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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324953/electrical-resistance-increases-at-the-tissue-electrode-interface-as-an-early-response-to-nucleus-accumbens-deep-brain-stimulation
#1
Rajas P Kale, Abbas Z Kouzani, Julian Berk, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Susannah J Tye
The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317912/the-soft-mechanical-signature-of-glial-scars-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Emad Moeendarbary, Isabell P Weber, Graham K Sheridan, David E Koser, Sara Soleman, Barbara Haenzi, Elizabeth J Bradbury, James Fawcett, Kristian Franze
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) alters the molecular and cellular composition of neural tissue and leads to glial scarring, which inhibits the regrowth of damaged axons. Mammalian glial scars supposedly form a chemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration. While tremendous effort has been devoted to identifying molecular characteristics of the scar, very little is known about its mechanical properties. Here we characterize spatiotemporal changes of the elastic stiffness of the injured rat neocortex and spinal cord at 1...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300871/glial-scar-modulation-as-therapeutic-tool-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-animal-models
#3
Jéssica Rodrigues Orlandin, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio, Valéria Maria Lara
PURPOSE: Spinal Cord injury represents, in veterinary medicine, most of the neurological attendances and may result in permanent disability, death or euthanasia. Due to inflammation resulting from trauma, it originates the glial scar, which is a cell interaction complex system. Its function is to preserve the healthy circuits, however, it creates a physical and molecular barrier that prevents cell migration and restricts the neuroregeneration ability. METHODS: This review aims to present innovations in the scene of treatment of spinal cord injury, approaching cell therapy, administration of enzyme, anti-inflammatory, and other active principles capable of modulating the inflammatory response, resulting in glial scar reduction and subsequent functional improvement of animals...
February 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293254/multiple-uses-of-fibrin-sealant-for-nervous-system-treatment-following-injury-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Natalia Perussi Biscola, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Suzana Ulian-Benitez, Roberta Barbizan, Mateus Vidigal Castro, Aline Barroso Spejo, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues Oliveira
Lesions to the nervous system often produce hemorrhage and tissue loss that are difficult, if not impossible, to repair. Therefore, scar formation, inflammation and cavitation take place, expanding the lesion epicenter. This significantly worsens the patient conditions and impairment, increasing neuronal loss and glial reaction, which in turn further decreases the chances of a positive outcome. The possibility of using hemostatic substances that also function as a scaffold, such as the fibrin sealant, reduces surgical time and improve postoperative recovery...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281545/il-17-induces-reactive-astrocytes-and-up-regulation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-through-jak-stat-signaling
#5
Tao You, Yihui Bi, Jun Li, Mingkai Zhang, Xuezhou Chen, Keke Zhang, Jun Li
Spinal cord injury is a grave neurological disability resulting in neuron degeneration and permanent paralysis. The inflammation triggered by the injury would promote the spinal cord lesion in turn. Activated astrocytes during inflammatory response could promote glial scar formation and contribute to the progression of the spinal cord injury. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) was upregulated in inflammatory responses to contusion or compression of the spinal cord. in this study, IL-17 could induce reactive astrocytes which was indicated by a well-known hallmark glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in vitro and in vivo...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274846/acute-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-treatment-modulates-neuroinflammatory-processes-and-promotes-tactile-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Sandie Thomaty, Laurent Pezard, Christian Xerri, Jean-Michel Brezun
Neuroinflammation is known to play a key role in the prognosis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The involvement of microglial and mast cells in early and late stages of inflammation has been receiving increasing attention. This study was aimed at determining the influence of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on microglia and mast cell activation, glial scar formation and functional recovery following SCI. Rats were randomly injected with saline or GM-CSF one hour after a C4-C5 medio-lateral hemisection...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273770/transglutaminase-6-is-an-autoantigen-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-and-is-upregulated-in-reactive-astrocytes
#7
Massimiliano Cristofanilli, Daniel Gratch, Benjamin Pagano, Kelsey McDermott, Jessie Huang, Jeffrey Jian, Deneb Bates, Saud A Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Transglutaminase-6 (TGM6), a member of the transglutaminase enzyme family, is found predominantly in central nervous system (CNS) neurons under physiological conditions. It has been proposed as an autoimmune target in cerebral palsy, gluten-sensitive cerebellar ataxia, and schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate TGM6 involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Antibody levels against TGM6 (TGM6-IgG) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 62 primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), 85 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and 50 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 51 controls...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262779/ischemic-injury-leads-to-extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-retina-and-optic-nerve
#8
Jacqueline Reinhard, Marina Renner, Susanne Wiemann, Daniel A Shakoor, Gesa Stute, H Burkhard Dick, Andreas Faissner, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia occurs in a variety of eye diseases. Restrained blood flow induces retinal damage, which leads to progressive optic nerve degeneration and vision loss. Previous studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents play an important role in complex tissues, such as retina and optic nerve. They have great impact on de- and regeneration processes and represent major candidates of central nervous system glial scar formation. Nevertheless, the importance of the ECM during ischemic retina and optic nerve neurodegeneration is not fully understood yet...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262732/transplantation-of-huc-mscs-seeded-collagen-scaffolds-reduces-scar-formation-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-canines-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Xing Li, Jun Tan, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Sufang Han, Dingyang Liu, Wen Yin, Jing Li, Juan Li, Siyi Wanggou, Bing Chen, Caiping Ren, Xingjun Jiang, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to locomotor deficits, and the repair of chronic SCI is considered one of the most challenging clinical problems. Although extensive studies have evaluated treatments for acute SCI in small animals, comparatively fewer studies have been conducted on large-animal SCI in the chronic phase, which is more clinically relevant. Here, we used a collagen-based biomaterial, named the NeuroRegen scaffold, loaded with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in a canine chronic SCI model...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254289/a-combination-of-gdnf-and-hucmsc-transplantation-loaded-on-sf-ags-composite-scaffolds-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#10
Genlong Jiao, Guofeng Lou, Yunfei Mo, Yongqin Pan, Ziyong Zhang, Rui Guo, Zhizhong Li
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe trauma for which no effective treatment is currently available. In this study, a composited treatment system was prepared using a silk fibroin/alginates/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (SF/AGs/GDNF) scaffold seeded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and the combined therapeutic effects of the composite scaffold to repair SCI rats were evaluated. The use of SF as a scaffold material could act as a biomimetic platform allowing neurons to properly accommodate and rebuild the target tissue...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246640/ultraflexible-nanoelectronic-probes-form-reliable-glial-scar-free-neural-integration
#11
Lan Luan, Xiaoling Wei, Zhengtuo Zhao, Jennifer J Siegel, Ojas Potnis, Catherine A Tuppen, Shengqing Lin, Shams Kazmi, Robert A Fowler, Stewart Holloway, Andrew K Dunn, Raymond A Chitwood, Chong Xie
Implanted brain electrodes construct the only means to electrically interface with individual neurons in vivo, but their recording efficacy and biocompatibility pose limitations on scientific and clinical applications. We showed that nanoelectronic thread (NET) electrodes with subcellular dimensions, ultraflexibility, and cellular surgical footprints form reliable, glial scar-free neural integration. We demonstrated that NET electrodes reliably detected and tracked individual units for months; their impedance, noise level, single-unit recording yield, and the signal amplitude remained stable during long-term implantation...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226865/electrical-resistance-increases-at-the-tissue-electrode-interface-as-an-early-response-to-nucleus-accumbens-deep-brain-stimulation
#12
Rajas P Kale, Abbas Z Kouzani, Julian Berk, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Susannah J Tye, Rajas P Kale, Abbas Z Kouzani, Julian Berk, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Susannah J Tye, Julian Berk, Michael Berk, Susannah J Tye, Abbas Z Kouzani, Rajas P Kale, Ken Walder
The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223982/mouse-model-of-neurological-complications-resulting-from-encephalitic-alphavirus-infection
#13
Shannon E Ronca, Jeanon Smith, Takaaki Koma, Magda M Miller, Nadezhda Yun, Kelly T Dineley, Slobodan Paessler
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220987/brain-tissue-reaction-to-deep-brain-stimulation-a-longitudinal-study-of-dbs-in-the-goettingen-minipig
#14
Dariusz Orlowski, Alexandre Michalis, Andreas N Glud, Anders R Korshøj, Lise M Fitting, Trine W Mikkelsen, André Mercanzini, Alain Jordan, Alain Dransart, Jens C H Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: The use of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in treatment of various brain disorders is constantly growing; however, the number of studies of the reaction of the brain tissue toward implanted leads is still limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze the impact of DBS leads on brain tissue in a large animal model using minipigs. METHODS: Twelve female animals, one control and eleven with bilaterally implanted DBS electrodes were used in our experiment...
February 21, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204814/fisetin-regulates-astrocyte-migration-and-proliferation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#15
Nan Wang, Fang Yao, Ke Li, Lanlan Zhang, Guo Yin, Mingjun Du, Bingyi Wu
Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a plant flavonol found in fruits and vegetables that has been reported to inhibit migration and proliferation in several types of cancer. Reactive astrogliosis involves astrocyte migration and proliferation, and contributes to the formation of glial scars in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, the effect of fisetin on the migration and proliferation of astrocytes remains unclear. In this study, we found that fisetin inhibited astrocyte migration in a scratch-wound assay and diminished the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK; Tyr576/577 and paxillin (Tyr118)...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194183/regulation-of-stem-cell-properties-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-by-jak-stat-and-mapk-signaling-in-the-mammalian-retina
#16
REVIEW
Krista M Beach, Jianbo Wang, Deborah C Otteson
In humans and other mammals, the neural retina does not spontaneously regenerate, and damage to the retina that kills retinal neurons results in permanent blindness. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic/fetal retinal stem cells, Müller glia offer an intrinsic cellular source for regenerative strategies in the retina. Müller glia are radial glial cells within the retina that maintain retinal homeostasis, buffer ion flux associated with phototransduction, and form the blood/retinal barrier within the retina proper...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185609/olfactory-ensheathing-cells-inhibit-gliosis-in-retinal-degeneration-by-down-regulation-of-the-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-notch-signaling-pathway
#18
Jing Xie, Shujia Huo, Yijian Li, Jiaman Dai, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
Retinal regeneration and self-repair, whether in response to injury or degenerative disease, are severely impeded by glial scar formation by Müller cells (specialized retinal macroglia). We have previously demonstrated that the activation of Müller cells and gliosis in the degenerative retina are significantly suppressed by the subretinal transplantation of a mixture of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we transplanted purified rat OECs into the subretinal space of pigmented Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a classic rodent model of retinal degeneration...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181797/a-thermosensitive-heparin-poloxamer-hydrogel-bridges-afgf-to-treat-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Qingqing Wang, Yan He, Yingzheng Zhao, Huixu Xie, Qian Lin, Zili He, Xiaoyan Wang, Jiawei Li, Hongyu Zhang, Chenggui Wang, Fanghua Gong, Xiaokun Li, Huazi Xu, Qingsong Ye, Jian Xiao
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) exerts a protective effect on spinal cord injury (SCI) but is limited by the lack of physicochemical stability and the ability to cross the blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB). As promising biomaterials, hydrogels contain substantial amounts of water and a three-dimensional porous structure and are commonly used to load and deliver growth factors. Heparin can not only enhance growth factor loading onto hydrogels but also can stabilize the structure and control the release behavior...
March 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165815/effective-improvement-of-the-neuroprotective-activity-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-synergistic-effect-of-glucocorticoid-with-biodegradable-amphipathic-nanomicelles
#20
YueLong Wang, Min Wu, Lei Gu, XiaoLing Li, Jun He, LiangXue Zhou, Aiping Tong, Juan Shi, HongYan Zhu, JianGuo Xu, Gang Guo
Dexamethasone acetate (DA) produces neuroprotective effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation by reducing cytokine release and expression. However, its clinical application is limited by its hydrophobicity, low biocompatibility and numerous side effects when using large dosage. Therefore, improving DA's water solubility, biocompatibility and reducing its side effects are important goals that will improve its clinical utility. The objective of this study is to use a biodegradable polymer as the delivery vehicle for DA to achieve the synergism between inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation effects of the hydrophobic-loaded drugs and the amphipathic delivery vehicle...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
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