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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534936/forsythoside-a-exerts-an-anti-endotoxin-effect-by-blocking-the-lps-tlr4-signaling-pathway-and-inhibiting-tregs-in-vitro
#1
Xiao-Yan Zeng, Wei Yuan, Lin Zhou, Shi-Xiu Wang, Yong Xie, Ying-Jun Fu
Endotoxins, also referred to as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are powerful immunostimulators involved in a number of severe diseases. Forsythoside A (FTA), a monomer of phenethyl alcohol glycosides extracted from Forsythia suspensa, has been shown to possess anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory properties. However, it is currently not known whether FTA can counter the adverse effects of endotoxins. We investigated the effect of FTA on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and primary lymphocytes to determine its molecular mechanism of action...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#2
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533109/lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-chronically-infected-by-schistosoma-mansoni
#3
Amanda Esteves Rocha Pereira, Maria Ângela Rodrigues, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Ivo Santana Caldas, Raquel Lopes Martins Souza, Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira
We used a murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (SM) infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxicity to investigate if these conditions can interact to modify the pathological manifestations typically observed in each condition. Swiss mice were randomized into four groups: SAL, uninfected; SM, infected; LPS, uninfected + LPS; and SM + LPS, infected + LPS. S. mansoni infection developed over 120 days, after which blood samples and lungs were collected, peritoneal leukocytes were isolated and cultivated for 6 and 24 h after LPS inoculation (1 mL/kg)...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532825/growth-performance-reproductive-traits-and-offspring-survivability-of-genetically-modified-rams-overexpressing-toll-like-receptor-4
#4
Yu-Chang Yao, Hong-Bing Han, Xu-Ting Song, Shou-Long Deng, Yu-Feng Liu, Ming-Hai Lu, Yun-Hai Zhang, Mei-Yu Qi, Hai-Juan He, Su-Mei Wang, Guo-Shi Liu, Wu Li, Zheng-Xing Lian
Genetic modification provides a means to enhancing disease resistance in animals. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the TLR family, is critical for the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria by host immune cells, which initiates cell activation and subsequently triggers a proinflammatory response to the invading pathogens. In this study, the first generation of genetically modified (GM) sheep overexpressing TLR4 was produced by microinjection for better disease resistance...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518138/betulin-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-lps-stimulated-macrophages-and-endotoxin-shocked-mice-through-an-ampk-akt-nrf2-dependent-mechanism
#5
Xinxin Ci, Junfeng Zhou, Hongming Lv, Qinlei Yu, Liping Peng, Shucheng Hua
Continued oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn could mediate most chronic diseases including cancer. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a critical transcriptional activator for antioxidative responses, has envolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment or prevention of human diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of betulin on Nrf2 activation and its involvement in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inflammatory system...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516446/a-primary-human-lung-alveolus-on-a-chip-model-of-intravascular-thrombosis-for-assessment-of-therapeutics
#6
Abhishek Jain, Riccardo Barrile, Andries D van der Meer, Akiko Mammoto, Tadanori Mammoto, Karen De Ceunynck, Omozuanvbo Aisiku, Monicah A Otieno, Calvert S Louden, Geraldine A Hamilton, Robert Flaumenhaft, Donald E Ingber
Pulmonary thrombosis is a significant cause of patient mortality, however, there are no effective in vitro models of thrombi formation in human lung microvessels, that could also assess therapeutics and toxicology of antithrombotic drugs. Here we show that a microfluidic lung alveolus-on-a-chip lined by human primary alveolar epithelium interfaced with endothelium, and cultured under flowing whole blood can be used to perform quantitative analysis of organ-level contributions to inflammation-induced thrombosis...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516374/role-of-lps-elicited-signaling-in-triggering-gastric-mucosal-inflammatory-responses-to-h-pylori-modulatory-effect-of-ghrelin
#7
REVIEW
B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a primary culprit in the etiology of gastric disease, and its cell-wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized as a potent endotoxin responsible for triggering a pattern of the mucosal inflammatory responses. The engagement by the LPS of gastric mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) leads to initiation of signal transduction events characterized by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, induction of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, and up-regulation in Src/Akt...
May 17, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511420/effect-of-intraperitoneal-injection-of-saffron-on-the-treatment-of-experimental-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-in-the-rabbit
#8
Mohammad Reza Talebnejad, Kazem Soltanzadeh, Eghtedari Masoomeh, Masoud Yasemi, Mohammad Reza Khalili, Sherafat Maryam
INTRODUCTION: Saffron with scientific name of "Crocus sativus" from the family "Iridaceae" is a plant without stem and root. Antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects of saffron has been demonstrated in different studies. AIM: To assess the effects of saffron in the treatment on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced uveitis in the rabbit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were prepared. LPS induced uveitis was confirmed via slit lamp examination 24 hours after intravitreal injection of Salmonella typhimurium LPS endotoxin in the right eye of all rabbits...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507519/vasorelaxing-action-of-the-kynurenine-metabolite-xanthurenic-acid-the-missing-link-in-endotoxin-induced-hypotension
#9
Francesco Fazio, Albino Carrizzo, Luana Lionetto, Antonio Damato, Luca Capocci, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Michele Madonna, Maurizio Simmaco, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Carmine Vecchione
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. L-kynurenine, an upstream metabolite of the pathway, acts as a putative endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and has been hypothesized to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. Here, we show that xanthurenic acid (XA), the transamination product of 3-hydroxykynurenine, is more efficacious than L-kynurenine in causing relaxation of a resistance artery, but fails to relax pre-contracted aortic rings...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504463/magnetocatalytic-graphene-quantum-dots-janus-micromotors-for-bacterial-endotoxin-detection
#10
Beatriz Jurado-Sánchez, Marta Pacheco, Jaime Rojo, Alberto Escarpa
Magnetocatalytic hybrid Janus micromotors encapsulating phenylboronic acid (PABA) modified graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are described herein as ultrafast sensors for the detection of deadly bacteria endotoxins. A bottom-up approach was adopted to synthesize an oil-in-water emulsion containing the GQDs along with a high loading of platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles on one side of the Janus micromotor body. The two different "active regions" enable highly efficient propulsion in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or magnetic actuation without the addition of a chemical fuel...
May 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501402/thiamine-supplementation-facilitates-thiamine-transporter-expression-in-the-rumen-epithelium-and-attenuates-high-grain-induced-inflammation-in-low-yielding-dairy-cows
#11
X H Pan, L Yang, Y Beckers, F G Xue, Z W Tang, L S Jiang, B H Xiong
An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492699/lipopolysaccharide-as-trigger-of-platelet-aggregation-via-eicosanoid-over-production
#12
Cristina Nocella, Roberto Carnevale, Simona Bartimoccia, Marta Novo, Roberto Cangemi, Daniele Pastori, Camilla Calvieri, Pasquale Pignatelli, Francesco Violi
The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on platelet aggregation is still controversial. We performed in vitro and ex vivo studies in controls and in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to assess the effect of LPS on platelet activation (PA). LPS (15-100 pg/ml) significantly increased PA only if combined with sub-threshold concentrations (STC) of collagen or ADP; this effect was associated with increased platelet H2O2 production, Nox2 activation, PLA2 phosphorylation, thromboxane (Tx)A2 and 8-iso-PGF2α-III, and was inhibited by aspirin, TxA2 receptor antagonist or by Toll-like receptor 4 blocking peptide (TLR4bp)...
May 11, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487013/placental-pim-1-expression-is-increased-in-obesity-and-regulates-cytokine-and-toll-like-receptor-mediated-inflammation
#13
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic, and as a consequence the number of obese pregnancies has also increased. Pregnancy is characterised by maternal and placental inflammation which is intensified with maternal obesity. The proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemic virus (Pim)-1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase involved in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. In relation to obesity, however, its role has not been elucidated in human placenta. The aims were to determine the placental expression of Pim-1 with pre-existing maternal obesity and its role in regulating placental inflammation associated with obesity...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483698/selective-phenylalanine-to-proline-substitution-for-improved-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activities-of-peptides-designed-on-phenylalanine-heptad-repeat
#14
Amit Kumar Tripathi, Tripti Kumari, Anshika Tandon, Mohd Sayeed, Tayyaba Afshan, Manoj Kathuria, P K Shukla, Kalyan Mitra, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
Introducing cell-selectivity in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) without compromising the antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin properties is a crucial step towards the development of new antimicrobial agents. A peptide designed on phenylalanine heptad repeat possesses significant cytotoxicity along with desired antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin properties. Amino-acid substitutions at 'a' and/or 'd' positions of heptad repeats of AMPs could alter their helical structure in mammalian membrane-mimetic environments and cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480027/effects-of-hydrogen-rich-saline-on-endotoxin-induced-uveitis
#15
Wei-Ming Yan, Lei Zhang, Tao Chen, Guan-Hua Zhao, Pan Long, Jing An, Zuo-Ming Zhang
The therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) have been reported for a wide range of diseases mainly via selectively reducing the amount of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of uveitis and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). In this study, we investigated whether HRS can mitigate EIU in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Norm group, Model group, HRS group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, and rats in the latter three groups were injected with equal amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce EIU of different severities (by 1 mg/kg of LPS, or 1/8 mg/kg of LPS)...
January 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479722/influence-of-capsaicin-on-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-myoblast-cells-under-in-vitro-environment
#16
Ke Shang, Touseef Amna, Musarat Amina, Nawal M Al-Musayeib, Salem S Al-Deyab, Inho Hwang
BACKGROUND: ellular damage initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the main cause of numerous severe diseases and therefore for this reason, the natural antioxidants have note worthy significance in human health. Capsaicin possesses noteworthy analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It also possesses healing effects for treatment of arthritis, diabetic neuropathy, gastric lesions, and cardiac excitability that is why it is incorporated in creams and gels. OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to estimate the in vitro antioxidant and ROS scavenging activities of capsaicin against muscle precursor cells...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479018/levosimendan-mitigates-coagulopathy-and-organ-dysfunction-in-rats-with-endotoxemia
#17
Hsieh-Chou Huang, Hsin-Jung Tsai, Chao-Chun Wang, Cheng-Ming Tsao, Shuk-Man Ka, Wen-Jinn Liaw, Chin-Chen Wu
BACKGROUND: In patients with severe sepsis, pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent activation of tissue factors trigger a cascade of events that lead to coagulation dysfunction and multiple organ failure. It has been shown that levosimendan has protective effects against tissue injury caused by endotoxin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of levosimendan on consumptive coagulopathy and organ dysfunction in an endotoxemic animal model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475489/differential-modulation-of-innate-immune-response-by-epinephrine-and-estradiol
#18
Sona Margaryan, Armenuhi Hyusyan, Anush Martirosyan, Shushan Sargsian, Gayane Manukyan
Background Although it is widely accepted that catecholamines and estrogens influence immunity and have consequences for health, their effect on innate immunity (e.g. monocytes and neutrophils) is still not fully investigated. Materials and methods Our study aimed to analyze the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and IL-8 by whole blood cells following short-term exposure to epinephrine (Epi) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 5, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473418/aggregation-of-thrombin-derived-c-terminal-fragments-as-a-previously-undisclosed-host-defense-mechanism
#19
Jitka Petrlova, Finja C Hansen, Mariena J A van der Plas, Roland G Huber, Matthias Mörgelin, Martin Malmsten, Peter J Bond, Artur Schmidtchen
Effective control of endotoxins and bacteria is crucial for normal wound healing. During injury, the key enzyme thrombin is formed, leading to generation of fibrin. Here, we show that human neutrophil elastase cleaves thrombin, generating 11-kDa thrombin-derived C-terminal peptides (TCPs), which bind to and form amorphous amyloid-like aggregates with both bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-negative bacteria. In silico molecular modeling using atomic resolution and coarse-grained simulations corroborates our experimental observations, altogether indicating increased aggregation through LPS-mediated intermolecular contacts between clusters of TCP molecules...
May 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471051/a-presumed-antagonistic-lps-identifies-distinct-functional-organization-of-tlr4-in-mouse-microglia
#20
Christin Döring, Tommy Regen, Ulla Gertig, Denise van Rossum, Anne Winkler, Nasrin Saiepour, Wolfgang Brück, Uwe-Karsten Hanisch, Hana Janova
Microglia as principle innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are the first line of defense against invading pathogens. They are capable of sensing infections through diverse receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This receptor is best known for its ability to recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a causative agent of gram-negative sepsis and septic shock. A putative, naturally occurring antagonist of TLR4 derives from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. However, the antagonistic potential of R...
May 4, 2017: Glia
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