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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778648/impact-of-insulin-on-the-intestinal-microcirculation-in-a-model-of-sepsis-related-hyperglycemia
#1
Alexa Caldwell, Jan Niklas Morick, Anne-Marie Jentsch, Annette Wegener, Dragan Pavlovic, Nadia Al-Banna, Christian Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Sepsis involves dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Among patients with sepsis, hyperglycemia is frequent and insulin administration has been evaluated for glycemic control to improve patient outcomes. Only few studies have examined the hyperglycemic microcirculation and the impact of insulin on the microvasculature in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To study the functional capillary density (FCD) and leukocyte activation within the intestinal microcirculation in endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis...
May 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770592/particles-of-vaterite-a-metastable-caco-3-polymorph-exhibit-high-biocompatibility-for-human-osteoblasts-and-endothelial-cells-and-may-serve-as-a-biomaterial-for-rapid-bone-regeneration
#2
Romina Schröder, Laura Besch, Hannah Pohlit, Martin Panthöfer, Wilfried Roth, Holger Frey, Wolfgang Tremel, Ronald E Unger
We have previously described a promising alternative to conventional synthetic bone biomaterials using vaterite, a metastable CaCO3 polymorph, that increases the local Ca2+ concentration in vitro and leads to an over-saturation of phosphate, the primary bone mineral. This stimulates a natural bone-like mineralization in a short period of time. In this study, sterile and endotoxin-free vaterite particles were synthesized in a nearly quantitative yield. The 500-1000 nm vaterite particles did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects as measured by MTT, LDH or crystal violet assays on the human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) exposed to concentrations up to 500 μg/ml vaterite up to 72 hr...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770204/diverse-pro-inflammatory-endotoxin-recognition-systems-of-mammalian-innate-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Jerrold Weiss, Jason Barker
In humans and other mammals, recognition of endotoxins-abundant surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria-provides a potent stimulus for induction of inflammation and mobilization of host defenses. The structurally unique lipid A region of LPS is the principal determinant of this pro-inflammatory activity. This region of LPS is normally buried within the bacterial outer membrane and aggregates of purified LPS, making even more remarkable its picomolar potency and the ability of discrete variations in lipid A structure to markedly alter the pro-inflammatory activity of LPS...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768397/lipopolysaccharide-exposure-alleviates-asthma-in-mice-by-regulating-th1-th2-and-treg-th17-balance
#4
Fengxia Ding, Zhou Fu, Bo Liu
BACKGROUND It is generally believed that endotoxin exposure exacerbates risk of developing asthmatic symptoms. However, recent studies have indicated that prior bacterial exposure may prevent future symptoms of asthma. Here, we evaluated the influence of pre-exposure to different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to subsequent ovalbumin (OVA) allergen sensitization and challenge. MATERIAL AND METHODS Four-week-old Balb/c mice were treated intranasally with varying concentrations of LPS (1 ug, 10 ug, and 100 ug) or sterile PBS for 10 days, then 2 weeks later they were exposed to OVA...
May 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767743/premeal-low-fat-yogurt-consumption-reduces-postprandial-inflammation-and-markers-of-endotoxin-exposure-in-healthy-premenopausal-women-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ruisong Pei, Diana M DiMarco, Kelley K Putt, Derek A Martin, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Richard S Bruno, Bradley W Bolling
Background: Metabolic endotoxemia is associated with obesity and contributes to postprandial inflammation. Objective: We aimed to determine if low-fat yogurt consumption prevents postprandial inflammation and dysmetabolism in healthy women by inhibiting biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia. Methods: Premenopausal women defined as obese and nonobese [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) 30-40 and 18.5-27, respectively, n = 120] were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 wk (n = 30/group)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765489/gallic-acid-l-leucine-conjugate-protects-mice-against-lps-induced-inflammation-and-sepsis-via-correcting-proinflammatory-lipid-mediator-profiles-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Yuanyuan Cheng, Xuechen Li, Hung-Fat Tse, Jianhui Rong
The pathology of endotoxin LPS-induced sepsis is hallmarked by aberrant production of proinflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the new product gallic acid-L-leucine (GAL) conjugate could ameliorate the LPS-induced dysregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and NO production. We first investigated the effects of GAL conjugate on the expression of proinflammatory enzymes and the production of proinflammatory NO and lipid mediators in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763693/influence-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-proinflammatory-gene-expression-in-human-corneal-conjunctival-and-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cells
#7
Di Chen, Afsun Sahin, Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu, Raheleh Rahimi Darabad, David A Sullivan
PURPOSE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is known to stimulate leuokotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion by human corneal (HCECs), conjunctival (HConjECs) and meibomian gland (HMGECs) epithelial cells. We hypothesize that this LTB4 effect represents an overall induction of proinflammatory gene expression in these cells. Our objective was to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Immortalized HCECs, HConjECs and HMGECs were cultured in the presence or absence of LPS (15 μg/ml) and ligand binding protein (LBP; 150 ng/ml)...
May 12, 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760677/one-week-exposure-to-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-does-not-interfere-with-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-phase-response-in-the-hypothalamus-of-male-rats
#8
Evita Belegri, Leslie Eggels, Susanne E la Fleur, Anita Boelen
Obesity has been associated with increased susceptibility to infection in humans and rodents. Obesity is also associated with low-grade hypothalamic inflammation that depends not only on body weight but also on diet. In the present study, we investigated if the bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]-induced acute phase response is aggravated in rats on a 1-week free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet and explained by diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Male Wistar rats were on an fcHFHS diet or chow for 1 week and afterwards intraperitoneally injected with LPS or saline...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755842/lipopolysaccharide-endotoxemia-induces-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-p-tau-formation-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Li-Ming Wang, Qi Wu, Ryan A Kirk, Kevin P Horn, Ahmed H Ebada Salem, John M Hoffman, Jeffrey T Yap, Joshua A Sonnen, Rheal A Towner, Fernando A Bozza, Rosana S Rodrigues, Kathryn A Morton
Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques are not specific to Alzheimer's disease and occur with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Soluble brain Aβ may be neuroprotective and increases in response to neuroinflammation. Sepsis is associated with neurocognitive compromise. The objective was to determine, in a rat endotoxemia model of sepsis, whether neuroinflammation and soluble Aβ production are associated with Aβ plaque and hyperphosphorylated tau deposition in the brain. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS)...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753474/intramammary-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-3-treatment-modulates-innate-immune-responses-to-endotoxin-induced-mastitis
#10
Kathryn E Merriman, Jessi L Powell, Jose E P Santos, Corwin D Nelson
Vitamin D signaling in response to pathogen-associated molecules contributes to activation of innate immune responses of bovine monocytes. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy cows activates the vitamin D pathway in innate immune cells of the udder and that increasing availability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] would augment expression of vitamin D-associated genes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of intramammary LPS and 25(OH)D3 treatments on activation of the vitamin D pathway and innate immune responses of mammary immune cells...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748216/intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-serum-of-two-species-of-deep-diving-seal
#11
Aranya Bagchi, Annabelle J Batten, Milton Levin, Kaitlin N Allen, Michael L Fitzgerald, Luis A Hückstädt, Daniel P Costa, Emmanuel S Buys, Allyson G Hindle
Weddell and elephant seals are deep diving mammals, which rely on lung collapse to limit nitrogen absorption and prevent decompression injury. Repeated collapse and re-expansion exposes the lungs to multiple stressors, including ischemia/reperfusion, alveolar shear stress, and inflammation. There is no evidence, however, that diving damages pulmonary function in these species. To investigate potential protective strategies in deep-diving seals, we examined the inflammatory response of seal whole blood exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736947/saturated-and-unsaturated-fatty-acids-differentially-regulate-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-placental-antioxidant-capacity
#12
Clarence R Manuel, Maureen J Charron, Charles R Ashby, Sandra E Reznik
PROBLEM: Complications from prematurity are the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age. Although clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and preterm birth (PTB), the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, it remains unclear how fatty acid type influences the effects of bacterial endotoxins. METHOD OF STUDY: HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts were cultured in either 0.5 mmol L-1 palmitic acid (PA) or linoleic acid (LA) in the absence or presence of 100 μg mL-1 of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736733/paeonol-reduces-the-nucleocytoplasmic-transportation-of-hmgb1-by-upregulating-hdac3-in-lps-induced-raw264-7-cells
#13
Qin Xu, Xia Liu, Liyan Mei, Quan Wen, Jing Chen, Jifei Miao, Hang Lei, Huina Huang, Dongfeng Chen, Shaohui Du, Aijun Liu, Saixia Zhang, Jianhong Zhou, Rudong Deng, Yiwei Li, Chun Li, Hui Li
Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a lethal pro-inflammatory mediator in endotoxin shock. Hyperacetylation of HMGB1, regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), changes its subcellular localization and secretion to the extracellular matrix. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), one of the main active components of Paeonia suffruticosa, exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous study demonstrated that Paeonol inhibited the relocation and secretion of HMGB1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264...
May 7, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729302/neonatal-immune-activation-by-lipopolysaccharide-causes-inadequate-emotional-responses-to-novel-situations-but-no-changes-in-anxiety-or-cognitive-behavior-in-wistar-rats
#14
Iveta Vojtechova, Tomas Petrasek, Kristyna Maleninska, Hana Brozka, Hana Tejkalova, Jiri Horacek, Ales Stuchlik, Karel Vales
Infection during the prenatal or neonatal stages of life is considered one of the major risk factors for the development of mental diseases such as schizophrenia or autism. However, the impacts of such an immune challenge on adult behavior are still not clear. In our study, we used a model of early postnatal immune activation by the application of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat pups at a dose of 2 mg/kg from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 9. In adulthood, the rats were tested in a battery of tasks probing various aspects of behavior: spontaneous activity (open field test), social behavior (social interactions and female bedding exploration), anxiety (elevated plus maze), cognition (active place avoidance in Carousel) and emotional response (ultrasonic vocalization recording)...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722569/exacerbated-liver-injury-of-antithyroid-drugs-in-endotoxin-treated-mice
#15
Reza Heidari, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Negar Azarpira, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Asma Najibi, Hossein Niknahad
Drug-induced liver injury is a major concern in clinical studies as well as in post-marketing surveillance. Previous evidence suggested that drug exposure during periods of inflammation could increase an individual's susceptibility to drug hepatoxicity. The antithyroid drugs, methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) can cause adverse reactions in patients, with liver as a usual target. We tested the hypothesis that MMI and PTU could be rendered hepatotoxic in animals undergoing a modest inflammation. Mice were treated with a nonhepatotoxic dose of LPS (100 µg/kg, i...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719160/propolis-protects-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-and-liver-inflammation-through-attenuating-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Berat Yangi, Mehmet Cengiz Ustuner, Murat Dincer, Cansu Ozbayer, Neslihan Tekin, Derya Ustuner, Emine Colak, Umut Kerem Kolac, Emre Entok
Propolis is a natural bee product, and it has many effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, and anticancer activity. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential in vivo anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic properties of propolis extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in rats. Forty-two, 3- to 4-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were used in six groups. LPS (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to rats in inflammation, inflammation + propolis30, and inflammation+propolis90 groups...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718430/post-ruminal-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-and-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-infusion-alters-blood-metabolites-rumen-fermentation-and-nitrogen-balance-of-beef-steers
#17
C A Löest, G G Gilliam, J W Waggoner, J L Turner
Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs 35 g/d; -BCAA vs +BCAA)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717111/low-doses-of-lps-exacerbate-the-inflammatory-response-and-trigger-death-on-tlr3-primed-human-monocytes
#18
Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Marcella Franquesa, Maria-Rosa Sarrias, Francesc E Borràs
TLR sensing of pathogens triggers monocyte activation to initiate the host innate immune response to infection. Monocytes can dynamically adapt to different TLR agonists inducing different patterns of inflammatory response, and the sequence of exposure to TLRs can dramatically modulate cell activation. Understanding the interactions between TLR signalling that lead to synergy, priming and tolerance to TLR agonists may help explain how prior infections and inflammatory conditioning can regulate the innate immune response to subsequent infections...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#19
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705395/imperatorin-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-memory-deficit-by-mitigating-proinflammatory-cytokines-oxidative-stress-and-modulating-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor
#20
Amrita A Chowdhury, Nitin B Gawali, Prashant Shinde, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria has been reported to cause neuroinflammation and learning and memory deficits. There are reports describing the beneficial effects of Imperatorin (IMP), a naturally occurring furanocoumarin in central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as anxiety and epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we investigated whether IMP protects against LPS mediated memory deficits and neuroinflammation...
April 26, 2018: Cytokine
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