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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810692/resveratrol-protects-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-the-uterus-and-prevents-experimental-preterm-birth
#1
María Victoria Bariani, Fernando Correa, Emma Leishman, Ana Paula Domínguez Rubio, Andreína Arias, Aníbal Stern, Heather B Bradshaw, Ana María Franchi
STUDY QUESTION: Is resveratrol able to prevent the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor in 15-day pregnant BALB/c mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced onset of preterm labor in 64% of the cases and showed anti-inflammatory and tocolytic effects by downregulating COX-2 and iNOS expression and NOS activity, and by changing the uterine prostaglandin and endocannabinoid profiling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Genital tract infections by Gram-negative bacteria are a common complication in human pregnancy and have been shown to increase risk of preterm delivery...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808944/effect-of-ha330-resin-directed-hemoadsorption-on-a-porcine-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-model
#2
Xuefeng Xu, Chune Jia, Sa Luo, Yanming Li, Fei Xiao, Huaping Dai, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: Blood purification is an emerging approach to dampening the cytokine storm. This study aims to assess the efficacy of HA330 resin-directed hemoadsorption (HA) on endotoxin-induced porcine acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model. METHODS: Twenty-four Chinese domestic pigs were allocated into saline group receiving intravenous infusion of saline (N = 6) and endotoxin group receiving intravenous infusion of LPS (N = 18). When ALI model was initially diagnosed, six pigs in the LPS and saline group were killed for BALF and histopathological analysis...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807677/phosphodiesterase-4b-expression-plays-a-major-role-in-alcohol-induced-neuro-inflammation
#3
Diana V Avila, Scott A Myers, JingWen Zhang, Giorgi Kharebava, Craig J McClain, Hee-Yong Kim, Scott R Whittemore, Leila Gobejishvili, Shirish Barve
It is increasingly evident that alcohol-induced, gut-mediated peripheral endotoxemia plays a significant role in glial cell activation and neuro-inflammation. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding, we examined the causal role of endotoxin- and cytokine-responsive Pde4 subfamily b (Pde4b) expression in alcohol-induced neuro-inflammation. Both pharmacologic and genetic approaches were used to determine the regulatory role of Pde4b. In C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) alcohol fed (WT-AF) animals, alcohol significantly induced peripheral endotoxemia and Pde4b expression in brain tissue, accompanied by a decrease in cAMP levels...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805975/antofine-suppresses-endotoxin-induced-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorder-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#4
Shao-Ting Chou, Fang Jung, Shih-Hsing Yang, Hwei-Ling Chou, Guey-Mei Jow, Jau-Chen Lin
The inhibition of activated macrophages has been used to develop anti-inflammatory agents for therapeutic intervention to human diseases that cause excessive inflammatory responses. Antofine, a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory activity have not yet been fully detailed. In this study, we comprehensively explored the anti-inflammatory effects of antofine on endotoxin-induced inflammation in macrophages using cDNA microarray analysis, thereby elucidating the potential mechanism by which antofine suppresses inflammation...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804981/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-rats-the-role-of-immune-cells
#5
Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Toru Fukushima, Ataru Taniguchi, Yoshihito Fujita, Kinsuke Tsuda, Nobuya Inagaki, Masaya Hosokawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Bacterial septicemia has diverse clinical symptoms including severe hypoglycemia. However, sepsis-induced hypoglycemia has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemia in sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced endotoxin shock in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, we measured gluconeogenesis using the pyruvate tolerance test (PTT)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804726/low-dose-of-lipopolysaccharide-pretreatment-preventing-subsequent-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-is-associated-with-pi3k-akt-pathway
#6
Nan Zhang, Shuo Yu, Xinli Liu, Hong Lu
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of LPS pretreatment on endotoxin-induced uveitis and PI3K/AKT pathway. METHODS: Endotoxin-induced uveitis was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 μg LPS. For the endotoxin tolerance group, induction of EIU was preceded by daily subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg LPS for five days. Clinical scores were graded at 24 h after EIU under a slit lamp microscope. HE stain was performed to observe the histopathology. Aqueous humor TNF-α concentration was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802852/autophagy-regulates-accumulation-and-functional-activity-of-granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-via-stat3-signaling-in-endotoxin-shock
#7
Guanjun Dong, Chuanping Si, Qingqing Zhang, Fenglian Yan, Chunxia Li, Hui Zhang, Qun Ma, Jun Dai, Zhihua Li, Hui Shi, Bo Wang, Junfeng Zhang, Jiankuo Ming, Yuan Hu, Shuo Geng, Yao Zheng, Liwu Li, Huabao Xiong
Autophagy extensively participates in immune responses and inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are derived from CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells under pathological conditions and play an immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, the role of autophagy in regulating the accumulation and activity of MDSCs remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of autophagy on regulating accumulation and activity of MDSCs. We first found that granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs), but not monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs), were accumulated in mice challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and showed an elevated autophagy activity...
August 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792854/phytosterols-synergize-with-endotoxin-to-augment-inflammation-in-kupffer-cells-but-alone-have-limited-direct-effect-on-hepatocytes
#8
Gregory Guthrie, Bryan Tackett, Barbara Stoll, Camilia Martin, Oluyinka Olutoye, Douglas G Burrin
INTRODUCTION: Phytosterols are implicated in the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. A newly proposed mechanism for phytosterol-mediated parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease is through phytosterol-facilitated hepatic proinflammatory cytokine release following exposure to intestinally derived bacteria. Whether the proinflammatory effects are liver cell specific is not known. AIM: To determine if phytosterols cause inflammation in hepatocytes or Kupffer cells independently or require costimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790198/neutrophil-activation-of-endothelial-cell-expressed-trpm2-mediates-transendothelial-neutrophil-migration-and-vascular-injury
#9
Manish Mittal, Saroj Nepal, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Claudie M Hecquet, Dheeraj Soni, Jalees Rehman, Chinnaswamy Tiruppathi, Asrar B Malik
Rationale: TRPM2 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-2) expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) is a cation channel mediating Ca(2+) entry in response to intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR), the TRPM2 ligand. Objective: Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) interaction with endothelial cells (ECs) generates ROS, we addressed the possible role of TRPM2 expressed in ECs in the mechanism of transendothelial migration of PMNs. Methods and Results: We observed defective PMN transmigration in response to LPS challenge in adult mice in which the EC expressed TRPM2 is conditionally deleted (Trpm2(iΔEC) )...
August 8, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783409/host-defenses-against-metabolic-endotoxaemia-and-their-impact-on-lipopolysaccharide-detection
#10
Tola A Faraj, Catherine L McLaughlin, Clett Erridge
Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), is one of the most potent inducers of inflammatory signaling, yet it is abundant in the human gut and the modern diet. Small quantities of LPS routinely translocate from the gut lumen to the circulation (so-called metabolic endotoxaemia), and elevated plasma LPS concentrations are reported in a variety of chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Murine models of experimentally-induced endotoxaemia and Toll-like receptor-4 deficiency suggest that endotoxin may promote the metabolic disturbances that underpin these diseases...
May 4, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776644/glucocorticoids-downregulate-tlr4-signaling-activity-via-its-direct-targeting-by-mir-511-5p
#11
Graziella Curtale, Tiziana A Renzi, Lorenzo Drufuca, Marcello Rubino, Massimo Locati
Endotoxin tolerance assures proper regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway and avoids uncontrolled inflammation, limiting tissue damage and endotoxin shock development. Though underlying molecular mechanisms are still undefined, evidence indicates the involvement of microRNAs, which represent a new layer of regulation of inflammatory pathways. Here we report that LPS and other inflammatory stimuli repress miR-511-5p expression in human monocytes, while anti-inflammatory stimuli, such as TGFβ and glucocorticoids, have the opposite effect...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771573/human-leucocyte-antigen-hla-dr-gene-expression-is-reduced-in-sepsis-and-correlates-with-impaired-tnf%C3%AE-response-a-diagnostic-tool-for-immunosuppression
#12
Martin Sebastian Winkler, Anne Rissiek, Marion Priefler, Edzard Schwedhelm, Linda Robbe, Antonia Bauer, Corinne Zahrte, Christian Zoellner, Stefan Kluge, Axel Nierhaus
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is defined as a dysregulated immune response to infection. Impaired immune response in sepsis, often described as endotoxin tolerance, is characterized by unresponsiveness of monocytes on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation to release tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Furthermore, decreased monocyte surface protein expression of human leucocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) is a marker for changes of the innate immune response during sepsis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and flow-cytometry (FACS) have been used to measure protein or gene expression of HLA-DR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771492/production-of-an-anti-a%C3%AE-antibody-fragment-in-pichia-pastoris-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-validation-of-its-therapeutic-effect
#13
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Gisela Esquerda-Canals, Silvia Bronsoms, Sandra Villegas
ScFv-h3D6 has been shown as an efficient therapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease. Because one of the major bottlenecks for the therapeutic uses of proteins produced in Escherichia coli is their potential contamination with endotoxins, LPS were extensively removed by a rather low-efficient, expensive, and time-consuming purification step. In addition, disulfide scrambling is favored in the reducing bacterial cytoplasm albeit the use of reductase deficient strains. To overcome these hurdles, as well as to improve the yield, the yeast Pichia pastoris, an endotoxin-free host system for recombinant protein production, has been used to produce scFv-h3D6, both in flask and in a fed-batch bioreactor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766178/differential-regulation-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-6-release-in-murine-macrophages
#14
Seishiro Hirano, Quan Zhou, Akiko Furuyama, Sanae Kanno
Asbestos and silica (exogenous danger) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, endogenous danger-signaling molecule) synergistically increase IL-1β release from endotoxin-primed macrophage, which is mediated by NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. However, the conversion of pro-IL-1β to its active form seems to depend on the macrophage cell types. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) and three murine macrophage cell lines, J774.1, J774A.1, and RAW264.7 were exposed to ATP or fibrous titanium dioxide (FTiO2) in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the concentrations of IL-1β and IL-6 in both cell lysates and in the culture media were measured by immunoblotting to differentiate active form of IL-1β from pro-IL-1β...
August 1, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762847/inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-a-new-protective-mechanism-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-endotoxin-poisoning-of-mice
#15
Feng Xu, Feng Wang, Taoqun Wen, Wentao Sang, Dejian Wang, Nan Zeng
CONTEXT: Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has a protective effect in endotoxin poisoning of mice, but there is no direct evidence for the protective effect of CA through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in endotoxin poisoning of mice. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of CA in endotoxin poisoned mice through NLRP3 inflammasome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of CA in phorbol-12-myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells through the NLRP3 inflammasome...
August 1, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759751/rac2-deficiency-attenuates-ccl4-induced-liver-injury-through-suppressing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Yan Zou, Ji-Bin Xiong, Ke Ma, Ai-Zhong Wang, Ke-Jian Qian
Oxidative stress is a leading cause to liver injury. Rac2 is a Ras-associated guanosine triphosphatase, an important molecule modulating a large number of cells and involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the study described here, we supposed that Rac2 knockout protects mice against CCl4-induced acute liver injury. We found that Rac2 expressed highly in CCl4-induced liver tissues. CCl4-treated Rac2 knockout (Rac2-/-) mice had reduced CD24 levels and steatosis. In addition, CCl4-induced high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were reversed by Rac2 deficiency compared to CCl4-treated wild type (WT) mice...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759530/sevoflurane-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-compared-with-propofol-but-does-not-modulate-neuro-inflammation-a-laboratory-rat-study
#17
Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Lukas Baumann, Tanja Restin, Philipp Eugster, Melanie Hasler, Christa Booy, Martin Schläpfer
BACKGROUND: Septic encephalopathy is believed to be a result of neuro-inflammation possibly triggered by endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Modulation of the immune system is a property of volatile anaesthetics. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the systemic and cerebral inflammatory response in a LPS-induced sepsis model in rats. We compared two different sedation strategies, intravenous propofol and the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane, with the hypothesis that the latter may attenuate neuro-inflammatory processes...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757275/protective-effects-of-sinomenine-against-lps-induced-inflammation-in-piglets
#18
Haifeng Yang, Chunmao Jiang, Xiaolan Chen, Kongwang He, Yiyi Hu
The aim of this study was to investigate in piglets, the anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine, an agent commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. In high-, middle- and low-dose sinomenine groups, piglets were initially challenged with endotoxin (i.e., 1 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection and, 3 h later, intramuscularly (IM) with sinomenine at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg. In a drug control group, piglets were dosed IP with vehicle and 3 h late IM with 10 mg/kg sinomenine while those in an LPS control group were challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg (IP) and then vehicle 3 h later; naïve control piglets were administered normal saline IP and then IM only...
July 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751937/myricitrin-modulates-nadph-oxidase-dependent-ros-production-to-inhibit-endotoxin-mediated-inflammation-by-blocking-the-jak-stat1-and-nox2-p47-phox-pathways
#19
Shimei Qi, Zunyong Feng, Qiang Li, Zhilin Qi, Yao Zhang
Myricitrin, a naturally occurring polyphenol hydroxy flavonoid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise molecular mechanism of myricitrin's effects on LPS-induced inflammation is unclear. In the present study, myricitrin significantly alleviated acute lung injury in mice. Myricitrin also markedly suppressed the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The inhibition of NO was concomitant with a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of iNOS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739486/microrna-146a-5p-attenuates-liver-fibrosis-by-suppressing-profibrogenic-effects-of-tgf%C3%AE-1-and-lipopolysaccharide
#20
Yanting Zou, Yu Cai, Di Lu, Yi Zhou, Qunyan Yao, Shuncai Zhang
Liver fibrosis is characterized by proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) is crucial for liver fibrogenesis, and gut-derived endotoxin (LPS) also plays an important role in liver fibrogenesis. In the present study, we found that microRNA-146a-5p (miR-146a-5p) could regulate TGFβ1/Smad and LPS/NF-κB/Bambi pathways to attenuate liver fibrosis. Downregulated miR-146a-5p and upregulated level of LPS were found in liver of CCl4-treated rats. On cellular level, expression of miR-146a-5p is reduced during primary rat HSCs naturally activation and changed in response to TGFβ1 and/or LPS stimulation in primary rat HSCs and human HSC line LX-2...
July 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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