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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432554/epigallocatechin-gallate-protects-beas-2b-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-through-upregulation-of-gastrin-releasing-peptide
#1
Peethambaran Divya, Bijesh Puthusseri, Denny Joseph Kollareth Manual, Mohammed Azharuddin Savanur
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) plays a major role in the development and maintenance of lung epithelial cells by promoting cell division, whereas its suppression causes growth arrest and apoptosis. The present study shows that human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria, downregulated GRP expression and induced apoptosis via upregulation of p53 and active caspase-3, signifying the importance of GRP in lung epithelial cell survival...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432312/growth-differentiation-factor-15-deficiency-augments-inflammatory-response-and-exacerbates-septic-heart-and-renal-injury-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#2
Palida Abulizi, Neruja Loganathan, Duo Zhao, Tina Mele, Yixin Zhang, Terry Zwiep, Kexiang Liu, Xiufen Zheng
Septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and myocardial dysfunction are leading causes of mortality with no accepted method of therapy. In this study we demonstrate the role of growth differentiating factor 15 (GDF15) in septic AKI and myocardial dysfunction using a murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model and an in vitro cell culture system. Data show that GDF15 deficiency augments inflammatory response and exacerbates renal and cardiac injury induced by LPS, while over-expression of GDF15 protects the kidney and heart from LPS-induced organ dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430612/diosmetin-exerts-anti-oxidative-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-to-protect-against-endotoxin-induced-acute-hepatic-failure-in-mice
#3
You Yang, Xiao-Bao Gong, Li-Gua Huang, Zhen-Xu Wang, Rong-Zhen Wan, Peng Zhang, Qing-Yan Zhang, Zhu Chen, Bao-Shun Zhang
To investigate the effects and mechanism of diosmetin on acute hepatic failure (AHF), an AHF murine model was established through administration of lipopolysaccharides/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN). In vitro, diosmetin scavenged free radicals. In vivo, diosmetin decreased mortality among mice, blocked the development of histopathological changes and hepatic damage, and suppressed levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. In addition, diosmetin prevented the expression of phosphorylated IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway, and JNK and p38 in the MAPK signaling pathway...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429211/influence-of-humic-acids-extracted-from-peat-by-different-methods-on-functional-activity-of-macrophages-in-vitro
#4
E S Trofimova, M V Zykova, A A Ligacheva, E Y Sherstoboev, V V Zhdanov, M V Belousov, M S Yusubov, S V Krivoshchekov, M G Danilets, A M Dygai
We studied activation of macrophages with humic acids extracted from peat of large deposits in the Tomsk region by two extraction methods: by hydroxide or sodium pyrophosphate. Humic acid of lowland peat types containing large amounts of aromatic carbon, phenolic and alcohol groups, carbohydrate residues and ethers, irrespectively of the extraction methods contained LPS admixture that probably determines their activating properties. Humic acid of upland peat types characterized by high content of carbonyl, carboxyl, and ester groups enhance NO production and reduce arginase expression, but these effects were minimized when sodium hydroxide was used as an extraction solvent...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#5
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427134/-role-of-bone-marrow-tyrosine-kinase-on-chromosome-x-in-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-mouse-mononuclear-macrophages-raw264-7-induced-by-endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide-and-its-mechanism
#6
X Fang, Y Hu, Y Wang, S Liu, F Wang, X L Chen
Objective: To investigate the role of bone marrow tyrosine kinase on chromosome X (BMX) in the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from mouse mononuclear-macrophages induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its related mechanism. Methods: Mouse mononuclear-macrophages RAW264.7 were inoculated in 6-well plates and routinely cultured for the following experiments. (1) Cells were collected and divided into blank control group, LPS control group, and 75, 750, 7 500, 75 000 nmol/L BMX-IN-1 pretreatment groups according to the random number table, with 8 wells in each group...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423012/15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-15-pgdh-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-acute-liver-injury
#7
Lu Yao, Weina Chen, Kyoungsub Song, Chang Han, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi, Kyu Lim, Tong Wu
The NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) catalyzes the oxidation of the 15(S)-hydroxyl group of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), converting the pro-inflammatory PGE2 to the anti-inflammatory 15-keto-PGE2 (an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma [PPAR-γ]). To evaluate the significance of 15-PGDH/15-keto-PGE2 cascade in liver inflammation and tissue injury, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of 15-PGDH in the liver (15-PGDH Tg) and the animals were subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute liver inflammation and injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420991/gabapentin-attenuates-ocular-inflammation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#8
Carmelina D Anfuso, Melania Olivieri, Annamaria Fidilio, Gabriella Lupo, Dario Rusciano, Salvatore Pezzino, Caterina Gagliano, Filippo Drago, Claudio Bucolo
To investigate the effects of gabapentin, a structural analog of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), on the inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rabbit corneal cells (SIRC) and on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rabbits. We investigated the LPS-induced expression of several inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, cPLA2, COX-2, and PGE2 in the SIRC cells with or without gabapentin treatment. Gabapentin treatment significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated cytokines production, cPLA2 activation, COX-2 expression, and PGE2 levels in SIRC...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420463/-changes-of-small-intestinal-villi-microcirculation-in-sidestream-dark-field-imaging-with-different-target-blood-pressure-in-rabbits-during-endotoxin-shock
#9
Fei Gao, Xiaoyun Fu, Mingjiang Qian, Yu Zhang, Guangsu Li, Jie Hu
OBJECTIVE: Changes of small intestine villus microcirculation perfusion in sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging in the rabbits during endotoxic shock after fluid resuscitation with different target mean arterial pressure (MAP), and evaluation of feasibility of monitoring small intestine villus microcirculation by SDF were studied. METHODS: Sixty standard New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: low target MAP group (group A, n = 30) and high target MAP group (group B, n = 30)...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419727/endotoxin-testing-of-a-wound-debridement-device-containing-medicinal-lucilia-sericata-larvae
#10
Samantha Pickles, David Pritchard
Alimentary products of medicinal Lucilia sericata larvae are studied to determine their mechanisms of action, particularly in the contexts of wound debridement and disinfection. Furthermore, the larvae can be applied to patients in contained medical devices (such as the BioBag; BioMonde). Here, we tested the materials and larval content of the most commonly used debridement device (the "BB-50") to explore the possibility that endotoxins may be contributing to the bio-activity of the product, given that endotoxins are potent stimulants of cellular activation...
April 17, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419595/lipopolysaccharide-lps-binding-to-the-periplasmic-protein-lpta
#11
Kathryn M Schultz, Tanner J Lundquist, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the periplasmic protein LptA are two essential components of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS, also known as endotoxin, is found asymmetrically distributed in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and plays a role in the organism's natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptA is a member of the lipopolysaccharide transport protein (Lpt) family, which also includes LptC, LptDE, and LptBFG2 , that functions to transport LPS through the periplasm to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane after MsbA flips LPS across the inner membrane...
April 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412504/endotoxin-induced-tlr4-signaling-downregulates-cyp19a1-expression-through-cebpb-in-buffalo-granulosa-cells
#12
Vengala Rao Yenuganti, Ravinder, Dheer Singh
Estrogen is essential for growth and development of ovarian follicles. Infections associated with E. coli or Endotoxin (LPS) suppress estradiol production by the downregulation of CYP19A1 expression. However, the molecular mechanism of its down regulation is not yet known. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of LPS-mediated downregulation of CYP19A1 gene expression, we studied the effect of LPS and TLR4 signaling pathway inhibitor (OxPAPC, OxPAPC-Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) on CYP19A1 expression, and expression of CEBPB and CEBPB binding on CYP19A1 proximal promoter (CYP19A1 PII) in buffalo granulosa cells in vitro...
April 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412299/toll-like-receptor-4-independent-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-fibrosis-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice-role-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#13
Sudhir Kumar, Jiang Wang, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in acute and chronic liver injury; its effects are mediated predominantly via the membrane receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, TLR4-independent effects of LPS may play important role in hepatic pathophysiology. We investigated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis and LPS-induced acute liver injury in wild-type (WT) and B6.B10ScN-Tlr4(lps-del)/JthJ [TLR4-knockout (KO)] mice. Effects of LPS on fibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from WT and TLR4-KO mice were assessed in vitro...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410596/toll-like-receptor-4-in-glial-inflammatory-responses-to-air-pollution-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Nicholas C Woodward, Morgan C Levine, Amin Haghani, Farimah Shirmohammadi, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with accelerated cognitive aging and higher dementia risk in human populations. Rodent brains respond to TRAP with activation of astrocytes and microglia, increased inflammatory cytokines, and neurite atrophy. A role for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was suggested in mouse TLR4-knockouts, which had attenuated lung macrophage responses to air pollution. METHODS: To further analyze these mechanisms, we examined mixed glial cultures (astrocytes and microglia) for RNA responses to nanoscale particulate matter (nPM; diameter <0...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409545/high-affinity-caspase-4-binding-to-lps-presented-as-high-molecular-mass-aggregates-or-in-outer-membrane-vesicles
#15
Mark A Wacker, Athmane Teghanemt, Jerrold P Weiss, Jason H Barker
Caspases of the non-canonical inflammasome (caspases -4, -5, and -11) directly bind endotoxin (LOS/LPS) and can be activated in the absence of any co-factors. Models of LPS-induced caspase activation have postulated that 1:1 binding of endotoxin monomers to caspase trigger caspase oligomerization and activation, analogous to that established for endotoxin-induced activation of MD-2/TLR4. However, using metabolically radiolabeled LOS and LPS, we now show high affinity and selective binding of caspase-4 to high molecular mass aggregates of purified endotoxin and to endotoxin-rich outer membrane vesicles without formation of 1:1 endotoxin:caspase complexes...
May 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409189/daphnetin-reduces-endotoxin-lethality-in-mice-and-decreases-lps-induced-inflammation-in-raw264-7-cells-via-suppressing-jak-stats-activation-and-ros-production
#16
Lei Shen, Ting Zhou, Jing Wang, Xiumei Sang, Lei Lan, Lan Luo, Zhimin Yin
OBJECTIVE: Here, we used various approaches to investigate the suppressive role of daphnetin in LPS-induced inflammatory response, with the goal to understand the underlining molecular mechanism by which daphnetin regulated these processes. METHODS: We examined the survival rate and the lung injury in the mice model of LPS-induced endotoxemia. The production of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by ELISA and nitrite analysis, respectively...
April 13, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404994/global-analysis-of-glycoproteins-identifies-markers-of-endotoxin-tolerant-monocytes-and-gpr84-as-a-modulator-of-tnf%C3%AE-expression
#17
Mario M Müller, Roland Lehmann, Tilman E Klassert, Stella Reifenstein, Theresia Conrad, Christoph Moore, Anna Kuhn, Andrea Behnert, Reinhard Guthke, Dominik Driesch, Hortense Slevogt
Exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a temporary insensitivity to subsequent LPS challenges, a cellular state called endotoxin tolerance. In this study, we investigated the LPS-induced global glycoprotein expression changes of tolerant human monocytes and THP-1 cells to identify markers and glycoprotein targets capable to modulate the immunosuppressive state. Using hydrazide chemistry and LC-MS/MS analysis, we analyzed glycoprotein expression changes during a 48 h LPS time course...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404459/preparation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alginate-flagellin-immunoconjugate
#18
Sobhan Faezi, Ahmad Reza Bahrmand, Mehdi Mahdavi, Seyed Davar Siadat, Soroush Sardari, Iraj Nikokar, Korosh Khanaki, Ebrahim Mirzajani, Gholamreza Goudarzi
Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are closely associated with chronic pulmonary infections. In this report we describe a straightforward approach to conjugate high molecular weight alginate to type b-flagellin (FLB) and investigation of its bioactivity. The conjugation process was performed by using ADH and EDAC. The endotoxin was eliminated from the candidate vaccine by LPS removal resin followed by LAL test. The bioconjugate molecules were verified by simultaneously determination of polysaccharide/protein content followed by gel filtration chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy...
April 10, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403739/hydrogen-peroxide-and-lipopolysaccharide-differentially-affect-the-expression-of-micrornas-10a-33a-21-221-in-endothelial-cells-before-and-after-coculture-with-monocytes
#19
Atefe Ghamar Talepoor, Mehdi Kalani, Alamtaj Samsami Dahaghani, Mehrnoosh Doroudchi
Inflammation and oxidative stress are important risk factors affecting various cells in the formation of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRs) are regulators of inflammation and atherogenesis. The expressions of endothelial cell (EC)-specific miR-10a and miR-21 and monocyte-specific miR-33a and miR-221 were investigated using coculture of the ECs and monocytes upon exposure to H2O2 as an oxidative stressor, and endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a microbial stressor. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (or monocytes) were cocultured in M199 complete medium and were incubated with LPS (20 ng/mL) or H2O2 (1%) for 8 hours at 37°C...
March 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396412/endotoxin-induced-autocrine-atp-signaling-inhibits-neutrophil-chemotaxis-through-enhancing-myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation
#20
Xu Wang, Weiting Qin, Xiaohan Xu, Yuyun Xiong, Yisen Zhang, Huafeng Zhang, Bingwei Sun
Although the neutrophil recruitment cascade during inflammation has been well described, the molecular players that halt neutrophil chemotaxis remain unclear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was a potent stop signal for chemotactic neutrophil migration. Treatment with an antagonist of the ATP receptor (P2X1) in primary human neutrophils or knockout of the P2X1 receptor in neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 (dHL-60) cells recovered neutrophil chemotaxis. Further observations showed that LPS-induced ATP release through connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels was responsible for the activation of the P2X1 receptor and the subsequent calcium influx...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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