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Glial scar

Ying Chen, Shuyan Cao, Pingping Xu, Wei Han, Tiankai Shan, Jingying Pan, Weiwei Lin, Xue Chen, Xiaodong Wang
BACKGROUND Results from DNA microarray experiments have shown that the expression of miR-34s undergoes significant changes following spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to detect changes in the expression of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining for myelin was used to observe the differences in the general morphology of the spinal cord after SCI in a contusion model in rats. qPCR was carried out to determine the expression variation of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
D-X Ban, Y Liu, T-W Cao, S-J Gao, S-Q Feng
STUDY DESIGN: The rat's acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASCS) and spinal cord neurons were prepared in vitro to explore their biocompatibility. OBJECTIVES: The preparation of ASCS and co-culture with neuron may lay a foundation for clinical treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ChinaMethods:ASCS was prepared by chemical extraction method. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), myelin staining and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the surface structure of ASCS...
October 25, 2016: Spinal Cord
Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Mohammad T Abu-Rub, Ben Newland, Michelle Naughton, Wenxin Wang, Siobhan McMahon, Abhay Pandit
Reactive astrocytosis and the subsequent glial scar is ubiquitous to injuries of the central nervous system, especially spinal cord injury (SCI) and primarily serves to protect against further damage, but is also a prominent inhibitor of regeneration. Manipulating the glial scar by targeting chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) has been the focus of much study as a means to improve axon regeneration and subsequently functional recovery. In this study we investigate the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered by a non-viral polymer vector to silence the rate-limiting enzyme involved in CSPG synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Harun Najib Noristani, Jean Charles Sabourin, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Emilie Chan-Seng, Yannick Nicolas Gerber, Florence Evelyne Perrin
BACKGROUND: Neurons have intrinsic capability to regenerate after lesion, though not spontaneously. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent neurological impairments partly due to formation of a glial scar that is composed of astrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes play both beneficial and detrimental roles on axonal re-growth, however, their precise role after SCI is currently under debate. METHODS: We analyzed molecular changes in astrocytes at multiple stages after two SCI severities using cell-specific transcriptomic analyses...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Larissa Brentano Capeletti, Mateus Borba Cardoso, João Henrique Zimnoch Dos Santos, Wei He
Thin films of silica prepared by a sol-gel process are becoming a feasible coating option for surface modification of implantable neural sensors without imposing adverse effects on the devices' electrical properties. In order to advance the application of such silica-based coatings in the context of neural interfacing, the characteristics of silica sol-gel are further tailored to gain active control of interactions between cells and the coating materials. By incorporating various readily available organotrialkoxysilanes carrying distinct organic functional groups during the sol-gel process, a library of hybrid organosilica coatings is developed and investigated...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins, Pietro Domingues Dossa, Lígia Bocamino Viebig, Carolina Vieira Cardoso, João Lopes Martins, Maria Martha Bernardi
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of propentofylline administration on astrocytic response following gliotoxic injury. Method: Wistar rats were injected with ethidium bromide into the cisterna pontis and treated or not with propentofylline (12.5mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal) during the experimental period. Brainstem sections were collected from 15 to 31 days after gliotoxic injection and processed for GFAP immunohistochemistry. Results and Conclusion: Results demonstrate that propentofylline decreased astrocytic activation until the 21st day, suggesting that this drug may have a role in reducing glial scar development following injury...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
A Wünschmann, A G Armién, M Khatri, L C Martinez, M Willette, A Glaser, J Alvarez, P Redig
Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Yongxin Luan, Mo Chen, Lixiang Zhou
OBJECTIVES: We attempted to discover the regulatory role of miR-17 and PTEN in glial scar formation accompanied with spinal cord injuries. METHODS: We established a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in mice which were transfected with different groups of adenoviruses: miR-17 mimics, miR-17 inhibitors and PTEN cDNAs. The improvement of hind limb functions was assessed using the 21-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Vimentin and neurofilaments...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Xuyan Jin, Yoo-Jin Shin, Tae-Ryong Riew, Jeong-Heon Choi, Mun-Yong Lee
Slit2, a secreted glycoprotein, has recently been implicated in the post-ischemic astroglial reaction. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes and cellular localization of Slit2 and its receptors, Robo1, Robo2, and Robo4, in a rat transient focal ischemia model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We used double- and triple-immunolabeling to determine the cell-specific changes in Slit2 and its receptors during a 10-week post-ischemia period. The expression profiles of Slit2 and the Robo receptors shared overlapping expression patterns in sham-operated and ischemic striatum...
September 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Sung-Rae Cho, Hwal Suh, Ji Hea Yu, Hyongbum Henry Kim, Jung Hwa Seo, Cheong Hoon Seo
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has paracrine effects; however, the effects are known to be largely limited. Here we investigated the combination effects of cell transplantation and enriched environment (EE) in a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Brain damage was induced in seven-day-old mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O₂ for 90 min). At six weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-control (CON), PBS-EE, MSC-CON, and MSC-EE...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chizuka Ide, Kenji Kanekiyo
Transplantation of somatic cells, including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs), and choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs), enhances the outgrowth of regenerating axons and promotes locomotor improvements. They are not integrated into the host spinal cord, but disappear within 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Regenerating axons extend at the spinal cord lesion through the astrocyte-devoid area that is filled with connective tissue matrices. Regenerating axons have characteristics of peripheral nerves: they are associated with Schwann cells, and embedded in connective tissue matrices...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro
A combined approach in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy is the modulation of the cellular and molecular processes involved in glial scarring. Aldaynoglial cells are neural cell precursors with a high capacity to differentiate into neurons, promote axonal growth, wrapping and myelination of resident neurons. These important characteristics of aldaynoglia can be combined with specific inhibition of the RhoGTPase activity in astroglia and microglia that cause reduction of glial proliferation, retraction of glial cell processes and myelin production by oligodendrocytes...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Hongjian Pu, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xiaoming Hu, Jinchao Xia, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Yejie Shi
Prophylactic dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been shown to remarkably ameliorate ischemic brain injury. However, the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFA administration post-stroke, especially its impact on neurovascular remodeling and long-term neurological recovery, has not been fully characterized thus far. In this study, we investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation, as well as in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) injections, on long-term stroke outcomes...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Lauren E Himmel, Maryam B Lustberg, A Courtney DeVries, Ming Poi, Ching-Shih Chen, Samuel K Kulp
Minocycline is purported to have neuroprotective properties in experimental models of some human neurologic diseases, and has therefore been identified as a putative neuroprotectant for chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. However, because its mechanism of action is believed to be mediated through anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant pathways, co-administration of minocycline with chemotherapeutic agents has the potential to reduce the efficacy of anticancer drugs...
October 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
F C Nicola, L P Rodrigues, T Crestani, K Quintiliano, E F Sanches, S Willborn, D Aristimunha, L Boisserand, P Pranke, C A Netto
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disabling condition resulting in deficits of sensory and motor functions, and has no effective treatment. Considering that protocols with stem cell transplantation and treadmill training have shown promising results, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats with experimental spinal cord injury. Fifty-four Wistar rats were spinalized using NYU impactor. The rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups: Sham (laminectomy with no SCI, n=10); SCI (laminectomy followed by SCI, n=12); SHEDs (SCI treated with SHEDs, n=11); TT (SCI treated with treadmill training, n=11); SHEDs+TT (SCI treated with SHEDs and treadmill training; n=10)...
August 8, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Wei-Yang Shao, Xiao Liu, Xian-Liang Gu, Xi Ying, Nan Wu, Hai-Wei Xu, Yi Wang
AIM: To explore the effects of αA-crystallin in astrocyte gliosis after optic nerve crush (ONC) and the mechanism of α-crystallin in neuroprotection and axon regeneration. METHODS: ONC was established on the Sprague-Dawley rat model and αA-crystallin (10(-4) g/L, 4 µL) was intravitreously injected into the rat model. Flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) was examined 14d after ONC, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the retina and crush site were analyzed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14d after ONC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot respectively...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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