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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#1
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#2
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651947/transplantation-of-bdnf-gene-recombinant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adhesive-peptide-modified-hydrogel-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-repair
#3
Li-Ming Li, Ling-Ling Huang, Xin-Chi Jiang, Jia-Chen Chen, Hong-Wei OuYang, Jian-Qing Gao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for nerve tissue engineering. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by MSCs can function to increase neural differentiation and relieve inflammation response. Gene transfection technology is an efficient strategy to increase the secretion levels of cytokines and enhance cellular functions. However, transfection and in vivo gene expression of environmentally sensitive stem cells have been one of the most challenging subjects due to the requirement in both safety and transfection efficiency...
April 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649499/the-spinal-ependymal-zone-as-a-source-of-endogenous-repair-cells-across-vertebrates
#4
REVIEW
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623937/efficacy-of-chitosan-and-sodium-alginate-scaffolds-for-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#5
Zi-Ang Yao, Feng-Jia Chen, Hong-Li Cui, Tong Lin, Na Guo, Hai-Ge Wu
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of motor and sensory pathways and spontaneous regeneration of adult mammalian spinal cord neurons is limited. Chitosan and sodium alginate have good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and are suitable to assist the recovery of damaged tissues, such as skin, bone and nerve. Chitosan scaffolds, sodium alginate scaffolds and chitosan-sodium alginate scaffolds were separately transplanted into rats with spinal cord hemisection. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores and electrophysiological results showed that chitosan scaffolds promoted recovery of locomotor capacity and nerve transduction of the experimental rats...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590625/leucine-zipper-bearing-kinase-is-a-critical-regulator-of-astrocyte-reactivity-in-the-adult-mammalian-cns
#6
Meifan Chen, Cédric G Geoffroy, Jessica M Meves, Aarti Narang, Yunbo Li, Mallorie T Nguyen, Vung S Khai, Xiangmei Kong, Christopher L Steinke, Krislyn I Carolino, Lucie Elzière, Mark P Goldberg, Yishi Jin, Binhai Zheng
Reactive astrocytes influence post-injury recovery, repair, and pathogenesis of the mammalian CNS. Much of the regulation of astrocyte reactivity, however, remains to be understood. Using genetic loss and gain-of-function analyses in vivo, we show that the conserved MAP3K13 (also known as leucine zipper-bearing kinase [LZK]) promotes astrocyte reactivity and glial scar formation after CNS injury. Inducible LZK gene deletion in astrocytes of adult mice reduced astrogliosis and impaired glial scar formation, resulting in increased lesion size after spinal cord injury...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580168/photocrosslinkable-gelatin-tropoelastin-hydrogel-adhesives-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#7
Jonathan R Soucy, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Roberto Portillo Lara, David Diaz, Felipe Dias, Anthony S Weiss, Abigail N Koppes, Ryan Koppes, Nasim Annabi
Suturing peripheral nerve transections is the predominant therapeutic strategy for nerve repair. However, the use of sutures lead to scar tissue formation, hinder nerve regeneration, and prevent functional recovery. Fibrin-based adhesives have been widely used for nerve reconstruction, but their limited adhesive and mechanical strength, and inability to promote nerve regeneration hampers their utility as a stand-alone intervention. To overcome these challenges, we engineered composite hydrogels that are neuro-supportive and possess strong tissue adhesion...
March 27, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561583/multifunctional-fibers-as-tools-for-neuroscience-and-neuroengineering
#8
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557379/effect-of-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-on-neuronal-cell-adhesion-spreading-and-neurite-growth-in-culture
#9
Jingyu Jin, Sharada Tilve, Zhonghai Huang, Libing Zhou, Herbert M Geller, Panpan Yu
As one major component of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the central nervous system, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have long been known as inhibitors enriched in the glial scar that prevent axon regeneration after injury. Although many studies have shown that CSPGs inhibited neurite outgrowth in vitro using different types of neurons, the mechanism by which CSPGs inhibit axonal growth remains poorly understood. Using cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) culture, in this study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of both immobilized and soluble CSPGs on neuronal growth, including cell adhesion, spreading and neurite growth...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534963/s1p-s1pr3-signaling-mediated-proliferation-of-pericytes-via-ras-perk-pathway-and-cay10444-had-beneficial-effects-on-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Hai-Bin Tang, Xiao-Jian Jiang, Chen Wang, Shi-Chang Liu
Pericytes have long been regarded merely to maintain structural and functional integrity of blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nevertheless, it has also been identified as a component of scar-forming stromal cells after spinal cord injury (SCI). In process of enlargement of spinal cavity after SCI, the number of pericytes increased and outnumbered astrocytes. However, the mechanism of proliferation of pericytes remains unclear. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been reported to play important roles in the formation of glia scar, but previous studies had paid more attention to the astrocytes...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528079/taxol-modified-collagen-scaffold-implantation-promotes-functional-recovery-after-long-distance-spinal-cord-complete-transection-in-canines
#11
Wen Yin, Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Jun Tan, Shuyu Wu, Yudong Cao, Juan Li, Hecheng Zhu, Weidong Liu, Guihua Tang, Li Meng, Lei Wang, Bin Zhu, Gousiyi Wang, Meizuo Zhong, Xingdong Liu, Dan Xie, Bing Chen, Caiping Ren, Zhifeng Xiao, Xingjun Jiang, Jianwu Dai
Treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a clinical challenge worldwide because of the complicated inhibitory microenvironment formed post-injury, reduced axonal regenerative ability of spinal cord neurons, and scarcity of endogenous neurogenesis within the lesion center. Taxol, in addition to stabilizing microtubules, has shown potential for decreasing axonal degeneration and reducing scar formation after SCI in rodents. In this study, we further verified the therapeutic effects and clinical potential of Taxol on restriction of scar formation and promotion of neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after severe spinal cord transection in a large animal (canine) model...
March 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515568/the-role-of-astrocytes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Gerald Ponath, Calvin Park, David Pitt
The role traditionally assigned to astrocytes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions has been the formation of the glial scar once inflammation has subsided. Astrocytes are now recognized to be early and highly active players during lesion formation and key for providing peripheral immune cells access to the central nervous system. Here, we review the role of astrocytes in the formation and evolution of MS lesions, including the recently described functional polarization of astrocytes, discuss prototypical pathways for astrocyte activation, and summarize mechanisms by which MS treatments affect astrocyte function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513146/the-biology-of-regeneration-failure-and-success-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Amanda Phuong Tran, Philippa Mary Warren, Jerry Silver
Since no approved therapies to restore mobility and sensation following spinal cord injury (SCI) currently exist, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms following SCI that compromise regeneration or neuroplasticity is needed to develop new strategies to promote axonal regrowth and restore function. Physical trauma to the spinal cord results in vascular disruption that, in turn, causes blood-spinal cord barrier rupture leading to hemorrhage and ischemia, followed by rampant local cell death...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501892/in-vivo-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-ng2-glia-activity-caused-by-neural-electrode-implantation
#14
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495919/blood-glutamate-scavenger-as-a-novel-neuroprotective-treatment-in-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Yona Goldshmit, Ghil Jona, Eran Schmukler, Shira Solomon, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Angela Ruban
Neurotrauma causes immediate elevation of extracellular glutamate levels, which creates excitotoxicity and facilitates inflammation, glial scar formation and consequently neuronal death. Finding factors that reduce the inflammatory response, glial scar formation and increase neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth, are of major importance for improving the outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we evaluated a new treatment aiming to remove CNS glutamate into the systemic blood circulation by intravenous administration of blood glutamate scavengers (BGS) such as recombinant enzyme glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (rGOT1) and its co-substrate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485189/dynamic-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-spinal-cord-contusion-a-canine-model
#16
Changbin Liu, Degang Yang, Jianjun Li, Dapeng Li, Mingliang Yang, Wei Sun, Qianru Meng, Wenhao Zhang, Chang Cai, Liangjie Du, Jun Li, Feng Gao, Rui Gu, Yutong Feng, Xuechao Dong, Qi Miao, Xinghua Yang, Zhentao Zuo
This study aimed to explore the dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of changes in spinal cord contusion using a canine model of injury involving rostral and caudal levels. In this study, a spinal cord contusion model was established in female dogs using a custom-made weight-drop lesion device. DTI was performed on dogs with injured spinal cords (n=7) using a Siemens 3.0T MRI scanner at pre-contusion and at 3 h, 24 h, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-injury. The tissue sections were stained for immunohistochemical analysis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485103/evaluating-the-in-vivo-glial-response-to-miniaturized-parylene-cortical-probes-coated-with-an-ultra-fast-degrading-polymer-to-aid-insertion
#17
Meng-Chen Lo, Shuwu Wang, Sagar Singh, Vinod B Damodaran, Ijaz Ahmed, Kevin Coffey, David Barker, Kshitij Saste, Karanvir Kals, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn, David I Shreiber, Jeffrey D Zahn
OBJECTIVE: Despite the feasibility of short-term neural recordings using implantable microelectrodes, attaining reliable, chronic recordings remains a challenge. Most neural recording devices suffer from a long-term tissue response, including gliosis, at the device-tissue interface. It was hypothesized that smaller, more flexible intracortical probes would limit gliosis by providing a better mechanical match with surrounding tissue. APPROACH: This paper describes the in vivo evaluation of flexible parylene microprobes designed to improve the interface with the adjacent neural tissue to limit gliosis and thereby allow for improved recording longevity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462606/limb-remote-ischemic-post-conditioning-mitigates-brain-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke-by-regulating-reactive-astrocytic-plasticity
#18
Xue Cheng, Haiping Zhao, Feng Yan, Zhen Tao, Rongliang Wang, Ziping Han, Guangwen Li, Yumin Luo, Xunming Ji
Maladaptive alterations of astrocytic plasticity may cause brain edema in the acute stage of stroke and glial scar formation in the recovery stage. The present study was designed to investigate the potential regulation of limb remote ischemic post-conditioning (RIPC) on astrocytic plasticity in experimental cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cerebral ischemia was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 1 h in C57BL/6 mice, who were treated with RIPC immediately after reperfusion...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459311/effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels-containing-astrocyte-derived-extracellular-matrix-and-or-v2a-interneurons-on-histologic-outcomes-following-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Russell E Thompson, Jennifer Pardieck, Laura Smith, Peter Kenny, Lindsay Crawford, Molly Shoichet, Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert
One reason for the lack of regeneration, and poor clinical outcomes, following central nervous system (CNS) injury is the formation of a glial scar that inhibits new axon growth. In addition to forming the glial scar, astrocytes have been shown to be important for spontaneous SCI recovery in rodents, suggesting some astrocyte populations are pro-regenerative, while others are inhibitory following injury. In this work, the effect of implanting hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels containing extracellular matrix (ECM) harvested from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived astrocytes on histologic outcomes following SCI in rats was explored...
February 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458076/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-improved-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-partly-by-promoting-axonal-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating...
February 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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