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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161657/effects-of-local-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-uterus-and-oviduct-of-rabbit-does
#1
Laura Menchetti, Olimpia Barbato, Iulia Elena Filipescu, Giovanna Traina, Leonardo Leonardi, Angela Polisca, Alessandro Troisi, Gabriella Guelfi, Federica Piro, Gabriele Brecchia
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor - 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n = 6) or LPS (500 μg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n = 6)...
November 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153518/subacute-ruminal-acidosis-affects-fermentation-and-endotoxin-concentration-in-the-rumen-and-relative-expression-of-the-cd14-tlr4-md2-genes-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-systemic-immune-response-in-dairy-cows
#2
B Stefanska, W Człapa, E Pruszynska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, V Fievez, J Komisarek, K Stajek, W Nowak
The first objective of this study was to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on fermentation, ruminal free lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex in white blood cells involved in the systemic immune response in dairy cows. The second objective was a study of whether increased expression of the LPS receptor complex led to increases in the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum Ca...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152323/new-melanocortin-like-peptide-of-e-coli-can-suppress-inflammation-via-the-mammalian-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-possible-endocrine-like-function-for-microbes-of-the-gut
#3
Xiaoling Qiang, Anthony S Liotta, Joseph Shiloach, J C Gutierrez, Haichao Wang, Mahendar Ochani, Kanta Ochani, Huan Yang, Aviva Rabin, Derek LeRoith, Maxine A Lesniak, Markus Böhm, Christian Maaser, Klaus Kannengiesser, Mark Donowitz, Shervin Rabizadeh, Christopher J Czura, Kevin J Tracey, Mark Westlake, Aida Zarfeshani, Syed F Mehdi, Ann Danoff, Xueliang Ge, Suparna Sanyal, Gary J Schwartz, Jesse Roth
E. coli releases a 33 amino acid peptide melanocortin-like peptide of E. coli (MECO-1) that is identical to the C-terminus of the E. coli elongation factor-G (EF-G) and has interesting similarities to two prominent mammalian melanocortin hormones, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Note that MECO-1 lacks HFRW, the common pharmacophore of the known mammalian melanocortin peptides. MECO-1 and the two hormones were equally effective in severely blunting release of cytokines (HMGB1 and TNF) from macrophage-like cells in response to (i) endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or (ii) pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB-1...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149705/toll-like-receptor-4-deficiency-increases-resistance-in-sepsis-induced-immune-dysfunction
#4
Chao Cao, Yanfen Chai, Songtao Shou, Jun Wang, Ying Huang, Tao Ma
Sepsis constitutes a serious life-threatening syndrome associated with complications of deregulated inflammatory response against endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated severe infection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in the activation of innate immunity through recognition of LPS. However, the impact of TLR4 signaling on the development of sepsis-induced immune dysfunction remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TLR4 on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and its potential mechanism...
November 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141922/trpc6-contributes-to-lps-induced-inflammation-through-erk1-2-and-p38-pathway-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#5
Li-Fen Zhou, Qing-Zi Chen, Chun-Tao Yang, Zhao-Di Fu, Shen-Ting Zhao, Yan Chen, Shu-Ni Li, Li Liao, Yu-Bo Zhou, Jian-Rong Huang, Jian-Hua Li
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are currently an emerging target for airway disorders. Recent evidences have indicated that TRPC6 as a member of the TRPC family plays an important role in airway inflammation, but its precise function in bronchial epithelial cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TRPC6 in TLR4-mediated inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Hyp9 is a simplified phloroglucinol derivative of Hyperforin which highly selective activates TRPC6 channels...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141644/lipopolysaccharide-pretreatment-increases-protease-activated-receptor-2-expression-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-secretion-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#6
Hung-Hsing Chao, Po-Yuan Chen, Wen-Rui Hao, Wei-Ping Chiang, Tzu-Hurng Cheng, Shih-Hurng Loh, Yuk-Man Leung, Ju-Chi Liu, Jin-Jer Chen, Li-Chin Sung
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increase protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) expression and enhance the association between PAR-2 expression and chemokine production in human vascular endothelial cells (ECs). METHODS: The morphology of ECs was observed through microphotography in cultured human umbilical vein ECs (EA. hy926 cells) treated with various LPS concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mL) for 24 h, and cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125559/endotoxin-induced-inflammation-suppresses-the-effect-of-melatonin-on-the-release-of-lh-from-the-ovine-pars-tuberalis-explants-ex-vivo-study
#7
Karolina Wojtulewicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Andrzej Przemysław Herman
The secretion of the hormone melatonin reliably reflects environmental light conditions. Among numerous actions, in seasonal breeders, melatonin may regulate the secretion of the gonadotropins acting via its corresponding receptors occurring in the Pars Tuberalis (PT). However, it was previously found that the secretory activity of the pituitary may be dependent on the immune status of the animal. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the role of melatonin in the modulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the PT explants collected from saline- and endotoxin-treated ewes in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle...
November 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123834/inhaled-hydrogen-ameliorates-endotoxin-induced-bowel-dysfunction
#8
Hiroyuki Sakata, Ayana Okamoto, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Hayato Yamashita, Keisuke Kohama, Noritomo Fujisaki, Taihei Yamada, Joji Kotani, Kohei Tsukahara, Atsuyoshi Iida, Atsunori Nakao
Aim: Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs during sepsis and multiple organ failure, remaining a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Previous studies have shown that hydrogen, a new therapeutic gas, can improve various organ damage associated with sepsis. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacies of inhaled hydrogen against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ileus. Methods: Sepsis was induced in rats and mice by a single i...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121396/role-of-gut-derived-endotoxin-on-type-i-collagen-production-in-the-rat-pancreas-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure
#9
Hongyan Li, Ming Xiu, Shuhua Wang, David R Brigstock, Li Sun, Limei Qu, Runping Gao
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fibrosis is a key pathological feature of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered as an important cofactor in the fibrogenesis of ACP. However, there are limitations in the use of exogenous LPS for evaluating the role of endotoxin in ACP pathogenesis. In this study we determined the relationship between the concentration of LPS in the portal vein and pancreatic type I collagen (Col1) content in chronic alcohol-fed rats...
November 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114953/expanding-the-paradigm-for-the-outer-membrane-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-the-absence-of-endotoxin
#10
REVIEW
Matthew Joseph Powers, M Stephen Trent
Asymmetry in the outer membrane has long defined the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. This asymmetry, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) exclusively in the outer leaflet of the membrane, establishes an impermeable barrier that protects the cell from a number of stressors in the environment. Work done over the past 5 years has shown that Acinetobacter baumannii has the remarkable capability to survive with inactivated production of lipid A biosynthesis and the absence of LOS in its outer membrane...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105595/host-defense-peptide-expression-in-human-cervical-cells-and-regulation-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-in-the-presence-of-cytokines-and-bacterial-endotoxin
#11
Evonne C Chin-Smith, Natasha L Hezelgrave, Rachel M Tribe
Host defense peptides (HDPs) in the pregnant female reproductive tract provide protection against infection. The relationship between HDPs and infection/inflammation is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of HDPs by 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2) in the presence/absence of infectious/inflammatory agents. Endocervical epithelial cells (END1/E6E7, n = 6) were exposed to 1,25-(OH)2, calcipotriol, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), granulate-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-GSF), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099761/the-role-of-carbohydrates-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-lps-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-signalling
#12
REVIEW
Florent Cochet, Francesco Peri
The interactions between sugar-containing molecules from the bacteria cell wall and pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on the plasma membrane or cytosol of specialized host cells are the first molecular events required for the activation of higher animal's immune response and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of carbohydrates of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, lipooligosaccharide, LOS, and lipid A), in the interaction with the host Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD-2) complex...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093014/irs-posttranslational-modifications-in-regulating-insulin-signaling
#13
Jinghua Peng, Ling He
Insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance is still not completely understood. Previous reports showed that posttranslational modifications of IRS play a critical role in insulin signaling, especially the phosphorylation of IRS by distinct kinases. While it is known that increasing Sirtuin 1 deacetylase activity improves insulin sensitivity in the liver, the identity of its counterpart, an acetyl-transferase, remains unknown...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084331/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-ripasudil-k-115-a-rho-kinase-rock-inhibitor-on-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-in-rats
#14
Takatoshi Uchida, Megumi Honjo, Reiko Yamagishi, Makoto Aihara
Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of ripasudil, a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, using endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis was induced by footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ripasudil was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before and after LPS injection. The aqueous humor was collected 24 hours after injection, and the infiltrating cells, protein concentration, and levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078089/stigmasterol-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-innate-immune-responses-in-murine-models
#15
Aaron O Antwi, David D Obiri, Newman Osafo, Arnold D Forkuo, Leslie B Essel
Stigmasterol is a naturally occurring steroid alcohol which occurs in vegetables, soya and a large variety of medicinal plants. Stigmasterol and other phytosterols have been documented as immunomodulators with huge therapeutic potential. We assessed the mitigating effect of stigmasterol on non-fatal and fatal innate immune responses in murine models after intraperitoneal challenge with an endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide, LPS. The effect of stigmasterol on LPS-induced febrile response, inflammatory cell proliferation, multiple organ damage and mortality were respectively investigated...
October 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074105/endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-regulates-histone-demethylase-jmjd3-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-lps-stimulated-macrophages-and-in-a-mouse-model-of-lps-induced-septic-shock
#16
Siyu Liu, Xiling Wang, Lilong Pan, Weijun Wu, Di Yang, Ming Qin, Wanwan Jia, Chenxi Xiao, Fen Long, Junbo Ge, Xinhua Liu, YiZhun Zhu
Overproduction of inflammatory mediators contributes to uncontrolled inflammation during endotoxin shock.Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme involved in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis, has potential anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of inflammatory diseases. Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3), a histone 3 Lys27 (H3K27) demethylase, has been implicated in macrophage activation, but its function in CSE-mediated anti-inflammatory activities remains unknown. In the present study CSE was found to be upregulated in macrophages and mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge models...
October 23, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073894/propofol-inhibits-the-release-of-interleukin-6-8-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-correlating-with-high-mobility-group-box%C3%A2-1-expression-in-lipopolysaccharides-stimulated-raw-264-7-cells
#17
Jie Jia, Yijuan Sun, Zurong Hu, Yi Li, Xiangcai Ruan
BACKGROUND: Studies have found that propofol can inhibit endotoxin-induced monocyte-macrophages to produce various inflammatory factors. This study is to disclose whether the propofol affects the expression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells were divided into four groups for intervention. After culturing for 16 h, the cells and culture supernatants were collected...
October 26, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072959/interleukin-10-overexpressing-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induce-a-series-of-regulatory-effects-in-the-inflammatory-system-and-promote-the-survival-of-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-model
#18
Chenfei Wang, Dan Lv, Xiaobin Zhang, Zhu-Ang Ni, Xiaofan Sun, Changqing Zhu
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening inflammatory conditions with no effective pharmacological treatment. Previous studies suggested that mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) infusion resulted in better survival in mouse ALI models and presented low toxicity in human subjects. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of treating a murine model of ALI using MSCs with constant interleukin-10 overexpression (IL-10-MSC) by retroviral infection...
October 26, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070687/rotavirus-degrades-multiple-type-interferon-receptors-to-inhibit-ifn-signaling-and-protects-against-mortality-from-endotoxin-in-suckling-mice
#19
Adrish Sen, Ayushi Sharma, Harry B Greenberg
STAT1 phosphorylation in response to exogenous IFN administration can be inhibited by rotaviral replication both in vitro and in vivo. In addition many rotavirus strains are resistant to the actions of different IFN types . The regulation of multiple IFN type-mediated antiviral pathways by RVs is not well understood. In this study, we find that during infection in vitro and in vivo RV significantly depletes IFN-type I, II, and III receptors (IFNRs). Regulation of IFNRs occurred exclusively within RV-infected cells and could be abrogated by inhibiting the lysosomal-endosomal degradation pathway...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066299/%C3%AE-elemene-attenuates-macrophage-activation-and-proinflammatory-factor-production-via-crosstalk-with-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#20
Yangyi Fang, Yanhua Kang, Han Zou, Xiaxuan Cheng, Tian Xie, Liyun Shi, Hang Zhang
β-elemene, extracted from Rhizoma zedoariae, has been widely used as a traditional medicine for its antitumor activity against a broad range of cancers. However, the effect of β-elemene in inflammation disorders has yet to be determined. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and potential molecular mechanisms of β-elemene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cells RAW264.7. We found that the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), induced by LPS was significantly suppressed by β-elemene in a dose-dependent manner in RAW264...
October 21, 2017: Fitoterapia
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