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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#1
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089819/lentivirus-mediated-silencing-of-the-ctgf-gene-suppresses-the-formation-of-glial-scar-tissue-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Yuan Wang, Qin-Jie Kong, Jing-Chuan Sun, Yong Yang, Hai-Bo Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jian-Gang Shi
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: - One of the many reactive changes following an Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the formation of a glial scar, a reactive cellular process whereby glial cells accumulate and surround central nervous system (CNS) injury sites to seal in the wound. Thus the inhibition of glial scar is of great importance for SCI recovery. PURPOSE: - This study aimed to explore the effect of lentivirus-mediated silencing of the CTGF gene on the formation of glial scar tissue in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
January 9, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069497/a-modified-collagen-scaffold-facilitates-endogenous-neurogenesis-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#3
Caixia Fan, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Hui Liang, Bin Wang, Sufang Han, Xiaoran Li, Bai Xu, Nuo Wang, Sumei Liu, Weiwei Xue, Jianwu Dai
Due to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar deposition, spinal cord injury (SCI) ultimately results in permanent neurological dysfunction. Neuronal regeneration of neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the spinal cord could be an ideal strategy for replenishing the lost neurons and restore function. However, many myelin-associated inhibitors in the SCI microenvironment limit the ability of spinal cord NSCs to regenerate into neurons. Here, a linearly ordered collagen scaffold was used to prevent scar deposition, guide nerve regeneration and carry drugs to neutralize the inhibitory molecules...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067245/effect-of-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-hydrogel-in-regeneration-of-spinal-cord-injury-demonstrated-by-tractography-a-pilot-study
#4
Zhenxia Zhang, Shenglian Yao, Sheng Xie, Xiumei Wang, Feiyan Chang, Jie Luo, Jingming Wang, Jun Fu
Some studies have reported that scaffold or cell-based transplantation may improve functional recovery following SCI, but no imaging information regarding regeneration has been provided to date. This study used tractography to show the regenerating process induced by a new biomaterial-aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG). A total of eight canines subjected to SCI procedures were assigned to the control or the AFG group. AFG was implanted into the SCI lesion immediately after injury in 5 canines. A follow-up was performed at 12 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic effect including the hindlimb functional recovery, anisotropy and continuity of fibers on tractography...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059863/spatiotemporal-expression-of-ski-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Kaisheng Zhou, Wei Nan, Dongliang Feng, Zhigang Yi, Yandong Zhu, Zaiyun Long, Sen Li, Haihong Zhang, Yamin Wu
Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057555/reactive-astrogliosis-in-stroke-contributions-of-astrocytes-to-recovery-of-neurological-function
#6
REVIEW
Neil R Sims, Wai Ping Yew
Alterations in neuronal connectivity, particularly in the "peri-infarct" tissue adjacent to the region of ischemic damage, are important contributors to the spontaneous recovery of function that commonly follows stroke. Peri-infarct astrocytes undergo reactive astrogliosis and play key roles in modulating the adaptive responses in neurons. This reactive astrogliosis shares many features with that induced by other forms of damage to the central nervous system but also differs in details that potentially influence neurological recovery...
January 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029610/impact-of-local-injection-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expressing-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-mscs-combined-with-intravenous-msc-delivery-in-a-canine-model-of-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Seung Hoon Lee, Yongsun Kim, Daeun Rhew, Ahyoung Kim, Kwang Rae Jo, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Taeseong Jung, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon
BACKGROUND AIMS: The microenvironment of the chronically injured spinal cord does not allow for axonal regeneration due to glial scarring. To ameliorate this, several therapeutic strategies have been used. We investigated whether combined transplantation of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) genetically modified to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with intravenous (IV) administration of MSCs can promote recovery of hindlimb function after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 28, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011383/the-combination-of-db-camp-and-chabc-with-poly-propylene-carbonate-microfibers-promote-axonal-regenerative-sprouting-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-hemisection-injury
#8
Tongliang Xia, Bin Huang, Shilei Ni, Lei Gao, Jiangang Wang, Jian Wang, Anjing Chen, Shaowei Zhu, Benlin Wang, Gang Li, Shugan Zhu, Xingang Li
This study describes the use of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) electrospun microfibres impregnated with a combination of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in the treatment of right-side hemisected spinal cord injury (SCI). Release of db-cAMP and/or ChABC from the microfibres was assessed in vitro using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Drug-impregnated microfibres were implanted into the hemisected thoracic spinal cord of rats, and treatment was evaluated using functional recovery examinations and immunohistochemistry...
December 20, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998456/-temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-rgc-death-and-axon-degeneration-in-the-rat-model-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#9
Y W Wang, T Chen, J Ma, Y Zhong
Objective: To investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axon degeneration in the rat model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION). Methods: Experimental study. The model of rNAION was induced by directly illuminating the optic nerve head with laser, after intravenous infusion with the photosensitizing agent rose Bengal. Seventy-one SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1-week (n=14), 2-week (n=14), 4-week (n=15) , 8-week (n=16) model group and the normal control group (n=12)...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983926/the-regulatory-effects-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-on-nerve-regeneration
#10
Shiying Li, Xiaosong Gu, Sheng Yi
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) belongs to a group of pleiotropic cytokines that are involved in avariety of biological processes, such as inflammation and immune reaction, cellular phenotype transition, extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β is widely distributed throughout the body, including the nervous system. Following injury to the nervous system, TGF-β regulates the behavior of neurons and glial cells and thus mediates the regenerative process...
November 23, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941025/a-novel-rac1-gspt1-signaling-pathway-controls-astrogliosis-following-central-nervous-system-injury
#11
Taiji Ishii, Takehiko Ueyama, Michiko Shigyo, Masaaki Kohta, Takeshi Kondoh, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Tatsuya Uebi, Takeshi Hamada, David H Gutmann, Atsu Aiba, Eiji Kohmura, Chihiro Tohda, Naoaki Saito
Astrogliosis (i.e., glial scar), which is comprised primarily of proliferated astrocytes at the lesion site and migrated astrocytes from neighboring regions, is one of the key reactions in determining outcomes after CNS injury. In an effort to identify potential molecules/pathways that regulate astrogliosis, we sought to determine whether Rac/Rac-mediated signaling in astrocytes represents a novel candidate for therapeutic intervention following CNS injury. For these studies, we generated Rac1-knockout (KO) mice under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox))...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938489/a-comparative-study-of-three-different-types-of-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Jiri Ruzicka, Lucia Machova-Urdzikova, John Gillick, Takashi Amemori, Nataliya Romanyuk, Kristyna Karova, Kristyna Zaviskova, Jana Dubisova, Sarka Kubinova, Raj Murali, Eva Sykova, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Three different sources of human stem cells – bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and two neural progenitors (NPs) derived from immortalized spinal fetal cell line (SPC 01), or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-NPs) – were compared in the treatment of a balloon-induced spinal cord compression lesion in rats. One week after lesioning, the rats received either MSCs (intrathecally) or NPs (SPC-01 cells, or iPS-NPs, intraspinally), or saline. The rats were assessed for their locomotor skills (BBB, flat beam test, rotarod)...
2, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922061/thermo-sensitive-hydrogels-combined-with-decellularised-matrix-deliver-bfgf-for-the-functional-recovery-of-rats-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#13
He-Lin Xu, Fu-Rong Tian, Cui-Tao Lu, Jie Xu, Zi-Liang Fan, Jing-Jing Yang, Pian-Pian Chen, Ya-Dong Huang, Jian Xiao, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Because of the short half-life, either systemic or local administration of bFGF shows significant drawbacks to spinal injury. In this study, an acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASC) was encapsulated in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel to overcome these limitations. The ASC was firstly prepared from the spinal cord of healthy rats and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. bFGF could specifically complex with the ASC scaffold via electrostatic or receptor-mediated interactions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918825/early-postnatal-hyperoxia-in-mice-leads-to-severe-persistent-vitreoretinopathy
#14
Paul G McMenamin, Rachel Kenny, Sjakon Tahija, Jeremiah Lim, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Xiangting Chen, Sheena Bouch, Foula Sozo, Bang Bui
Purpose: To describe a mouse model of hyperoxia-induced vitreoretinopathy that replicated some of the clinical and pathologic features encountered in infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity and congenital ocular conditions such as persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Methods: Experimental mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 65% oxygen between postnatal days (P)0 to P7 and studied at P10, P14, and 3, 5, 8, 20, and 40 weeks. Controls were exposed to normoxic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899316/inhibition-or-ablation-of-transglutaminase-2-impairs-astrocyte-migration
#16
Alina Monteagudo, Changyi Ji, Abdullah Akbar, Jeffrey W Keillor, Gail V W Johnson
Astrocytes play numerous complex roles that support and facilitate the function of neurons. Further, when there is an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) they can both facilitate or ameliorate functional recovery depending on the location and severity of the injury. When a CNS injury is relatively severe a glial scar is formed, which is primarily composed of astrocytes. The glial scar can be both beneficial, by limiting inflammation, and detrimental, by preventing neuronal projections, to functional recovery...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895121/neuronal-mtorc1-is-required-for-maintaining-the-nonreactive-state-of-astrocytes
#18
Yue Zhang, Song Xu, Kang-Yan Liang, Kai Li, Zhi-Peng Zou, Cui-Lan Yang, Kang Tan, Xiong Cao, Yu Jiang, Tian-Ming Gao, Xiao-Chun Bai
Astrocytes respond to CNS insults through reactive astrogliosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we show that inactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) signaling in postnatal neurons induces reactive astrogliosis in mice. Ablation of Raptor (an mTORC1-specific component) in postmitotic neurons abolished mTORC1 activity and produced neurons with smaller soma and fewer dendrites, resulting in microcephaly and aberrant behavior in adult mice. Interestingly, extensive astrogliosis without significant astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation was observed in these mice...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885959/bone-marrow-stromal-cell-sheets-may-promote-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-with-suppression-of-glial-scar-formation-after-spinal-cord-transection-injury-in-rats
#19
Akinori Okuda, Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Takamasa Shimizu, Hideki Shigematsu, Eiichiro Iwata, Yasuhiko Morimoto, Keisuke Masuda, Munehisa Koizumi, Manabu Akahane, Mayumi Nishi, Yasuhito Tanaka
OBJECTIVE Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a theoretical potential as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although a scaffold is sometimes used for retaining transplanted cells in damaged tissue, it is also known to induce redundant immunoreactions during the degradation processes. In this study, the authors prepared cell sheets made of BMSCs, which are transplantable without a scaffold, and investigated their effects on axonal regeneration, glial scar formation, and functional recovery in a completely transected SCI model in rats...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865778/curcumin-inhibits-glial-scar-formation-by-suppressing-astrocyte-induced-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Jichao Yuan, Wei Liu, Haitao Zhu, Yaxing Chen, Xuan Zhang, Lan Li, Weihua Chu, Zexian Wen, Hua Feng, Jiangkai Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to glial scar formation by astrocytes, which severely hinders neural regeneration. Curcumin (cur) can inhibit glial scar formation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study investigated the phenotypic transformation of astrocytes following cur and siRNA intervention during the processes of inflammation and fibrosis and determined details of the relationship between cur treatment and the glial scar components GFAP and CSPG...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
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