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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218499/effect-of-clip3-upregulation-on-astrocyte-proliferation-and-subsequent-glial-scar-formation-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-via-stat3-pathway-after-injury
#2
Xiaoqing Chen, Cheng Chen, Jie Hao, Jiyun Zhang, Feng Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event resulting in neuron degeneration and permanent paralysis through inflammatory cytokine overproduction and glial scar formation. Presently, the endogenous molecular mechanisms coordinating glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain elusive. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-known transcription factor particularly involving in cell proliferation and inflammation in the lesion site following SCI. Meanwhile, CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein 3(CLIP3), a vital cytoplasmic protein, has been confirmed to providing an optimal conduit for intracellular signal transduction and interacting with STAT3 with mass spectrometry analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203280/reduced-post-stroke-glial-scarring-in-the-infant-primate-brain-reflects-age-related-differences-in-the-regulation-of-astrogliosis
#3
Leon Teo, Anthony G Boghdadi, Mitchell de Souza, James A Bourne
Ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide. Surviving patients often suffer permanent neurological impairments, and spontaneous recovery rarely occurs. However, observations that early-life brain injuries, including strokes, elicit less severe long-term functional impairments, compared to adults, continue to intrigue. While much research has focussed on neuronal changes and plasticity, less is known regarding the regulation of astrogliosis and glial scar formation after a stroke at different stages of life...
December 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182149/multi-scale-multi-modal-analysis-uncovers-complex-relationship-at-the-brain-tissue-implant-neural-interface-new-emphasis-on-the-biological-interface
#4
Nicholas J Michelson, Alberto L Vazquez, James R Eles, Joseph William Salatino, Erin K Purcell, Jordan John Williams, Tracy Cui, Takashi D Yoshida Kozai
Implantable neural electrode devices are important tools for neuroscience research and have an increasing range of clinical applications. However, the intricacies of the biological response after implantation, and their ultimate impact on recording performance, remain challenging to elucidate. Establishing a relationship between the neurobiology and chronic recording performance is confounded by technical challenges related to traditional electrophysiological, material, and histological limitations. This can greatly impact the interpretations of results pertaining to device performance and tissue health surrounding the implant...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174588/trimethylene-carbonate-caprolactone-conduit-with-poly-p-dioxanone-microfilaments-to-promote-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Liudmila N Novikova, Mallappa K Kolar, Paul J Kingham, Andreas Ullrich, Sven Oberhoffner, Monika Renardy, Michael Doser, Erhard Müller, Mikael Wiberg, Lev N Novikov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often associated with scarring and cavity formation and therefore bridging strategies are essential to provide a physical substrate for axonal regeneration. In this study we investigated the effects of a biodegradable conduit made from trimethylene carbonate and ε-caprolactone (TC) containing poly-p-dioxanone microfilaments (PDO) with longitudinal grooves on regeneration after SCI in adult rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that different cell types including astrocytes, meningeal fibroblasts, Schwann cells and adult sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons can grow on the TC and PDO material...
November 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163001/implantation-of-3d-constructs-embedded-with-oral-mucosa-derived-cells-induces-functional-recovery-in-rats-with-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#6
Javier Ganz, Erez Shor, Shaowei Guo, Anton Sheinin, Ina Arie, Izhak Michaelevski, Sandu Pitaru, Daniel Offen, Shulamit Levenberg
Spinal cord injury (SCI), involving damaged axons and glial scar tissue, often culminates in irreversible impairments. Achieving substantial recovery following complete spinal cord transection remains an unmet challenge. Here, we report of implantation of an engineered 3D construct embedded with human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) induced to secrete neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and axonal elongation-associated factors, in a complete spinal cord transection rat model. Rats implanted with induced tissue engineering constructs regained fine motor control, coordination and walking pattern in sharp contrast to the untreated group that remained paralyzed (42 vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155409/biomaterial-strategies-for-limiting-the-impact-of-secondary-events-following-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Trevor R Ham, Nic D Leipzig
The nature of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often involves limited recovery and long-term quality of life complications. The initial injury sets off a variety of secondary cascades, which result in an expanded lesion area. Ultimately, the native tissue fails to regenerate. As treatments are developed in the laboratory, the management of this secondary cascade is an important first step in achieving recovery of normal function. Current literature identifies four broad targets for intervention: inflammation, oxidative stress, disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, and formation of an inhibitory glial scar...
November 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122627/glial-function-and-dysfunction-in-the-normal-ischemic-brain
#8
REVIEW
Shino D Magaki, Christopher K Williams, Harry V Vinters
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). Once considered to be of fairly homogeneous phenotype throughout the brain and spinal cord, they are now understood to be heterogeneous in both structure and function. They are important in brain functions as diverse as ion and fluid balance in the interstitial space, contributing to integrity of the neurovascular unit (blood-brain barrier), neurotransmitter regulation, metabolism of energy substrates and possibly even axonal regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120167/understanding-the-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-to-brain-implants-to-improve-neurochemical-sensing-performance
#9
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neurochemical sensing probes are a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool that can be used to study neurodegenerative diseases involving deficiencies in neurotransmitter signaling. However, implantation of these biosensors can elicit a harmful tissue response that alters the neurochemical environment within the brain. Transmission of chemical messengers via neurons is impeded by a barrier-forming glial scar that occurs within weeks after insertion followed by progressive neurodegeneration, attenuating signal sensitivity...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116017/regenerative-potential-of-primary-adult-human-neural-stem-cells-on-micropatterned-bio-implants-boosts-motor-recovery
#10
Carole Davoust, Benjamin Plas, Amélie Béduer, Boris Demain, Anne-Sophie Salabert, Jean Christophe Sol, Christophe Vieu, Laurence Vaysse, Isabelle Loubinoux
BACKGROUND: The adult brain is unable to regenerate itself sufficiently after large injuries. Therefore, hopes rely on therapies using neural stem cell or biomaterial transplantation to sustain brain reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement in sensorimotor recovery brought about by human primary adult neural stem cells (hNSCs) in combination with bio-implants. METHODS: hNSCs were pre-seeded on implants micropatterned for neurite guidance and inserted intracerebrally 2 weeks after a primary motor cortex lesion in rats...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104378/osteopontin-augments-m2-microglia-response-and-separates-m1-and-m2-polarized-microglial-activation-in-permanent-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Anne Ladwig, Helene Luise Walter, Jörg Hucklenbroich, Antje Willuweit, Karl-Josef Langen, Gereon Rudolph Fink, Maria Adele Rueger, Michael Schroeter
Background: Focal cerebral ischemia induces distinct neuroinflammatory processes. We recently reported the extracellular phosphor-glyco-protein osteopontin (OPN) to directly affect primary microglia in vitro, promoting survival while shifting their inflammatory profile towards a more neutral phenotype. We here assessed the effects of OPN on microglia after stroke in vivo, with focus on infarct demarcation. Methods: Animals underwent focal photothrombotic stroke and were injected intracerebroventricularly with 500 μg OPN or vehicle...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072508/the-aquaporin-4-water-channel-as-a-potential-drug-target-in-neurological-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Alan S Verkman, Alex J Smith, Puay-Wah Phuan, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Marc O Anderson
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water transporting protein expressed at the plasma membrane of astrocytes throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Analysis of AQP4 knockout mice has suggested its broad involvement in brain water balance, neuroexcitation, glial scarring, neuroinflammation, and even neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Broad clinical utility of AQP4 modulators has been speculated. Area covered: This review covers the biology of AQP4, evidence for its roles in normal CNS function and neurological disorders, and progress in AQP4 drug discovery...
December 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070875/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-neuroprotective-aspects-of-human-reactive-astrocytes-induced-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#13
Daniel Boon Loong Teh, Ankshita Prasad, Wenxuan Jiang, Mohd Zacky Ariffin, Sanjay Khanna, Abha Belorkar, Limsoon Wong, Xiaogang Liu, Angelo H All
Reactive astrogliosis is a critical process in neuropathological conditions and neurotrauma. Although it has been suggested that it confers neuroprotective effects, the exact genomic mechanism has not been explored. The prevailing dogma of the role of astrogliosis in inhibition of axonal regeneration has been challenged by recent findings in rodent model's spinal cord injury, demonstrating its neuroprotection and axonal regeneration properties. We examined whether their neuroprotective and axonal regeneration potentials can be identify in human spinal cord reactive astrocytes in vitro...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054751/ng2-cspg4-and-progranulin-in-the-posttraumatic-glial-scar
#14
REVIEW
Michael K E Schäfer, Irmgard Tegeder
Traumatic injury of the central nervous system is one of the leading causes of death and disability in young adults. Failure of regeneration is caused by autonomous neuronal obstacles and by formation of the glial scar, which is essential to seal the injury but also constitutes a barrier for regrowing axons. The scar center is highly inflammatory and populated by NG2+ glia, whereas astrocytes form the sealing border and trap regrowing axons, suggesting that the non-permissive environment of activated astrocytes and extracellular matrix components is one of the reasons for the regenerative failure...
October 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054466/astrocyte-reactivity-and-astrogliosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Seiji Okada, Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yasuharu Nakashima
After traumatic injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), including spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes surrounding the lesion become reactive and typically undergo hypertrophy and process extension. These reactive astrocytes migrate centripetally to the lesion epicenter and aid in the tissue repair process, however, they eventually become scar-forming astrocytes and form a glial scar which produces axonal growth inhibitors and prevents axonal regeneration. This sequential phenotypic change has long been considered to be unidirectional and irreversible; thus glial scarring is one of the main causes of the limited regenerative capability of the CNS...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054283/desmin-expression-profile-in-reactive-astrocytes-in-the-3-nitropropionic-acid-lesioned-striatum-of-rat-characterization-and-comparison-with-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-nestin
#16
Jeong-Heon Choi, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Xuyan Jin, Mun-Yong Lee
Desmin, a muscle-specific, type-III intermediate-filament protein, is reportedly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. These cells become reactive astrocytes in response to brain injuries. To elucidate whether desmin is involved in this process, we examined the spatiotemporal expression profiles of desmin and their relationship with two astroglial intermediate filaments, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nestin, in the striatum of rats treated with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)...
October 18, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#17
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042522/-surgical-pathology-of-adulthood-epilepsy
#18
Hajime Miyata
Epilepsy may be the consequence of a wide range of disorders affecting the brain, including tumors and non-neoplastic lesions. A broad spectrum of structural brain lesions can be observed in epileptogenic brain tissue specimens surgically resected from patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies. These include hippocampal sclerosis (HS), low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEAT), malformations of cortical development (MCD), vascular malformations, dual pathology, glial scar, and encephalitis, as well as no lesion...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039438/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-inhibit-the-migration-and-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-its-counteractive-interaction-with-laminin
#19
Yi Sun, Yingping Deng, Mili Xiao, Lan Hu, Zhihua Li, Chao Chen
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) is a recognized problem in premature infants, particularly in those with very low birth weights. Although the survival rate of premature infants has notably increased due to the advancement of modern medical treatments, their likelihood of developmental disability is higher than infants with an average birth weight. It has been previously reported that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are selectively vulnerable to WMI in premature infants. Following brain injury, glial scars may develop within the white matter...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033188/ppp1cc-is-associated-with-astrocyte-and-microglia-proliferation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#20
Xiaojuan Liu, Shen Huang, Chun Liu, Xia Liu, Yuntian Shen, Zhiming Cui
Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) contribute to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying reactive astrocyte and microglia proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. Protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP1CC) participates in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the expression and functions of PPP1CC following SCI are still unknown. In this study, an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats was established to investigate the potential role of PPP1CC during the pathological process of SCI...
November 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
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