: We recruited 110 asthma patients and 92 COPD patients for a prospective study. Six autoantibody types were evaluated: antinuclear antibody, anti-cytoplasmic antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (MPO-ANCA) and proteinase 3-ANCA...
August 31, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Sofia Taddei, Luigi Zucchi
Asthma is a complex disorder frequently associated with a poor symptom control, concomitant morbidity, mortality, and significant health care costs due to lack of compliance or inadequate therapeutic options. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic disorders, and in the latest years has become a definite target for treatment. Besides asthma, other hypereosinophilic disorders include the hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sinonasal polyposis, COPD with eosinophilic airway inflammation, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis...
2015: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Stephanie A Christenson, Katrina Steiling, Maarten van den Berge, Kahkeshan Hijazi, Pieter S Hiemstra, Dirkje S Postma, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum Spira, Prescott G Woodruff
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and likely includes a subgroup that is biologically comparable to asthma. Studying asthma-associated gene expression changes in COPD could add insight into COPD pathogenesis and reveal biomarkers that predict a favorable response to corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether asthma-associated gene signatures are increased in COPD and associated with asthma-related features...
April 1, 2015: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Guy Brusselle, Ken Bracke
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways, with differences in etiology, pathogenesis, immunologic mechanisms, clinical presentation, comorbidities, prognosis, and response to treatment. In mild to moderate early-onset allergic asthma, the Th2-driven eosinophilic airway inflammation and the ensuing disease can be well controlled with maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In real-life settings, asthma control can be improved by facilitating adherence to ICS treatment and by optimizing inhaler technique...
December 2014: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Michael A Ghebre, Mona Bafadhel, Dhananjay Desai, Suzanne E Cohen, Paul Newbold, Laura Rapley, Jo Woods, Paul Rugman, Ian D Pavord, Chris Newby, Paul R Burton, Richard D May, Chris E Brightling
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine, in terms of their sputum cellular and mediator profiles, the extent to which they represent distinct or overlapping conditions supporting either the "British" or "Dutch" hypotheses of airway disease pathogenesis. METHODS: We compared the clinical and physiological characteristics and sputum mediators between 86 subjects with severe asthma and 75 with moderate-to-severe COPD...
January 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Juliana Bessa, Claas Aiko Meyer, Maria Cristina de Vera Mudry, Sonja Schlicht, Susan H Smith, Antonio Iglesias, Javier Cote-Sierra
Non-resolving inflammation is a major contributor to chronic disease pathogenesis, including that of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and obesity. Some cytokines, such as IL-1α and IL-33, may act as endogenous alarmins that contribute to non-resolving inflammation. These cytokines are constitutively expressed in the nucleus and are thought to promote inflammation only upon release during tissue damage or cell necrosis. However, the importance of their nuclear localization in immune homeostasis is not fully understood...
December 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
Swati Agrawal, Robert G Townley
INTRODUCTION: Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity, absences from work or school and hospitalizations. Patients with severe asthma which are not controlled despite taking effective therapy are most in need of new treatment approaches. IL-13 was demonstrated as 'central mediator of allergic asthma'. AREAS COVERED: IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. IL-13 levels in the sputum and bronchial biopsy samples remain elevated in severe asthma despite the use of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids...
February 2014: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
R M Mroz, A Holownia, P Wielgat, A Sitko, T Skopinski, E Chyczewska, J J Braszko
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is related to infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells in airways and pulmonary tissue. In COPD, neutrophils are prominent, while eosinophilic influx is typical to asthma. Inflammatory cells express sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin like lectins called Siglecs, a family of innate immune receptors that are transmembrane I-type lectins binding sialic acid. One member of the Siglec family, Siglec-8, is expressed mostly in eosinophils and may be an important therapeutic target in asthma or COPD...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Young-Jae Cho, Hyo-Jeong Lim, Jong Sun Park, Jae Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee, Ho Il Yoon
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) can be measured easily, rapidly, and noninvasively for the assessment of airway inflammation, particularly mediated by eosinophil, such as asthma. In bronchiectasis (BE), the pathogenesis has been known as chronic airway inflammation and infection with abnormal airway dilatation; however, there are little studies to evaluate the role of FeNO in BE. METHODS: From March 2010 to February 2012, 47 patients with BE, diagnosed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), performed FeNO, compared with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
January 2013: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Masanori Sawada, Tomotaka Kawayama, Haruki Imaoka, Yuki Sakazaki, Hanako Oda, Shin-ichi Takenaka, Yoichiro Kaku, Koichi Azuma, Morihiro Tajiri, Nobutaka Edakuni, Masaki Okamoto, Seiya Kato, Tomoaki Hoshino
IL-18 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including pulmonary infection, pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unknown whether IL-18 plays any role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We hypothesized that overexpression of mature IL-18 protein in the lungs may exacerbate disease activities of asthma. We established lung-specific IL-18 transgenic mice on a Balb/c genetic background. Female mice sensitized- and challenged- with antigen (ovalbumin) were used as a mouse asthma model...
2013: PloS One
Balázs Antus
In recent years induced sputum analysis has become a non-invasive method for the assessment of airway inflammation in obstructive airway diseases. Sputum induction is safe and well tolerated by the patients. The method has been standardized, and this has markedly improved the quality and reproducibility of sputum samples. Identification of sputum eosinophilia has the greatest clinical relevance as it predicts a favorable response to corticosteroids. Treatment strategy aiming normalisation of sputum eosinophil cell count may reduce the rate of exacerbations in asthma...
November 25, 2012: Orvosi Hetilap
Xiaomeng Ren, Tushar A Shah, Vladimir Ustiyan, Yufang Zhang, John Shinn, Gang Chen, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Chronic airway disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, and asthma, are associated with persistent pulmonary inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders is actively studied, little is known regarding the transcriptional control of goblet cell differentiation and mucus hyperproduction. Herein, we demonstrated that pulmonary allergen sensitization induces expression of FOXM1 transcription factor in airway epithelial and inflammatory cells...
January 2013: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jimmy Fourtounis, I-Ming Wang, Marie-Claude Mathieu, David Claveau, Tenneille Loo, Aimee L Jackson, Mette A Peters, Alex G Therien, Yves Boie, Michael A Crackower
BACKGROUND: Oxidative Stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. The NRF2/KEAP1 axis is a key transcriptional regulator of the anti-oxidant response in cells. Nrf2 knockout mice have implicated this pathway in regulating inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and COPD. To better understand the role the NRF2 pathway has on respiratory disease we have taken a novel approach to define NRF2 dependent gene expression in a relevant lung system. METHODS: Normal human lung fibroblasts were transfected with siRNA specific for NRF2 or KEAP1...
2012: Respiratory Research
Chun Geun Lee, Bing Ma, Seyedtaghi Takyar, Farida Ahangari, Charles Delacruz, Chuan Hua He, Jack A Elias
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of vascular angiogenesis, permeability, and remodeling that also plays important roles in wound healing and tissue cytoprotection. To begin to define the roles of VEGF in diseases like asthma and COPD, we characterized the effects of lung-targeted transgenic VEGF(165) and defined the innate immune pathways that regulate VEGF tissue responses. The former studies demonstrated that VEGF plays an important role in Th2 inflammation because, in addition to stimulating angiogenesis and edema, VEGF induced eosinophilic inflammation, mucus metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, myocyte hyperplasia, dendritic cell activation, and airways hyperresponsiveness via IL-13-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
November 2011: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society
Changchun Hou, Haijin Zhao, Laiyu Liu, Wenjun Li, Xiaoting Zhou, Yanhua Lv, Xiangbo Shen, Zhenyu Liang, Shaoxi Cai, Fei Zou
High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the expression of HMGB1 in plasma and sputum of patients with asthma and COPD across disease severity needs to be defined. The objective of the study was to examine the induced sputum and plasma concentrations of HMGB1 in COPD and asthmatic patients to determine differences in HMGB1 levels between these diseases and their relationship with airway obstruction and inflammatory patterns...
2011: Molecular Medicine
P Paredi, S A Kharitonov, P J Barnes
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of asthma (1,2), chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD) (3), and cystic fibrosis (4). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unstable compounds with unpaired electrons, capable of initiating oxidation. Several of the inflammatory cells which participate in the inflammatory response, such as macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils release increased amounts of ROS (1,5) exceeding the already reduced tissue antioxidant defences of asthmatic and COPD patients (2)...
2001: Methods in Molecular Medicine
Peter J Barnes, Raed A Dweik, Arthur F Gelb, Peter G Gibson, Steven C George, Hartmut Grasemann, Ian D Pavord, Felix Ratjen, Philip E Silkoff, D Robin Taylor, Noe Zamel
The upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) by inflammatory cytokines and mediators in central and peripheral airway sites can be monitored easily in exhaled air. It is now possible to estimate the predominant site of increased fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) and its potential pathologic and physiologic role in various pulmonary diseases. In asthma, increased FeNO reflects eosinophilic-mediated inflammatory pathways moderately well in central and/or peripheral airway sites and implies increased inhaled and systemic corticosteroid responsiveness...
September 2010: Chest
Patrick M A Sleiman, Hakon Hakonarson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a complex phenotype caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that remain poorly understood. The common variants involved in the pathogenesis of asthma have proved difficult to identify by candidate gene association studies. Recently genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been applied to asthma with considerable success. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 12 months have seen some notable advances in the genetics of asthma including five GWA studies using asthma status as an endpoint, as well as one chronic obstructive pulmonary disease study and five GWA studies of intermediate phenotypes, one each on serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, blood eosinophil counts and three on lung function as measured by spirometry...
June 2010: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
K Górska, R Krenke, J Kosciuch, P Korczynski, M Zukowska, J Domagala-Kulawik, M Maskey-Warzechowska, R Chazan
UNLABELLED: Despite a number of important differences in the pathogenesis, course and prognosis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), these two entities also have common features with airway inflammation being one of them. Airway remodeling is a characteristic feature of asthma, but data on the bronchial wall thickening in COPD patients are still scarce. AIM: To assess the relation between the inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and thickness of bronchial walls assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in asthma and COPD patients...
December 7, 2009: European Journal of Medical Research
Masakazu Ichinose
Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasing common diseases. The major pathogenesis of both illnesses is chronic inflammation. However, the inflammatory pattern is distinct in each disease. In asthmatic airways, activated mast cells/eosinophils and T helper 2 lymphocytes (Th2) are predominant. In contrast, macrophages and neutrophils are important in COPD airways/lung. Although nitric oxide (NO) hyperproduction due to inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is observed in asthma and COPD, nitrotyrosine formation via the reaction between NO and O(2)- in addition to the myeloperoxidase-mediated pathway...
September 2009: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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