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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906600/role-of-polysaccharide-and-lipid-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-prion-protein-conversion
#1
Carol L Ladner-Keay, Marcia LeVatte, David S Wishart
Conversion of native cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) from an α-helical structure to a toxic and infectious β-sheet structure (PrP(Sc)) is a critical step in the development of prion disease. There are some indications that the formation of PrP(Sc) is preceded by a β-sheet rich PrP (PrP(β)) form which is non-infectious, but is an intermediate in the formation of infectious PrP(Sc). Furthermore the presence of lipid cofactors is thought to be critical in the formation of both intermediate-PrP(β) and lethal, infectious PrP(Sc)...
December 1, 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884587/butyrate-pretreatment-attenuates-heart-depression-in-a-mice-model-of-endotoxin-induced-sepsis-via-anti-inflammation-and-anti-oxidation
#2
Fangyan Wang, Zengyou Jin, Kaiyi Shen, Tingting Weng, Zhisong Chen, Jiahui Feng, Zhengzheng Zhang, Jiaming Liu, Xiaolong Zhang, Maoping Chu
OBJECTIVES: The depressed heart function is the main complication to cause death of septic patients in clinic. It is urgent to find effective interventions for this intractable disease. In this study, we investigated whether butyrate could be protective for heart against sepsis and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into three groups. Model group challenged with LPS (30 mg/kg, i.p.) only. Butyrate group received butyrate (200 mg/kg·d) for 3days prior to LPS administration (30 mg/kg)...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881328/immunostimulatory-capacity-of-dental-casting-alloys-on-endotoxin-responsiveness
#3
Dessy Rachmawati, B Mary E von Blomberg, Cornelis J Kleverlaan, Rik J Scheper, Ingrid M W van Hoogstraten
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Oral metal exposure has been associated with systemic and local adverse reactions, probably due to elemental release from the alloys. Although supraphysiological concentrations of salts from dentally applied metals can activate innate cells through TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au), whether direct exposure to solid alloys can also trigger innate immune reactivity is still unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether dental cast alloy specimens can activate innate cells and influence their responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880979/low-dose-lipopolysaccharide-causes-biliary-injury-by-blood-biliary-barrier-impairment-in-a-rat-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#4
J Reiling, K R Bridle, M Gijbels, F G Schaap, L Jaskowski, N Santrampurwala, L J Britton, C M Campbell, S W M Olde Damink, D H G Crawford, C H C Dejong, J Fawcett
INTRODUCTION: This study explored whether bacterial endotoxins, in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could have an injurious effect on the biliary tract in conjunction with ischemia. METHOD: Sixty-four rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham operation (sham), 1mg/kg LPS i.p. (LPS), hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR), and IR combined with LPS (IR+LPS). Following 1 or 6 hours of reperfusion, serum liver tests, bile duct histology, immunofluorescence microscopy (zonula occludens-1), bile composition (bile salts, phospholipids, lactate dehydrogenase), hepatic gene expression (bile salt transporters and inflammatory mediators) as well as serum and biliary cytokine concentrations were quantified and compared between the study groups...
November 23, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880838/detection-of-endotoxin-contamination-of-graphene-based-materials-using-the-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-test-and-guidelines-for-endotoxin-free-graphene-oxide-production
#5
Sourav P Mukherjee, Neus Lozano, Melanie Kucki, Antonio E Del Rio-Castillo, Leon Newman, Ester Vázquez, Kostas Kostarelos, Peter Wick, Bengt Fadeel
Nanomaterials may be contaminated with bacterial endotoxin during production and handling, which may confound toxicological testing of these materials, not least when assessing for immunotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the conventional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for endotoxin detection in graphene based material (GBM) samples, including graphene oxide (GO) and few-layered graphene (FLG). Our results showed that some GO samples interfered with various formats of the LAL assay. To overcome this problem, we developed a TNF-α expression test (TET) using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages incubated in the presence or absence of the endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B sulfate, and found that this assay, performed with non-cytotoxic doses of the GBM samples, enabled unequivocal detection of endotoxin with a sensitivity that is comparable to the LAL assay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879415/the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-captopril-rescues-mice-from-endotoxin-induced-lethal-hepatitis
#6
Pu Ge, Rong Jiang, Xin Yao, Jing Li, Jie Dai, Li Zhang, Bin Ye
The renin-angiotensin system is classically regarded as a crucial regulator of circulatory homeostasis, but recent studies also revealed its pro-inflammatory roles. The beneficial effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in severe inflammatory injury in the lung and heart have been previously reported, but its potential effects on lethal hepatitis were unknown. In this study, a mouse model with LPS/d-galactosamine (GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis were used to test the protective potential of captopril, a representative ACEI...
November 22, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873515/angiopoietin-1-modified-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#7
Zhi Wei Huang, Ning Liu, Dong Li, Hai Yan Zhang, Ying Wang, Yi Liu, Le Ling Zhang, Xiu Li Ju
PURPOSE: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is a critical factor for vascular stabilization and endothelial survival via inhibition of endothelial permeability and leukocyte- endothelium interactions. Hence, we hypothesized that treatment with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) carrying the Ang1 gene (UCMSCs-Ang1) might be a potential approach for acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: UCMSCs with or without transfection with the human Ang1 gene were delivered intravenously into rats one hour after intra-abdominal instillation of LPS to induce ALI...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872207/myeloid-specific-gene-deletion-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-magnifies-myd88-and-trif-dependent-inflammation-following-endotoxin-challenge
#8
Lei Sun, Tiffany T Pham, Timothy T Cornell, Kelli L McDonough, Walker M McHugh, Neal B Blatt, Mary K Dahmer, Thomas P Shanley
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a member of the intracellular serine/threonine phosphatases. Innate immune cell activation triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by various protein kinases, and PP2A plays a counter-regulatory role by deactivating these kinases. In this study, we generated a conditional knockout of the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2ACα). After crossing with myeloid-specific cre-expressing mice, effective gene knockout was achieved in various myeloid cells...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869661/an-exploratory-investigation-of-endotoxin-levels-in-novice-long-distance-triathletes-and-the-effects-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-prebiotic-antioxidant-intervention
#9
Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864832/colistin-reduces-lps-triggered-inflammation-in-a-human-sepsis-model-in-vivo-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Peter Matzneller, Sabine Strommer, Christa Drucker, Karin Petroczi, Christian Schörgenhofer, Edith Lackner, Bernd Jilma, Markus Zeitlinger
OBJECTIVES: The previously described anti-endotoxin effect of colistin was not investigated in humans yet. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial to determine the degree of colistin-driven modulation of inflammatory response in blood of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - challenged healthy volunteers in a human endotoxemia model. METHODS: After a single intravenous dose of 2.5 million IU colistin methanesulfonate, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations as well as other biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, differential leukocyte counts and body temperature were measured up to 24 hours post-dose...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863538/in-vivo-relevance-of-polymorphic-interleukin-8-promoter-haplotype-for-the-systemic-immune-response-to-lps-in-holstein-friesian-calves
#11
Bojan Stojkovic, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kieran G Meade
Interleukin 8, also known as CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), is a critical chemokine in the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and is a potent mediator of inflammation. We previously discovered 29 polymorphic sites in the promoter region of the bovine Interleukin 8 gene, which segregate into two distinct haplotypes, denoted IL8-h1 and IL8-h2. Population genetic analysis of these two haplotypes showed significant inter-breed differences in haplotype frequency, which is suggestive of selection acting at this locus...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863345/suppression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-free-radicals-reduces-systematic-inflammatory-and-metabolic-disorders-radioprotective-effects-of-ginseng-oligopeptides-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-antioxidant-defense
#12
Li-Xia He, Jun-Bo Wang, Bin Sun, Jian Zhao, Lin Li, Teng Xu, Hui Li, Jing-Qin Sun, Jinwei Ren, Rui Liu, Qi-He Chen, Zhao-Feng Zhang, Yong Li
Irradiation therapy is markedly associated with intestinal injure and oxidant stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) oligopeptides (GOP) on irradiation-induced intestinal injury and antioxidant defense in mice. BALB/c mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle control, irradiation control (IR), IR+whey protein [0.30 g/kg body weight (BW)], IR+GOP 0.15 g/kg BW, IR+GOP 0.30 g/kg BW and IR+GOP 0.60 g/kg BW. Postirradiation 30-day survival trial, white blood cells count and bone marrow hematopoietic system damage were performed to identify the injury degree induced by irradiation...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862204/a-comparison-of-the-immunological-potency-of-burkholderia-lipopolysaccharides-in-endotoxemic-balb-c-mice
#13
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Chiu-Lin Liu, Hsuan-Han Wang, Wei-Fan Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of virulence factors of the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), B. thailandensis (Bt), B. cenocepacia (Bc) and B. multivorans (Bm) that cause septic melioidosis (often in Bp infections but rarely in Bt infections) or cepacia syndromes (commonly in Bc infections but rarely in Bm infections). The inflammatory responses in Burkholderia LPS-induced endotoxemia were evaluated in this study. Prior to an induction, the conserved structures and functions of each purified LPS were confirmed using electrophoretic phenotypes, the ratios of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic to 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and the endotoxin units...
November 8, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861881/testosterone-rescues-the-de-differentiation-of-smooth-muscle-cells-through-serum-response-factor-myocardin
#14
Carolina Leimgruber, Amado A Quintar, Nahuel Peinetti, María V Scalerandi, Juan P Nicola, Joseph M Miano, Cristina A Maldonado
Prostatic smooth muscle cells (pSMCs) differentiation is a key factor for prostatic homeostasis, with androgens exerting multiple effects on these cells. Here, we demonstrated that the myodifferentiator complex Srf/Myocd is up-regulated by testosterone in a dose-dependent manner in primary cultures of rat pSMCs, which was associated to the increase in Acta2, Cnn1, and Lmod1 expressions. Blocking Srf or Myocd by siRNAs inhibited the myodifferentiator effect of testosterone. While LPS led to a dedifferentiated phenotype in pSMCs, characterized by down-regulation of Srf/Myocd and smooth muscle cell (SMC)-restricted genes, endotoxin treatment on Myocd-overexpressing cells did not result in phenotypic alterations...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861595/tlr4-cd14-variants-related-serologic-and-immunologic-dys-regulations-predict-severe-sepsis-in-febrile-de-compensated-cirrhotic-patients
#15
Wen-Chien Fan, Chih-Wei Liu, Shuo-Ming Ou, Chia-Chang Huang, Tzu-Hao Li, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Shiang-Fen Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic) and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory) monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859629/changes-in-ventilatory-capacity-and-pulmonary-gas-exchange-during-systemic-and-pulmonary-inflammation-in-humans
#16
Jacob P Hartmann, Mathis N Mottelson, Ronan M G Berg, Ronni R Plovsing
The exact mechanism linking the systemic inflammatory response associated with sepsis to changes in lung function remains to be determined. In a human experimental model of inflammation, we investigated how acute systemic and local pulmonary inflammation affects ventilatory capacity and pulmonary gas exchange. Fifteen volunteers received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenously or endobronchially on two different study days. Blood samples were obtained hourly (t = 0-8 h) and spirometry was performed at baseline and after 8 h...
November 16, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859049/lps-primed-heterotolerant-dendritic-cells-suppress-experimental-autoimmune-uveoretintitis-by-multiple-mechanisms
#17
Izabela P Klaska, Elizabeth Muckersie, Cristina Martin-Granados, Maria Christofi, John V Forrester
Exposure of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) to high dose ultrapure lipopolysaccharide for 24 hours (h) (LPS-primed BMDC) enhances their potency in preventing inter-photoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP): complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). LPS-primed BMDC are refractory to further exposure to LPS (= endotoxin tolerance, ET), evidenced here by decreased phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) as well as impaired nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and IRF3, resulting in reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and interferon beta (IFN-β) secretion...
November 15, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857954/heat-stress-gastrointestinal-permeability-and-interleukin-6-signaling-implications-for-exercise-performance-and-fatigue
#18
REVIEW
Nicole Vargas, Frank Marino
Exercise in heat stress exacerbates performance decrements compared to normothermic environments. It has been documented that the performance decrements are associated with reduced efferent drive from the central nervous system (CNS), however, specific factors that contribute to the decrements are not completely understood. During exertional heat stress, blood flow is preferentially distributed away from the intestinal area to supply the muscles and brain with oxygen. Consequently, the gastrointestinal barrier becomes increasingly permeable, resulting in the release of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) into the circulation...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849678/fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice-a-lupus-model-with-increased-endotoxin-tolerance-related-sepsis-susceptibility
#19
Thunnicha Ondee, Saowapha Surawut, Sujittra Taratummarat, Nattiya Hirankan, Tanapat Palaga, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Trairak Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Hyper-elevated immune response of FcGRIIb-/- mice, a lupus model with an inhibitory-signaling defect, can become exhausted (less subsequent immune-response than the first response) with sequential LPS stimulation. Endotoxin tolerance-related modifications of inflammatory response were investigated in FcGRIIb-/- mice in both an in vivo sepsis model and in vitro using cultured macrophages. Serum cytokine concentrations, after the second LPS injection (at 5-fold higher levels than the first dose) did not exceed the first dose levels in either FcGRIIb-/- or wild-type mice...
November 15, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832807/sex-specific-variation-in-signaling-pathways-and-gene-expression-patterns-in-human-leukocytes-in-response-to-endotoxin-and-exercise
#20
Asghar Abbasi, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, Felix Bischof, Michael Walter, Masoud Movassaghi, Nicole C Berchtold, Andreas M Niess, Carl W Cotman, Hinnak Northoff
BACKGROUND: While exercise effects on the immune system have received increasing attention in recent years, it remains unclear to what extent gender and fluctuations in sex hormones during menstrual cycle influence immunological responses to exercise. METHODS: We investigated mRNA changes induced through exhaustive exercise (half-marathon; pre-exercise and post-exercise [30 min, 3 h, 24 h] on whole blood cultures ± lipopolysaccharide [LPS] [1 h]) with a specific focus on sex differences (men vs women in luteal phase) as an extension of our previous study...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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