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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915566/synergistic-antibiotic-effect-of-looped-antimicrobial-peptide-clp-19-with-bactericidal-and-bacteriostatic-agents
#1
Di Li, Ya Yang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Lv, Fengjun Sun, Qian Wang, Yao Liu, Peiyuan Xia
The treatment of drug-resistant infections is complicated and the alarming rise in infectious diseases poses a unique challenge for development of effective therapeutic strategies. Antibiotic-induced liberation of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may have immediate adverse effects promoting septic shock in patients. In the present study, we first confirmed our previous finding that looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 exerts non-specific direct antibacterial activity with no toxic to mammalian cells and second revealed that CLP-19 has synergistic effect to enhance the antibacterial activities of other conventional bactericidal (ampicillin and ceftazidime) and bacteriostatic (erythromycin and levofloxacin) agents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910312/i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-decreases-mirna-155-expression-and-attenuates-the-human-monocyte-inflammatory-response
#2
Norman James Galbraith, James Burton, Mathew Brady Ekman, Joseph Kenney, Samuel Patterson Walker, Stephen Manek, Campbell Bishop, Jane Victoria Carter, Sarah Appel Gardner, Hiram C Polk
Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase (IκK), on miRNA expression and the monocyte inflammatory response. In a model of endotoxin tolerance using primary human monocytes, impaired monocytes had decreased p65 expression with suppressed TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900533/seabuckthorn-paste-protects-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-through-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress
#3
Leilei Du, Xiaoxin Hu, Chu Chen, Tingting Kuang, Hengfu Yin, Li Wan
Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Seabuckthorn paste (SP), a traditional Tibetan medicine with high content of polyphenols and remarkable antioxidant activity, is commonly used in treating pulmonary diseases. In the present study, the protective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of SP on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury in mice were investigated. It was found that body weight loss, lung tissue microstructure lesions, transvascular leakage increase, malondialdehyde augmentation, and the reduction of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels caused by LPS challenge were all consistently relieved by SP treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885685/gut-microbiota-derived-endotoxin-enhanced-the-incidence-of-cardia-bifida-during-cardiogenesis
#4
Jing Zhang, Guang Wang, Jia Liu, Lin-Rui Gao, Meng Liu, Chao-Jie Wang, Manli Chuai, Yongping Bao, Ge Li, Rui-Man Li, Yu Zhang, Xuesong Yang
Background Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses could be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro and in vivo respectively. However, the mechanism involved in LPS-induced cardiac malformation in prenatal fetus is still unknown. Methods and results In this study, we demonstrated that LPS was induced in gut microbiota imbalance mice, and next, LPS exposure during gastrulation in the chick embryo increased the incidence of cardia bifida. Gene transfection and tissue transplantation trajectory indicated that LPS exposure restricted the cell migration of cardiac progenitors to primary heart field in gastrula chick embryos...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883632/extraction-separation-and-characterization-of-endotoxins-in-water-samples-using-solid-phase-extraction-and-capillary-electrophoresis-laser-induced-fluorescence
#5
Fun Man Fung, Min Su, Hua-Tao Feng, Sam Fong Yau Li
This study focuses on one of the key environmental threats, endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A capillary electrophoresis method in combination with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed for the analysis of endotoxins from 16 different bacterial strains. LPSs were derivatized with the amino-reactive fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under the optimized conditions with the use of 50 mM sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881142/thermal-and-cytokine-responses-to-endotoxin-challenge-during-early-life
#6
Fiona Brigid McDonald, Ahmad M Khawaja, Ahmad Ali Imran, Margot E Ellis, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Shabih U Hasan
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of infant mortality beyond the neonatal period. An increase in body temperature as a result of high environmental temperature, over-wrapping of infants and/or infection are associated with SIDS. Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat stress may perturb cardiorespiratory function and thermoregulation. Although LPS-mediated body temperature and cytokine responses are well-documented in older animals, the capacity of LPS to induce fever and cytokine response in young rats remains unclear...
September 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878116/inhibition-of-nadph-oxidase-2-nox2-prevents-sepsis-induced-cardiomyopathy-by-improving-calcium-handling-and-mitochondrial-function
#7
Leroy C Joseph, Dimitra Kokkinaki, Mesele-Christina Valenti, Grace J Kim, Emanuele Barca, Dhanendra Tomar, Nicholas E Hoffman, Prakash Subramanyam, Henry M Colecraft, Michio Hirano, Adam J Ratner, Muniswamy Madesh, Konstantinos Drosatos, John P Morrow
Cardiomyopathy frequently complicates sepsis and is associated with increased mortality. Increased cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been observed during sepsis, but the mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities have not been determined. We hypothesized that NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation could be responsible for sepsis-induced oxidative stress and cardiomyopathy. Treatment of isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes with low concentrations of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased total cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877283/bacterial-endotoxin-adhesion-to-different-types-of-orthodontic-adhesives
#8
Priscilla Coutinho Romualdo, Thaís Rodrigues Guerra, Fábio Lourenço Romano, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Izaíra Tincani Brandão, Célio Lopes Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da Silva, Paulo Nelson-Filho
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems, comparing two commercial brands. Material and Methods: Forty specimens were fabricated from Transbond XT and Light Bond composite and bonding agent components (n=10/component), then contaminated by immersion in a bacterial endotoxin solution. Contaminated and non-contaminated acrylic resin samples were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. LPS quantification was performed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate QCL-1000™ test...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874372/triple-edged-sword-multiple-modes-of-action-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-the-multi-drug-resistant-escherichia-coli-clone-st131-h30
#9
Luis M Guachalla, Katharina Hartl, Cecília Varga, Lukas Stulik, Irina Mirkina, Stefan Malafa, Eszter Nagy, Gábor Nagy, Valéria Szijártó
The multi-drug resistant extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli clone, ST131-H30 has spread worldwide. This clone expresses a conserved LPS O-antigen, O25b. Previously, we described monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the O25b antigen and characterized them as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In this study evidence is provided that besides the previously shown complement mediated bactericidal effect, an O25b-specific humanized mAb, A1124 also enhances opsonophagocytic uptake by the murine macrophage cell line RAW264...
September 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871189/expression-and-anti-inflammatory-role-of-activin-receptor-interacting-protein-2-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-macrophages
#10
Qian Wu, Yan Qi, Na Wu, Chunhui Ma, Wenfang Feng, Xueling Cui, Zhonghui Liu
The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a key pathogenic stimulator, can induce the activation of macrophages. Activin receptor-interacting protein 2 (ARIP2), an intracellular signaling protein, has a wide histological distribution, however, whether ARIP2 is involved in regulation of activation of macrophages was not well characterized. Here, by immunocytochemical staining, we found that ARIP2 protein existed in monocyte-macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse, and ARIP2 expression in RAW264...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870649/lipopolysaccharide-impairs-permeability-of-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-via-connexin40
#11
Hua-Song Zhou, Meng Li, Bing-Dong Sui, Lei Wei, Rui Hou, Wen-Sheng Chen, Qiang Li, Sheng-Hui Bi, Jin-Zhou Zhang, Ding-Hua Yi
The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier disruption is a key pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LPS-impaired permeability of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) are not fully understood. Gap junctions, particularly Connexin40 (Cx40), are necessary for the maintenance of normal vascular function. In this study, we for the first time investigated the role of Cx40 in LPS-impaired permeability of PMVECs and provided potential therapeutic approaches based on mechanistic findings of Cx40 regulation by LPS stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864211/effects-of-spak-on-vascular-reactivity-and-nitric-oxide-production-in-endotoxemic-mice
#12
Chih-Chin Shih, Lin-Pin Hsu, Mei-Hui Liao, Sung-Sen Yang, Shung-Tai Ho, Chin-Chen Wu
Vasoplegia impedes therapeutic interventions to restore vascular tone, leading to severe hypotension, poor tissue perfusion, and multiple organ failure in septic shock. High levels of circulating nitric oxide (NO) play a crucial role in endotoxin-induced vascular hyporeactivity. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the induction of inducible NO synthase and overproduction of NO. Anti-inflammatory therapy can diminish NO formation and improve vascular hyporeactivity in septic shock. STE20/SPS1-realted proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) has been reported to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase and contribute to intestinal inflammation...
August 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860515/activation-of-the-peripheral-immune-system-regulates-neuronal-aromatase-in-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain
#13
Alyssa L Pedersen, Cassie J Gould, Colin J Saldanha
Estradiol provision via neural aromatization decreases neuro-inflammation and -degeneration, but almost nothing is known about the interactions between the peripheral immune system and brain aromatase. Given the vulnerability of the CNS we reasoned that brain aromatization may protect circuits from the threats of peripheral infection; perhaps shielding cells that are less resilient from the degeneration associated with peripheral infection or trauma. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle was administered peripherally to adult zebra finches and sickness behavior was recorded 2 or 24 hours later...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859868/albumin-counteracts-immune-suppressive-effects-of-lipid-mediators-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#14
Louise China, Alexander Maini, Simon S Skene, Zainib Shabir, Yvonne Sylvestre, Romain A Colas, Lucy Ly, Natalia Becares Salles, Vittorio Belloti, Jesmond Dalli, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair O'Brien
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute decompensation and acute on chronic liver failure (AD/ACLF) have immune dysfunction, which increases their risk for infections; however there are no effective treatments to restore their immune function. We investigated whether the potentially immune-restorative effects of albumin are mediated by its effects on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other lipids. METHODS: We analyzed bloods samples from 45 of 79 patients with AD/ACLF and serum levels of albumin less than 30g/L for whom infusion of 20% human albumin solution (HAS) increased serum levels of albumin 30 g/L or more in a feasibility study of effects of 20% HAS...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853768/systemic-treatment-with-a-mir-146a-mimic-suppresses-endotoxin-sensitivity-and-partially-protects-mice-from-the-progression-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
John G Gartner, Melanie M Durston, Stephanie A Booth, Cynthia A Ellison
Acute GVHD (aGVHD) is driven by interactions between the allogenic T cell response, inflammation, tissue injury and microbial products that enter the circulation when protective barriers such as the intestinal epithelium become compromised. Mice with aGVHD become hypersensitive to LPS, secreting large quantities of inflammatory mediators that exacerbate tissue injury. We hypothesized that microRNA (miR) modulators could be used in vivo to mitigate LPS hypersensitivity, altering the course of aGVHD. Using the C57BL/6 → (C57BL/6 x DBA/2)F1-hybrid model of aGVHD, we measured intestinal permeability over time and used a qPCR array to detect concomitant changes in the expression levels of certain microRNAs (miRs) in the intestine...
August 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840951/young-alcohol-binge-drinkers-have-elevated-blood-endotoxin-peripheral-inflammation-and-low-cortisol-levels-neuropsychological-correlations-in-women
#16
Laura Orio, María Antón, Inmaculada Concepción Rodríguez-Rojo, Ángeles Correas, Borja García-Bueno, Monserrat Corral, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis Miguel García-Moreno, Fernando Maestú, Fernando Cadaveira
Alcohol binge drinking is a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption that is increasingly practiced by adolescents and young adults. Evidence indicates that alcohol binges induce peripheral inflammation and an exacerbated neuroimmune response that may participate in alcohol-induced cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions. Here, we recruited 20-year-old male and female university students who were identified as binge drinkers for at least 2 years. Compared with controls, young alcohol binge drinkers had elevated levels of blood endotoxin and upregulated markers of the toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, together with pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation...
August 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839442/gut-barrier-failure-biomarkers-are-associated-with-poor-disease-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#17
Tamas Tornai, Eszter Palyu, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Gary L Norman, Zakera Shums, Gabor Veres, Antal Dezsofi, Gabriella Par, Alajos Par, Peter Orosz, Ferenc Szalay, Peter Laszlo Lakatos, Maria Papp
AIM: To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. METHODS: Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA...
August 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839246/activation-of-autophagy-attenuates-etoh-lps-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-injury-through-md2-associated-tlr4-signaling
#18
Xiaoxia Kong, Ying Yang, Li Ren, Tuo Shao, Fengyuan Li, Cuiqing Zhao, Liming Liu, Hongyu Zhang, Craig J McClain, Wenke Feng
Autophagy serves as a protective mechanism to degrade damaged organelles and proteins. Acute alcohol exposure is known to activate the hepatic autophagy response, whereas chronic alcohol exposure slows autophagosome formation along with an elevation of gut-derived endotoxin. In the current study, we examined whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration decreased autophagic response in the liver of mice treated by short-term alcohol and whether activation of autophagy by rapamycin attenuates EtOH-LPS-induced liver steatosis and injury...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835578/altered-immune-responses-in-broiler-chicken-husbandry-workers-and-their-association-with-endotoxin-exposure
#19
Ravi Gautam, Yong Heo, GyeongDong Lim, EunSeob Song, Katharine Roque, JaeHee Lee, YeonGyeong Kim, AhRang Cho, SoJung Shin, ChangYul Kim, GiHwan Bang, JiYun Bahng, HyoungAh Kim
Exposure to bioaerosols in indoor animal farms associates with respiratory illnesses, but little is known about the immune modulation to chicken farmers. This study aimed to compare the general immunity of chicken farmers with those of control subjects with non-agricultural jobs. Blood taken from the farmers and controls was subjected to plasma IgE and IgG subclass measurements. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated and cytokine production was measured. Indoor total and respirable dust levels and their endotoxin (LPS) and aflatoxin (AF) levels in the farms were measured...
August 22, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831287/extracts-of-salvia-nelumbinis-naturalis-ameliorate-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-inhibiting-gut-derived-endotoxin-mediated-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#20
Xiangbing Shu, Miao Wang, Hanchen Xu, Yang Liu, Jie Huang, Zemin Yao, Li Zhang
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is featured by the presence of hepatic steatosis combined with inflammation and hepatocellular injury. Gut-derived endotoxin plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NASH. Salvia-Nelumbinis naturalis (SNN), a formula of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been identified to be effective for NASH, but the mechanisms were not thoroughly explored. In the present study, a NASH model was generated using C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented periodically with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 12 weeks...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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