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Endotoxin, LPS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081568/non-lethal-endotoxin-injection-a-rat-model-of-hypercoagulability
#1
Marjory B Brooks, James R Turk, Abraham Guerrero, Padma K Narayanan, John P Nolan, Elizabeth G Besteman, Dennis W Wilson, Roberta A Thomas, Cindy E Fishman, Karol L Thompson, Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Jennifer B Pierson, April Paulman, Alan Y Chiang, Albert E Schultze
Systemic inflammation co-activates coagulation, which unchecked culminates in a lethal syndrome of multi-organ microvascular thrombosis known as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We studied an endotoxin-induced inflammatory state in rats to identify biomarkers of hemostatic imbalance favoring hypercoagulability. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS at 15 mg/kg body weight resulted in peripheral leukopenia and widespread neutrophilic sequestration characteristic of an acute systemic inflammatory response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078612/ameliorative-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-role-of-cholinergic-system
#2
Yang Jin, Jian Peng, Xiaona Wang, Dong Zhang, Tianyin Wang
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077574/platelet-activating-factor-mediates-endotoxin-tolerance-by-regulating-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-dependent-expression-of-the-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3
#3
Kyung Tae Noh, In Duk Jung, Gil Sun Cha, Myung-Kwan Han, Yeong-Min Park
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediates immune tolerance, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. We previously determined plateletactivating factor (PAF) protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock, but its detailed mechanism of action was unknown. We performed survival experiments in IDO+/+ and IDO-/- mice using an LPSinduced endotoxemia model and rated organ injury (neutrophil infiltration, and liver function)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076559/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-lycopene-on-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-in-rats
#4
Tuğba Göncü, Elif Oğuz, Hatice Sezen, Sezen Koçarslan, Halit Oğuz, Ali Akal, Fatih Mehmet Adıbelli, Sevim Çakmak, Nurten Aksoy
Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of lycopene, a dietary carotenoid and potent antioxidant, against ocular inflammation and oxidative stress in an experimental uveitis model. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Induction of EIU was preceded by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lycopene for three consecutive days (Lycopene + LPS group) or equivolume vehicle (Vehicle + LPS group)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074216/adenosine-effectively-restores-endotoxin-induced-inhibition-of-human-neutrophil-chemotaxis-via-a1-receptor-p38-pathway
#5
Xiaohan Xu, Shuyun Zheng, Yuyun Xiong, Xu Wang, Weiting Qin, Huafeng Zhang, Bingwei Sun
Neutrophil chemotaxis plays an essential role in recruiting neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Neutrophil chemotaxis is suppressed both after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro and during clinical and experimental endotoxemia, leading to serious consequences. Adenosine (ADO) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that acts on a variety of neutrophil functions. However, its effects on human neutrophil chemotaxis during infection have been less well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ADO and its receptor-specific antagonist and agonist on neutrophil chemotaxis in an in vitro LPS-stimulated model...
January 10, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063927/deubiquitinase-usp12-promotes-lps-induced-macrophage-responses-through-inhibition-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE
#6
Tapan Kumar Singh Nayak, Neeraja P Alamuru-Yellapragada, Kishore V L Parsa
Post translational modifications, ubiquitination and its reversal by deubiquitination play an important role in regulating innate immune system. USP12 is a poorly studied deubiquitinase reported to regulate T-cell receptor signaling however the functional role of USP12 in macrophages, the principal architects of inflammation, is unknown. Thus, in this study we probed the involvement of USP12 in macrophage mediated inflammatory responses using bacterial endotoxin, LPS, as the model system. Here, we observed that the expression of USP12 was altered in time dependent manner in LPS stimulated RAW 264...
January 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060600/influence-of-energy-balance-and-glycemic-index-on-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-healthy-men
#7
Nicolle Breusing, Merit Lagerpusch, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim, Manfred J Mueller, Anja Bosy-Westphal
OBJECTIVE: Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060378/cd73-regulates-anti-inflammatory-signaling-between-apoptotic-cells-and-endotoxin-conditioned-tissue-macrophages
#8
Patrick S Murphy, Jing Wang, Samir P Bhagwat, Joshua C Munger, William J Janssen, Terry W Wright, Michael R Elliott
The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) shifts macrophages to an anti-inflammatory state through a set of still poorly understood soluble and cell-bound signals. Apoptosis is a common feature of inflamed tissues, and efferocytosis by tissue macrophages is thought to promote the resolution of inflammation. However, it is not clear how the exposure of tissue macrophages to inflammatory cues (e.g., PAMPs, DAMPs) in the early stages of inflammation affects immune outcomes of macrophage-apoptotic cell interactions occurring at later stages of inflammation...
January 6, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056766/lps-induced-modules-of-co-expressed-genes-in-equine-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#9
Alicja Pacholewska, Eliane Marti, Tosso Leeb, Vidhya Jagannathan, Vincent Gerber
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin, LPS) is a strong inducer of the innate immune response. It is widespread in our environment, e.g. in house dust and contributes to asthma. Compared to humans, horses are even more sensitive to LPS. However, data on LPS effects on the equine transcriptome are very limited. Using RNA-seq we analysed LPS-induced differences in the gene expression in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells at the gene and gene-network level in two half-sib families and one group of unrelated horses...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056086/zinc-modulates-endotoxin-induced-human-macrophage-inflammation-through-zip8-induction-and-c-ebp%C3%AE-inhibition
#10
Charlie J Pyle, Saife Akhter, ShengYing Bao, Claire E Dodd, Larry S Schlesinger, Daren L Knoell
Two vital functions of the innate immune system are to initiate inflammation and redistribute micronutrients in favor of the host. Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in host defense. The zinc importer ZIP8 is uniquely induced through stimulation of the NF-κB pathway by LPS in monocytes and functions to regulate inflammation in a zinc-dependent manner. Herein we determined the impact of zinc metabolism following LPS-induced inflammation in human macrophages. We observed that ZIP8 is constitutively expressed in resting macrophages and strikingly elevated following LPS exposure, a response that is unique compared to the 13 other known zinc import proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055129/long-term-ethanol-exposure-decreases-the-endotoxin-induced-hepatic-acute-phase-response-in-rats
#11
Emilie Glavind, Hendrik Vilstrup, Henning Grønbaek, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Nils Erik Magnusson, Karen Louise Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Long-term excess alcohol intake predisposes to infectious diseases. The hepatic acute phase response is a component of the innate immune system and is part of the first line of defense against invading pathogens, which may be compromised by alcohol. We aimed to investigate whether an induced acute phase response is impaired in long-term ethanol-fed rats. METHODS: For six weeks, rats were either fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing (36% as calories) liquid diet ad libitum or calorically pair-fed...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052864/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-colonic-biotin-uptake-via-interference-with-membrane-expression-of-its-transporter-a-role-for-casein-kinase-2-mediated-pathway
#12
Ram Lakhan, Hamid M Said
Biotin (vitamin B7), an essential micronutrient for normal cellular functions, is obtained from both dietary sources as well as gut microbiota. Absorption of biotin in both the small and large intestine is via a carrier-mediated process that involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, SMVT. While different physiological and molecular aspects of intestinal biotin uptake have been delineated, nothing is known about the effect of LPS on the process. We addressed this issue using in vitro (human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells) and in vivo (mice) models of LPS exposure...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051162/piscidin-1-analogs-with-double-l-and-d-lysine-residues-exhibited-different-conformations-in-lipopolysaccharide-but-comparable-anti-endotoxin-activities
#13
Amit Kumar, Mukesh Mahajan, Bhanupriya Awasthi, Anshika Tandon, Munesh Kumar Harioudh, Sonal Shree, Pratiksha Singh, Praveen Kumar Shukla, Ravishankar Ramachandran, Kalyan Mitra, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
To become clinically effective, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) should be non-cytotoxic to host cells. Piscidins are a group of fish-derived AMPs with potent antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities but limited by extreme cytotoxicity. We conjectured that introduction of cationic residue(s) at the interface of polar and non-polar faces of piscidins may control their insertion into hydrophobic mammalian cell membrane and thereby reducing cytotoxicity. We have designed several novel analogs of piscidin-1 by substituting threonine residue(s) with L and D-lysine residue(s)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043040/rho-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-prevents-pulmonary-inflammation-and-coagulation-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-injury
#14
Renyu Ding, Dongmei Zhao, Xiaoxia Li, Baoyan Liu, Xiaochun Ma
INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI), the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation plays a pivotal role. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor in alleviating pulmonary inflammation and coagulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) models. METHODS: In the in vivo study, mice were randomized to four different groups: Control, Y-27632 (Y), LPS, and LPS+Y-27632 (LPS+Y)...
December 24, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041733/glucose-requirements-of-an-activated-immune-system-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#15
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M Abuajamieh, E J Mayorga, M V Sanz Fernandez, L H Baumgard
Accurately quantifying activated immune system energy requirements in vivo is difficult, but a better understanding may advance strategies to maximize animal productivity. Study objectives were to estimate whole-body glucose utilization following an i.v. endotoxin challenge. Lactating Holstein cows were jugular catheterized and assigned 1 of 3 bolus treatments: control (CON; 5 mL of saline; n = 6), lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-administered (LPS-C; 1.5 μg/kg of body weight; Escherichia coli 055:B5; n = 6), and LPS + euglycemic clamp (LPS-Eu; 1...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035899/peripherally-administered-orexin-improves-survival-of-mice-with-endotoxin-shock
#16
Yasuhiro Ogawa, Yoko Irukayama-Tomobe, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Maiko Kiyama, Yui Ishikawa, Naoto Hosokawa, Hiromu Tominaga, Shuntaro Uchida, Saki Kimura, Mika Kanuka, Miho Morita, Michito Hamada, Satoru Takahashi, Yu Hayashi, Masashi Yanagisawa
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, accounting for the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Here, we report that peripheral administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin improves the survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxin shock, a well-studied septic shock model. The effect is accompanied by a suppression of excessive cytokine production and an increase of catecholamines and corticosterone. We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin's direct action in the central nervous system (CNS)...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025041/effect-of-lps-treatment-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-and-parkinson-like-behaviors
#17
Olivier Girard-Joyal, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which the brain undergoes reorganizing and remodeling. Exposure to stress during this period is thought to interfere with normal brain development and increase susceptibility to mental illnesses. In female mice, pubertal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, has been shown to alter sexual, anxiety-like, and depression-like behaviors and cognition in an enduring manner. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The present study examined age and sex difference in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine-dependent and Parkinson-like behaviors following LPS treatment...
December 24, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011933/epigenetic-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-irak-m-expression-in-macrophages
#18
Konstantina Lyroni, Andreas Patsalos, Maria G Daskalaki, Christina Doxaki, Birte Soennichsen, Mike Helms, Ioannis Liapis, Vassiliki Zacharioudaki, Sotirios C Kampranis, Christos Tsatsanis
During macrophage activation, expression of IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is induced to suppress TLR-mediated responses and is a hallmark of endotoxin tolerance. Endotoxin tolerance requires tight regulation of genes occurring at the transcriptional and epigenetic levels. To identify novel regulators of IRAK-M, we used RAW 264.7 macrophages and performed a targeted RNA interference screen of genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes, signaling molecules, and transcription factors involved in macrophage activation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008331/a-meningococcal-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-incorporating-genetically-attenuated-endotoxin-dissociates-inflammation-from-immunogenicity
#19
David J Dowling, Holly Sanders, Wing Ki Cheng, Sweta Joshi, Spencer Brightman, Ilana Bergelson, Carlo Pietrasanta, Simon D van Haren, Sandra van Amsterdam, Jeffrey Fernandez, Germie P J M van den Dobbelsteen, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing Gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB) disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific human in vitro culture systems...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006762/h2s-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-nitrative-stress-and-inflammation
#20
Hong-Xia Zhang, Shu-Juan Liu, Xiao-Lu Tang, Guo-Li Duan, Xin Ni, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Yu-Jian Liu, Chang-Nan Wang
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as the third endogenous gaseous transmitter, has received increasing attention because of its diverse effects, including angiogenesis, vascular relaxation and myocardial protection.We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by endotoxemia. METHODS: Male ICR mice were divided in six groups: (1) Control group; (2) GYY4137treatment group; (3) L-NAME treatment group; (4) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment group; (5) LPS with GYY4137 treatment group; and (6) LPS with L-NAME treatment group...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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