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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458076/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-improved-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-partly-by-promoting-axonal-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating...
February 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451216/does-combined-therapy-of-curcumin-and-epigallocatechin-gallate-have-a-synergistic-neuroprotective-effect-against-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Jiri Ruzicka, Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Barbora Svobodova, Anubhav G Amin, Kristyna Karova, Jana Dubisova, Kristyna Zaviskova, Sarka Kubinova, Meic Schmidt, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Systematic inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the factors leading to lesion development and a profound degree of functional loss. Anti-inflammatory compounds, such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are known for their neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined therapy of curcumin and EGCG in a rat model of acute SCI induced by balloon compression. Immediately after SCI, rats received curcumin, EGCG, curcumin + EGCG or saline [daily intraperitoneal doses (curcumin, 6 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg)] and weekly intramuscular doses (curcumin, 60 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg)] for 28 days...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428230/fibrotic-scarring-following-lesions-to-the-central-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
David Oliveira Dias, Christian Göritz
Following lesions to the central nervous system, scar tissue forms at the lesion site. Injury often severs axons and scar tissue is thought to block axonal regeneration, resulting in permanent functional deficits. While scar-forming astrocytes have been extensively studied, much less attention has been given to the fibrotic, non-glial component of the scar. We here review recent progress in understanding fibrotic scar formation following different lesions to the brain and spinal cord. We specifically highlight recent evidence for pericyte-derived fibrotic scar tissue formation, discussing the origin, recruitment, function and therapeutic relevance of fibrotic scarring...
February 8, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422055/calcineurin-a-beta-deficiency-ameliorates-hfd-induced-hypothalamic-astrocytosis-in-mice
#5
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Sonja C Schriever, Beata Legutko, Peter Baumann, Luke Harrison, Dhiraj G Kabra, Emily Violette Baumgart, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Paul T Pfluger
ᅟ: Astrocytosis is a reactive process involving cellular, molecular, and functional changes to facilitate neuronal survival, myelin preservation, blood brain barrier function and protective glial scar formation upon brain insult. The overall pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of reactive astrocytes appears to be driven in a context- and disease-driven manner by modulation of astrocytic Ca2+ homeostasis and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we aimed to assess whether calcineurin is dispensable for astrocytosis in the hypothalamus driven by prolonged high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410176/transient-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-reporter-in-fibrotic-scar-formation-after-compression-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-mice
#6
Takashi Yamagami, David E Pleasure, Kit S Lam, Chengji J Zhou
After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), a scar may form with a fibrotic core (fibrotic scar) and surrounding reactive astrocytes (glial scar) at the lesion site. The scar tissue is considered a major obstacle preventing regeneration both as a physical barrier and as a source for secretion of inhibitors of axonal regeneration. Understanding the mechanism of scar formation and how to control it may lead to effective SCI therapies. Using a compression-SCI model on adult transgenic mice, we demonstrate that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter TOPgal (TCF/Lef1-lacZ) positive cells appeared at the lesion site by 5 days, peaked on 7 days, and diminished by 14 days post injury...
February 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396549/rgma-mediates-reactive-astrogliosis-and-glial-scar-formation-through-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad2-3-signaling-after-stroke
#7
Rongrong Zhang, Yanping Wu, Fei Xie, Yiliang Zhong, Yu Wang, Mengxue Xu, Jinzhou Feng, Jason Charish, Philippe P Monnier, Xinyue Qin
In response to stroke, astrocytes become reactive astrogliosis and are a major component of a glial scar. This results in the formation of both a physical and chemical (production of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) barrier, which prevent neurite regeneration that, in turn, interferes with functional recovery. However, the mechanisms of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation are poorly understood. In this work, we hypothesized that repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) regulate reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation...
February 2, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393544/a-single-cell-analysis-reveals-multiple-roles-of-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells-during-post-ischemic-regeneration
#8
Valny Martin, Honsa Pavel, Waloschkova Eliska, Matuskova Hana, Kriska Jan, Kirdajova Denisa, Androvic Peter, Valihrach Lukas, Kubista Mikael, Anderova Miroslava
NG2 cells represent precursors of oligodendrocytes under physiological conditions; however, following cerebral ischemia they play an important role in glial scar formation. Here, we compared the expression profiles of oligodendroglial lineage cells, after focal cerebral ischemia (FCI) and in Alzheimer's-like pathology using transgenic mice, which enables genetic fate-mapping of Cspg4-positive NG2 cells and their progeny, based on the expression of red fluorescent protein tdTomato. tdTomato-positive cells possessed the expression profile of NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes; however, based on the expression of cell type-specific genes, we were able to distinguish between them...
February 2, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381054/mesh-nanoelectronics-seamless-integration-of-electronics-with-tissues
#9
Xiaochuan Dai, Guosong Hong, Teng Gao, Charles M Lieber
Nanobioelectronics represents a rapidly developing field with broad-ranging opportunities in fundamental biological sciences, biotechnology, and medicine. Despite this potential, seamless integration of electronics has been difficult due to fundamental mismatches, including size and mechanical properties, between the elements of the electronic and living biological systems. In this Account, we discuss the concept, development, key demonstrations, and future opportunities of mesh nanoelectronics as a general paradigm for seamless integration of electronics within synthetic tissues and live animals...
January 30, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373946/safety-and-efficacy-of-rose-bengal-derivatives-for-glial-scar-ablation-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Nandadevi Patil, Vincent Truong, Mackenzie Howard Holmberg, Nicolas D Stoflet, Mark Roderick McCoy, James R Dutton, Eric George Holmberg, Ann M Parr
There are currently no effective therapies available to ameliorate loss of function available for spinal cord injured patients. In addition, proposed treatments which demonstrated functional recovery in animal models of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) have almost invariably failed when applied to chronic injury models. Glial scar formation in chronic injury is a likely contributor to limitation on regeneration. We have successfully removed existing scar tissue in chronically contused rat spinal cord using a rose Bengal based photo ablation approach...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331263/glial-scars-are-permeable-to-the-neurotoxic-environment-of-chronic-stroke-infarcts
#11
Jacob C Zbesko, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Tao Yang, Jennifer Beischel Frye, Omar Hussain, Megan Hayes, Amanda Chung, W Anthony Day, Kristina Stepanovic, Maj Krumberger, Justine Mona, Frank M Longo, Kristian P Doyle
Following stroke, the damaged tissue undergoes liquefactive necrosis, a stage of infarct resolution that lasts for months, although the exact length of time is currently unknown. One method of repair involves reactive astrocytes and microglia forming a glial scar to compartmentalize the area of liquefactive necrosis from the rest of the brain. The formation of the glial scar is a critical component of the healing response to stroke, as well as other central nervous system (CNS) injuries. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the extracellular fluid present in areas of liquefactive necrosis and determine how effectively it is segregated from the remainder of the brain...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#12
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315225/fm19g11-and-ependymal-progenitor-stem-cell-combinatory-treatment-enhances-neuronal-preservation-and-oligodendrogenesis-after-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Ana Alastrue-Agudo, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Eric López Mocholi, Francesca De Giorgio, Slaven Erceg, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. We have previously shown that individual therapeutic strategies, transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord after injury (epSPCi) or FM19G11 pharmacological treatment, induce moderate functional recovery after SCI. Here, the combination of treatments has been assayed for functional and histological analysis. Immediately after severe SCI, one million epSPCi were intramedullary injected, and the FM19G11 compound or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (as the vehicle control) was administrated via intrathecal catheterization...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295526/inhibition-of-aquaporin-4-improves-the-outcome-of-ischaemic-stroke-and-modulates-brain-paravascular-drainage-pathways
#14
Ionica Pirici, Tudor Adrian Balsanu, Catalin Bogdan, Claudiu Margaritescu, Tamir Divan, Vacaras Vitalie, Laurentiu Mogoanta, Daniel Pirici, Roxana Octavia Carare, Dafin Fior Muresanu
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain, and its inhibition before inducing focal ischemia, using the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020, has been showed to reduce oedema in imaging studies. Here, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the histopathological effects of a single dose of TGN-020 administered after the occlusion of the medial cerebral artery (MCAO). On a rat model of non-reperfusion ischemia, we have assessed vascular densities, albumin extravasation, gliosis, and apoptosis at 3 and 7 days after MCAO...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286415/improved-3d-hydrogel-cultures-of-primary-glial-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-neuroinflammation
#15
Kyle M Koss, Matthew A Churchward, Andrea F Jeffery, Vivian K Mushahwar, Anastasia L Elias, Kathryn G Todd
In the central nervous system, numerous acute injuries and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as implanted devices or biomaterials engineered to enhance function result in the same outcome: excess inflammation leads to gliosis, cytotoxicity, and/or formation of a glial scar that collectively exacerbate injury or prevent healthy recovery. With the intent of creating a system to model glial scar formation and study inflammatory processes, we have generated a 3D cell scaffold capable of housing primary cultured glial cells: microglia that regulate the foreign body response and initiate the inflammatory event, astrocytes that respond to form a fibrous scar, and oligodendrocytes that are typically vulnerable to inflammatory injury...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#16
Z C Hesp, R Y Yoseph, R Suzuki, C Wilson, A Nishiyama, D M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations (pericytes and glia) also may influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236326/knockdown-of-ski-decreased-the-reactive-astrocytes-proliferation-in-vitro-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation
#17
Xin Zhao, Kai-Sheng Zhou, Zhong-Hao Li, Wei Nan, Jing Wang, Ya-Yi Xia, Hai-Hong Zhang
Glia scar is a pathological marker in late phase of brain ischemia disease, which constitutes a major physical biochemical barrier to impede axonal regrowth. Astrocytes are known to be critically involved in the formation of glial scar. However, their response to ischemia and their role in neuroprotection after central nervous system (CNS) injury are not completely clear. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that Ski was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury in vivo and in vitro, which indicates Ski may be a new molecule that control astrocytes biologic properties after CNS injury...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218499/effect-of-clip3-upregulation-on-astrocyte-proliferation-and-subsequent-glial-scar-formation-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-via-stat3-pathway-after-injury
#19
Xiaoqing Chen, Cheng Chen, Jie Hao, Jiyun Zhang, Feng Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event resulting in neuron degeneration and permanent paralysis through inflammatory cytokine overproduction and glial scar formation. Presently, the endogenous molecular mechanisms coordinating glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain elusive. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-known transcription factor particularly involving in cell proliferation and inflammation in the lesion site following SCI. Meanwhile, CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein 3(CLIP3), a vital cytoplasmic protein, has been confirmed to providing an optimal conduit for intracellular signal transduction and interacting with STAT3 with mass spectrometry analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203280/reduced-post-stroke-glial-scarring-in-the-infant-primate-brain-reflects-age-related-differences-in-the-regulation-of-astrogliosis
#20
Leon Teo, Anthony G Boghdadi, Mitchell de Souza, James A Bourne
Ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide. Surviving patients often suffer permanent neurological impairments, and spontaneous recovery rarely occurs. However, observations that early-life brain injuries, including strokes, elicit less severe long-term functional impairments, compared to adults, continue to intrigue. While much research has focussed on neuronal changes and plasticity, less is known regarding the regulation of astrogliosis and glial scar formation after a stroke at different stages of life...
December 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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