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Endotoxin, LPS

Dong-Keon Lee, Ji-Hee Kim, Joohwan Kim, Seunghwan Choi, MinSik Park, Wonjin Park, Suji Kim, Kyu-Sun Lee, Taesam Kim, Jiwon Jung, Yoon Kyung Choi, Kwon-Soo Ha, Moo-Ho Won, Timothy R Billiar, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Regulated in development and DNA damage responses (REDD)-1, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is induced by various cell stressors, including LPS, a major player in the pathogenesis of endotoxemic shock. However, the pathologic role of REDD-1 in endotoxemia is largely unknown. We found that LPS increased REDD-1 expression, nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and inflammation and that these responses were suppressed by REDD-1 knockdown and in REDD-1+/- macrophages. REDD-1 overexpression stimulated NF-κB-dependent inflammation without additional LPS stimulation...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Scott M Goetz, Christina M Romagosa, Arthur G Appel, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
During geographic range expansion, populations of non-indigenous species at the invasion front may benefit from directing resources away from immune defense. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the strength of two innate immune components in populations of invasive Cuban Treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in a long-colonized area (core region) and at the invasion front (leading-edge region). First, we compared the region-specific metabolic response of frogs injected with an endotoxin that induces systemic inflammation (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) to sham-injected control frogs pooled from both regions...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mahua G Choudhury, Suman Kumari, Kuheli B Das, Nirmalendu Saha
The magur catfish (Clarias magur) is a facultative air-breather and regularly encounters with various environmental changes along with exposure to various bacterial pathogens in its natural habitats. Occurrence of various biochemical adaptational strategies related to nitrogen metabolism in magur catfish is already known. The present investigation aimed at determining the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene and stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) production in this catfish while challenging with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a bacterial endotoxin) treatment, and also to determine the involvement of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) in induction of inos gene...
March 7, 2018: Gene
Haojuan Jia, Jia Shi, Shu'an Dong, Yuan Zhang, Jianbo Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) pathway on mitochondrial fusion in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Once the cultured in vitro rat AEC II cells line RLE-6TN reached confluency of 85%, they were subcultured and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 5 each). RLE-6TN cells were routinely cultured in control group. The cells in LPS group was stimulated with 10 mg/L LPS to reproduce the model of endotoxin challenge in AECII cells...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Shaolei Ma, Yujie Wang, Xiangrong Zuo, Jing Yao, Quan Cao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by endotoxin on the right ventricular function in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model group with 30 rats in each group. The rat model of ARDS was reproduced by intratracheal instillation of LPS 10 mg/kg after tracheotomy, and the rats in NS control group was intratracheally given the same volume of NS instead of LPS...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Won Seok Yang, Jin Ju Kim, Mee Jeong Lee, Eun Kyoung Lee, Su-Kil Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocytes/macrophages develop endotoxin tolerance in part by reducing cell surface toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) through cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)-dependent endocytosis. In case of endothelial cells, CD14 is expressed in low copy numbers as compared with monocytes/macrophages. Thus, we explored how endothelial cells regulate TLR4 expression after LPS stimulation. METHODS: Cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with LPS...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Zhili Rao, Feng Xu, Taoqun Wen, Feng Wang, Wentao Sang, Nan Zeng
The essential oils from Rimulus cinnamon (EORC) have anti-inflammation activities, but the effects of EORC on endotoxin poisoning mice remain to be explored, the mechanism is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of EORC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin poisoning mice. Pre-treatment with EORC decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-18, Interleukin-5, and Interferon-γ) and chemokines (Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and Macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) in serum of endotoxin poisoning mice...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eun Jung Park, Young Min Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Ki Churl Chang
OBJECTIVE: Although luteolin has shown to have anti-inflammatory action, no report is available whether luteolin inhibits HMGB1 and protects acute lung injury (ALI) in endotoxin rodents. We hypothesized that HO-1 induction by luteolin might play a crucial role for inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators including HMGB1 through MAPK signaling in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and it ameliorates ALI of endotoxin mice. METHODS: The effects of luteolin on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-activated RAW264...
March 1, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Jie Mei, Nico Riedel, Ulrike Grittner, Matthias Endres, Stefanie Banneke, Julius Valentin Emmrich
Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yali Zhang, Zhiguo Liu, Jianzhang Wu, Bin Bai, Hongjin Chen, Zhongxiang Xiao, Lingfeng Chen, Yunjie Zhao, Hazel Lum, Yi Wang, Hong Zhang, Guang Liang
An overactive Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling complex is a significant pathogenic factor of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The natural product curcumin is reported to inhibit the TLR4 co-receptor, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein 2), but its low in vivo bioavailability limits its therapeutic potential. We developed new curcumin analogs (MACs) with removal of the β-diketone moiety and substituted residues in benzene rings, and identify these as potential MD2 inhibitors with improved inhibition potency and stability over that of curcumin...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Qiuyu Wang, Lili Jin, Huan Wang, Sijia Tai, Hongsheng Liu, Dianbao Zhang
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are major outer membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria and produce strong inflammatory responses in animals. Most antibiotics have shown little clinical anti-endotoxin activity while some antimicrobial peptides have proved to be effective in blocking LPS. Here, the anti-LPS activity of the synthetic peptide AWRK6, which is derived from antimicrobial peptide dybowskin-2CDYa, has been investigated in vitro and in vivo. The positively charged α-helical AWRK6 was found to be effective in blocking the binding of LBP (LPS binding protein) with LPS in vitro using ELISA...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Salma Mukhtar Mir, Halley Gora Ravuri, Raj Kumar Pradhan, Sairam Narra, Jerald Mahesh Kumar, Madhusudana Kuncha, Sanjit Kanjilal, Ramakrishna Sistla
Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is responsible for 70-80% mortality in intensive care patients due to elevated levels of endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused by gram-negative infections. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical is known for its renal protection on various induced models of nephrotoxicity. However, the curative effect of FA in LPS-induced AKI is not well studied. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FA on LPS-induced AKI in mice model and to understand the protective mechanisms involved, to provide evidence for FA in the treatment of AKI...
February 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sang A Park, Young Ho Choe, Sung Hwan Lee, Young-Min Hyun
Sepsis is a type of severe infection that can cause organ failure and tissue damage. Although the mortality and morbidity rates associated with sepsis are extremely high, no direct treatment or organ-related mechanism has been examined in detail in real time. The liver is the key organ that manages toxins and infections in the human body. Herein, we aimed to perform intravital imaging of mouse liver after induction of endotoxemia in order to track the motility of immune cells, such as neutrophils and liver capsular macrophages (LCMs)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhijun Yang, Feng Cheng, Guosheng Yan, Lang Xiong, Huizhang Liu
This study investigated whether propofol protects against endotoxin-induced myocardial injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Thirty clean male SD rats were randomly divided into a control (n=10), a model (n=10) and a propofol group (n=10). The model and propofol groups were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via the caudal vein to establish animal models of myocardial injury. At the same time, the control group was injected with normal saline via the caudal vein. At 30 min after the injections, the propofol group was treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of propofol, the control and model groups were injected with normal saline, and the three groups were treated continuously for 4 h...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jing Zhang, Chunbo Yu, Xuan Zhang, Huiwen Chen, Jiachen Dong, Weili Lu, Zhongchen Song, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) is one of the major pathogenic factors of chronic periodontitis (CP). Few reports on the correlation between P. gingivalis-LPS and cognitive function exist. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of P. gingivalis-LPS on cognitive function and the associated underlying mechanism in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: The C57BL/6 mice were injected with P. gingivalis-LPS (5 mg kg-1) either with or without Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor (TAK-242, 5 mg kg-1)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Li Sun, Ming Xiu, Shuhua Wang, David R Brigstock, Hongyan Li, Limei Qu, Runping Gao
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in fibrogenesis during alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a key regulator of extracellular matrix production and PSC activation. Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as a trigger factor in the pathogenesis of ACP. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LPS modulates TGF-β1 signalling and pancreatic fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol (ALC) liquid diet for 10 weeks with or without LPS challenge during the last 3 weeks...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Chang Lu, Xuemei Zhang, Chenyu Ma, Wenchun Xu, Lingling Gan, Jin Cui, Yibing Yin, Hong Wang
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is one of the leading causes of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). Although the immunoregulation function of NTHI outer member protein and endotoxin were confirmed, the role of NTHI DNA in activating immune responses remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found expression of IFN-β and IFN stimulated gene CXCL10 in host cells was forcefully elevated after treating with NTHI and NTHI DNA. Interestingly, we tested increased level of STING in NTHI infected mice lung...
April 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A M Magariños, S M Schaafsma, D W Pfaff
Impacts of steroid stress hormones on the brain have provided multiple opportunities for linking specific molecular phenomena to behavioral state. The negative impacts of stress on female reproductive biological processes have been documented thoroughly at the endocrine and behavioral levels. More recently, a '3-hit' theory of autism has identified early stress as one of the hits. The multiple biochemical effects of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) indicated that it would serve as a powerful maternal immune activator...
February 2, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jennifer L Ather, Matthew E Poynter
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an apolipoprotein that is robustly upregulated in numerous inflammatory diseases and has been implicated as a candidate pro-inflammatory mediator. However, studies comparing endogenous SAAs and recombinant forms of the acute phase protein have generated conflicting data on the function of SAA in immunity. We generated SAA3 knockout mice to evaluate the contribution of SAA3 to immune-mediated disease, and found that mice lacking SAA3 develop adult-onset obesity and metabolic dysfunction along with defects in innate immune development...
2018: PloS One
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