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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#1
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042522/-surgical-pathology-of-adulthood-epilepsy
#2
Hajime Miyata
Epilepsy may be the consequence of a wide range of disorders affecting the brain, including tumors and non-neoplastic lesions. A broad spectrum of structural brain lesions can be observed in epileptogenic brain tissue specimens surgically resected from patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies. These include hippocampal sclerosis (HS), low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEAT), malformations of cortical development (MCD), vascular malformations, dual pathology, glial scar, and encephalitis, as well as no lesion...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039438/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-inhibit-the-migration-and-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-its-counteractive-interaction-with-laminin
#3
Yi Sun, Yingping Deng, Mili Xiao, Lan Hu, Zhihua Li, Chao Chen
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) is a recognized problem in premature infants, particularly in those with very low birth weights. Although the survival rate of premature infants has notably increased due to the advancement of modern medical treatments, their likelihood of developmental disability is higher than infants with an average birth weight. It has been previously reported that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are selectively vulnerable to WMI in premature infants. Following brain injury, glial scars may develop within the white matter...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033188/ppp1cc-is-associated-with-astrocyte-and-microglia-proliferation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Xiaojuan Liu, Shen Huang, Chun Liu, Xia Liu, Yuntian Shen, Zhiming Cui
Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) contribute to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying reactive astrocyte and microglia proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. Protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP1CC) participates in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the expression and functions of PPP1CC following SCI are still unknown. In this study, an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats was established to investigate the potential role of PPP1CC during the pathological process of SCI...
September 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967557/combining-constitutively-active-rheb-expression-and-chondroitinase-promotes-functional-axonal-regeneration-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Di Wu, Michelle C Klaw, Theresa Connors, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke, Marie-Pascale Côté, Veronica J Tom
After spinal cord injury (SCI), severed axons in the adult mammalian CNS are unable to mount a robust regenerative response. In addition, the glial scar at the lesion site further restricts the regenerative potential of axons. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach coincidentally targeting these obstacles would promote axonal regeneration. We combined (1) transplantation of a growth-permissive peripheral nerve graft (PNG) into an incomplete, cervical lesion cavity; (2) transduction of neurons rostral to the SCI site to express constitutively active Rheb (caRheb; a Ras homolog enriched in brain), a GTPase that directly activates the growth-promoting pathway mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) via AAV-caRheb injection; and (3) digestion of growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans within the glial scar at the distal PNG interface using the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC)...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945054/intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#6
Andrew A Fanous, Dheerendra Prasad, David Mathieu, Andrew J Fabiano
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the use of a single high dose of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest, in order to create a lesion or obliterate a preexisting one. This technology has evolved over the years into the use of multiple radiation sources oriented at a variety of angles, thus permitting the creation of various treatment target shapes. This allows for non-open surgical treatment of intracranial pathologies, which significantly decreases the risk of morbidity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933425/carnosine-suppresses-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-recovery-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-reactive-astrocytes-of-rats-in-vitro
#7
Li Ou-Yang, Yuan Liu, Bing-Yu Wang, Pei Cao, Jing-Jing Zhang, Yu-Yan Huang, Yao Shen, Jian-Xin Lyu
Glial scar formation resulted from excessive astrogliosis limits axonal regeneration and impairs recovery of function, thus an intervention to ameliorate excessive astrogliosis is crucial for the recovery of neurological function after cerebral ischemia. In this study we investigated the effects of carnosine, an endogenous water-soluble dipeptide (β-alanyl-L-histidine), on astrogliosis of cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R) in vitro. Primary cultured rat astrocytes exhibited a significant increase in proliferation at 24 h recovery after OGD for 2 h...
September 21, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#8
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921700/low-dose-fractionated-irradiation-promotes-axonal-regeneration-beyond-reactive-gliosis-and-facilitates-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-beagle-dogs
#9
Qiang Zhang, Ying Xiong, Bo Zhu, Bifeng Zhu, Daishi Tian, Wei Wang
Injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) results in the formation of glial scar tissues. Glial scar-induced failure of regenerative axon pathfinding may limit axon regrowth beyond the lesion site and cause incorrect reinnervation and dystrophic appearance of stalled growth after CNS trauma. Glial scars also upregulate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and expression of proinflammatory factor(s) that form a barrier to axonal regeneration. Therefore, interventions for glial scarring are an attractive strategy for augmenting axonal sprouting and regeneration and overcoming the physical and molecular barriers impeding functional repair...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917705/long-term-retention-of-ecm-hydrogel-after-implantation-into-a-sub-acute-stroke-cavity-reduces-lesion-volume
#10
Harmanvir Ghuman, Madeline Gerwig, Francesca J Nicholls, Jessie R Liu, Julia Donnelly, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24h and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12weeks. Lesion volume, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and histology, was reduced by 28%, but a battery of behavioral tests (bilateral asymmetry test; footfault; rotameter) did not reveal a therapeutic or detrimental effect of the hydrogel...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899730/a-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-neuroregeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-altering-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#11
Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Jiri Ruzicka, Kristyna Karova, Anna Kloudova, Barbora Svobodova, Anubhav Amin, Jana Dubisova, Meic Schmidt, Sarka Kubinova, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition which is characterized by an extended secondary injury due to the presence of inflammatory local milieu. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) appears to possess strong neuroprotective properties. Here, we evaluated the beneficial effect of EGCG on recovery from SCI. Male Wistar rats were given either EGCG or saline directly to the injured spinal cord and thereafter a daily IP injection. Behavior recovery was monitored by BBB, plantar, rotarod and flat-beam tests...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890869/multifunctional-biomimetic-spinal-cord-new-approach-to-repair-spinal-cord-injuries
#12
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Qian Li, Bin Zhang, De-Xiang Ban, Shi-Qing Feng
The incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually increasing, and the treatment has troubled the medical field all the time. Primary and secondary injuries ultimately lead to nerve impulse conduction block. Microglia and astrocytes excessively accumulate and proliferate to form the glial scar. At present, to reduce the effect of glial scar on nerve regeneration is a hot spot in the research on the treatment of SCI. According to the preliminary experiments, we would like to provide a new bionic spinal cord to reduce the negative effect of glial scar on nerve regeneration...
August 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884424/immunobiology-of-spinal-cord-injuries-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Aabra Ahmed, Arun-Angelo Patil, Devendra K Agrawal
The incidence of spinal cord injuries (SCI) is high every year. As the spinal cord is the highway that allows for the brain to control the rest of the body, spinal cord injuries greatly impact the quality of life of the patients. The SCI include the primary response consisting of the initial accident-induced damage and the secondary response that is characterized by damage due to inflammation and biological responses. Astrocytes are the first to act at the site of the injury, forming a glial scar and attracting immune cells...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872113/organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-as-a-model-to-study-neuroprotection-and-invasiveness-of-tumor-cells
#14
Urszula Grabiec, Tim Hohmann, Niels Hammer, Faramarz Dehghani
In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC), the morphological and functional characteristics of both neurons and glial cells are well preserved. This model is suitable for addressing different research questions that involve studies on neuroprotection, electrophysiological experiments on neurons, neuronal networks or tumor invasion. The hippocampal architecture and neuronal activity in multisynaptic circuits are well conserved in OHSC, even though the slicing procedure itself initially lesions and leads to formation of a glial scar...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864288/a-novel-hypothesis-for-the-pathogenesis-of-glaucomatous-disc-hemorrhage
#15
REVIEW
Eun Jung Lee, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
Disc hemorrhage is known to be associated with glaucoma development and progression. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of disc hemorrhage in glaucoma, including mechanical and ischemic theories. However, no theory has yet provided a clear explanation of cellular-level events and related histologic findings. Moreover, research has yet to elucidate why glaucomatous disc hemorrhage occurs around the optic disc and at the margin of the retinal nerve fiber layer defect. Understanding the pathogenic mechanism of disc hemorrhage will facilitate interpretation of its clinical importance, and provide better insight into clinical practice...
August 30, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851266/different-mixed-astrocyte-populations-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-have-variable-neuronal-growth-support-capacities
#16
Russell E Thompson, Allison Lake, Peter Kenny, Michael N Saunders, Kristina Sakers, Nisha R Iyer, Joseph D Dougherty, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert
Central nervous system injury often leads to functional impairment due, in part, to the formation of an inhibitory glial scar following injury that contributes to poor regeneration. Astrocytes are the major cellular components of the glial scar, which has led to the belief that they are primarily inhibitory following injury. Recent work has challenged this by demonstrating that some astrocytes are required for spinal cord regeneration and astrocytic roles in recovery depend on their phenotype. In this work, two mixed populations containing primarily either fibrous or protoplasmic astrocytes were derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843774/putting-the-new-ilae-classification-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-into-practice-in-western-china
#17
Cheng Huang, Heng Zhang, Xiao-Sa Chi, Ni Chen, Jing Gong, Qiao Zhou, Ingmar Blümcke, Dong Zhou, Jin-Mei Li
PURPOSE: To re-examine drug-resistant epilepsy cases using the revised 2011 ILAE classification of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who have undergone epilepsy surgery in West China Hospital between July 2012 and Jun 2014 were included. Clinical histories, pathological diagnoses, and surgical outcomes were reviewed. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the clinical practice of the new classification. A short-term training program on FCD was carried out to improve pathological diagnosis accuracy...
October 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842607/retinal-cell-death-dependent-reactive-proliferative-gliosis-in-the-mouse-retina
#18
Sheik Pran Babu Sardar Pasha, Robert Münch, Patrick Schäfer, Peter Oertel, Alex M Sykes, Yiqing Zhu, Mike O Karl
Neurodegeneration is a common starting point of reactive gliosis, which may have beneficial and detrimental consequences. It remains incompletely understood how distinctive pathologies and cell death processes differentially regulate glial responses. Müller glia (MG) in the retina are a prime model: Neurons are regenerated in some species, but in mammals there may be proliferative disorders and scarring. Here, we investigated the relationship between retinal damage and MG proliferation, which are both induced in a reproducible and temporal order in organotypic culture of EGF-treated mouse retina: Hypothermia pretreatment during eye dissection reduced neuronal cell death and MG proliferation; stab wounds increased both...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813085/curcumin-decreases-astrocytic-reaction-after-gliotoxic-injury-in-the-rat-brainstem
#19
Eduardo Bondan, Carolina Cardoso, Maria de Fátima Martins
Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin (Cur) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Ethidium bromide (EB) injections into the central nervous system (CNS) are known to induce local oligodendroglial and astrocytic loss, resulting in primary demyelination and neuroinflammation. Peripheral astrogliosis is seen around the injury site with increased immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of Cur administration on astrocytic response following gliotoxic injury...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801063/chondroitin-sulfates-do-not-impede-axonal-regeneration-in-goldfish-spinal-cord
#20
Akihito Takeda, Soichiro Okada, Kengo Funakoshi
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord...
October 15, 2017: Brain Research
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