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Glial scar

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512291/characterization-of-mechanically-matched-hydrogel-coatings-to-improve-the-biocompatibility-of-neural-implants
#1
Kevin C Spencer, Jay C Sy, Khalil B Ramadi, Ann M Graybiel, Robert Langer, Michael J Cima
Glial scar is a significant barrier to neural implant function. Micromotion between the implant and tissue is suspected to be a key driver of glial scar formation around neural implants. This study explores the ability of soft hydrogel coatings to modulate glial scar formation by reducing local strain. PEG hydrogels with controllable thickness and elastic moduli were formed on the surface of neural probes. These coatings significantly reduced the local strain resulting from micromotion around the implants. Coated implants were found to significantly reduce scarring in vivo, compared to hard implants of identical diameter...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501777/mir-140-bdnf-axis-regulates-normal-human-astrocyte-proliferation-and-lps-induced-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-secretion
#2
Zhiming Tu, Yawei Li, Yuliang Dai, Lei Li, Guohua Lv, Ivan Chen, Bing Wang
Reactive astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying astrocyte proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as a major class of post-transcriptional gene expression regulators that participate in many biological processes. In this study, we focused on the functional role of miR-140 in normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell proliferation. Ectopic miR-140 expression significantly inhibited NHA cell viability and proliferation; miR-140 inhibition exerted the opposite function...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501505/sevoflurane-postconditioning-attenuates-reactive-astrogliosis-and-glial-scar-formation-after-ischemia-reperfusion-brain-injury
#3
Yong-Ming Zhu, Xue Gao, Yong Ni, Wei Li, Thomas A Kent, Shi-Gang Qiao, Chen Wang, Xiao-Xuan Xu, Hui-Ling Zhang
Cerebral ischemia leads to astrocyte's activation and glial scar formation. Glial scar can inhibit axonal regeneration during the recovery phase. It has demonstrated that sevoflurane has neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke, but its effects on ischemia-induced formation of astrogliosis and glial scar are unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sevoflurane postconditioning on astrogliosis and glial scar formation in ischemic stroke model both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that 2...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486224/long-term-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-cerebral-palsy-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#4
Ryan M McAdams, Bobbi Fleiss, Christopher Traudt, Leslie Schwendimann, Jessica M Snyder, Robin L Haynes, Niranjana Natarajan, Pierre Gressens, Sandra E Juul
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood, with a worldwide prevalence of 1.5-4/1,000 live births. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina macaques were included in this long-term neuropathological study: 9 control animals delivered by cesarean section and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia delivered by cesarean section after 15-18 min of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO)...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484372/potential-involvement-of-snail-members-in-neuronal-survival-and-astrocytic-migration-during-the-gecko-spinal-cord-regeneration
#5
Tingting Shen, Yingjie Wang, Qing Zhang, Xue Bai, Sumei Wei, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Ying Yuan, Yan Liu, Mei Liu, Xiaosong Gu, Yongjun Wang
Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477140/chondroitin-sulfate-impairs-neural-stem-cell-migration-through-rock-activation
#6
Layla T Galindo, Mayara T V V Mundim, Agnes S Pinto, Gabrielly M D Chiarantin, Maíra E S Almeida, Marcelo L Lamers, Alan R Horwitz, Marinilce F Santos, Marimelia Porcionatto
Brain injuries such as trauma and stroke lead to glial scar formation by reactive astrocytes which produce and secret axonal outgrowth inhibitors. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) constitute a well-known class of extracellular matrix molecules produced at the glial scar and cause growth cone collapse. The CSPG glycosaminoglycan side chains composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are responsible for its inhibitory activity on neurite outgrowth and are dependent on RhoA activation. Here, we hypothesize that CSPG also impairs neural stem cell migration inhibiting their penetration into an injury site...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473192/characterization-of-a-cerebral-palsy-like-model-in-rats-analysis-of-gait-pattern-and-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-motor-areas
#7
Adriana Souza Dos Santos, Wellington de Almeida, Bruno Popik, Bruno Marques Sbardelotto, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Marcelo Alves de Souza, Lígia Aline Centenaro
In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469665/mechanisms-responsible-for-the-inhibitory-effects-of-epothilone-b-on-scar-formation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Wei Zhao, Yong Chai, Yun Hou, Da-Wei Wang, Jian-Qiang Xing, Cheng Yang, Qing-Min Fang
Scar formation after spinal cord injury is regarded as an obstacle to axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Epothilone B provides moderate microtubule stabilization and is mainly used for anti-tumor therapy. It also reduces scar tissue formation and promotes axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of the microtubule-stabilizing reagent epothilone B in decreasing fibrotic scarring through its action on pericytes after spinal cord injury...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456012/neuregulin-1-positively-modulates-glial-response-and-improves-neurological-recovery-following-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Arsalan Alizadeh, Scott M Dyck, Hardeep Kataria, Ghazaleh M Shahriary, Dung H Nguyen, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in glial activation and neuroinflammation, which play pivotal roles in the secondary injury mechanisms with both pro- and antiregeneration effects. Presently, little is known about the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate glial functions in the injured spinal cord. We previously reported that the expression of neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) is acutely and chronically declined following traumatic SCI. Here, we investigated the potential ramifications of Nrg-1 dysregulation on glial and immune cell reactivity following SCI...
April 29, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453954/local-delivery-of-chondroitinase-abc-with-or-without-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-functional-repair-in-the-injured-rat-spinal-cord
#10
Malgosia M Pakulska, Charles H Tator, Molly S Shoichet
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for which functional recovery remains elusive. Due to the complex nature of SCI pathology, a combination treatment strategy will likely be required for success. We hypothesized that tissue and functional repair would be achieved in a rat model of impact-compression SCI by combining degradation of the glial scar, using chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), with recruitment of endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs), using stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF)...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447605/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Christopher S Ahuja, Jefferson R Wilson, Satoshi Nori, Mark R N Kotter, Claudia Druschel, Armin Curt, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences for the physical, social and vocational well-being of patients. The demographic of SCIs is shifting such that an increasing proportion of older individuals are being affected. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma (the primary injury) permeabilizes neurons and glia and initiates a secondary injury cascade that leads to progressive cell death and spinal cord damage over the subsequent weeks. Over time, the lesion remodels and is composed of cystic cavitations and a glial scar, both of which potently inhibit regeneration...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#12
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420961/the-role-of-astrocytes-in-neuroprotection-after-brain-stroke-potential-in-cell-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Becerra-Calixto, Gloria P Cardona-Gómez
Astrocytes are commonly involved in negative responses through their hyperreactivity and glial scar formation in excitotoxic and/or mechanical injuries. But, astrocytes are also specialized glial cells of the nervous system that perform multiple homeostatic functions for the survival and maintenance of the neurovascular unit. Astrocytes have neuroprotective, angiogenic, immunomodulatory, neurogenic, and antioxidant properties and modulate synaptic function. This makes them excellent candidates as a source of neuroprotection and neurorestoration in tissues affected by ischemia/reperfusion, when some of their deregulated genes can be controlled...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396199/hypoxia-response-element-regulated-mmp-9-promotes-neurological-recovery-via-glial-scar-degradation-and-angiogenesis-in-delayed-stroke
#14
Hongxia Cai, Yuanyuan Ma, Lu Jiang, Zhihao Mu, Zhen Jiang, Xiaoyan Chen, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Zhijun Zhang
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) plays a beneficial role in the delayed phase of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). However, the mechanism is obscure. Here, we constructed hypoxia response element (HRE)-regulated MMP-9 to explore its effect on glial scars and neurogenesis in delayed ischemic stroke. Adult male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice underwent MCAO and received a stereotactic injection of lentivirus carrying HRE-MMP-9 or normal saline (NS)/lentivirus-GFP 7 days after ischemia. We found that HRE-MMP-9 improved neurological outcomes, reduced ischemia-induced brain atrophy, and degraded glial scars (p < 0...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356158/interactions-between-sirt1-and-mapks-regulate-astrocyte-activation-induced-by-brain-injury-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Dan Li, Nan Liu, Hai-Hua Zhao, Xu Zhang, Hitoshi Kawano, Lu Liu, Liang Zhao, Hong-Peng Li
BACKGROUND: Astrocyte activation is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury resulting in neurological dysfunction or death for an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and glial scar formation. Both the silent mating type information (Sirt1) expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway activation represent a promising therapeutic target for several models of neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the potential effects of Sirt1 upregulation and MAPK pathway pharmacological inhibition on astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346426/mrl-proteins-cooperate-with-activated-ras-in-glia-to-drive-distinct-oncogenic-outcomes
#16
E Taylor, N Alqadri, L Dodgson, D Mason, E Lyulcheva, G Messina, D Bennett
The Mig10/RIAM/Lpd (MRL) adapter protein Lpd regulates actin dynamics through interactions with Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP proteins to promote the formation of cellular protrusions and to stimulate invasive migration. However, the ability of MRL proteins to interact with multiple actin regulators and to promote serum response factor (SRF) signalling has raised the question of whether MRL proteins employ alternative downstream mechanisms to drive oncogenic processes in a context-dependent manner. Here, using a Drosophila model, we show that overexpression of either human Lpd or its Drosophila orthologue Pico can promote growth and invasion of Ras(V12)-induced cell tumours in the brain...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340583/inflammatory-signature-of-cerebellar-neurodegeneration-during-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-in-ugt1-mouse-model
#17
Simone Vodret, Giulia Bortolussi, Jana Jašprová, Libor Vitek, Andrés F Muro
BACKGROUND: Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced neurological damage and eventually death by kernicterus. Bilirubin neurotoxicity is characterized by a wide array of neurological deficits, including irreversible abnormalities in motor, sensitive and cognitive functions, due to bilirubin accumulation in the brain. Despite the abundant literature documenting the in vitro and in vivo toxic effects of bilirubin, it is unclear which molecular and cellular events actually characterize bilirubin-induced neurodegeneration in vivo...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324953/electrical-resistance-increases-at-the-tissue-electrode-interface-as-an-early-response-to-nucleus-accumbens-deep-brain-stimulation
#18
Rajas P Kale, Abbas Z Kouzani, Julian Berk, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Susannah J Tye
The therapeutic actions of deep brain stimulation are not fully understood. The early inflammatory response of electrode implantation is associated with symptom relief without electrical stimulation, but is negated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Early excitotoxic necrosis and subsequent glial scarring modulate the conductivity of the tissue-electrode interface, which can provide some detail into the inflammatory response of individual patients. The feasibility of this was demonstrated by measuring resistance values across a bipolar electrode which was unilaterally implanted into the nucleus accumbens of a rat while receiving continuous deep brain stimulation with a portable back-mounted device using clinical parameters (130Hz, 200μA, 90μs) for 3 days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317912/the-soft-mechanical-signature-of-glial-scars-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Emad Moeendarbary, Isabell P Weber, Graham K Sheridan, David E Koser, Sara Soleman, Barbara Haenzi, Elizabeth J Bradbury, James Fawcett, Kristian Franze
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) alters the molecular and cellular composition of neural tissue and leads to glial scarring, which inhibits the regrowth of damaged axons. Mammalian glial scars supposedly form a chemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration. While tremendous effort has been devoted to identifying molecular characteristics of the scar, very little is known about its mechanical properties. Here we characterize spatiotemporal changes of the elastic stiffness of the injured rat neocortex and spinal cord at 1...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300871/glial-scar-modulation-as-therapeutic-tool-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-animal-models
#20
Jéssica Rodrigues Orlandin, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio, Valéria Maria Lara
PURPOSE: Spinal Cord injury represents, in veterinary medicine, most of the neurological attendances and may result in permanent disability, death or euthanasia. Due to inflammation resulting from trauma, it originates the glial scar, which is a cell interaction complex system. Its function is to preserve the healthy circuits, however, it creates a physical and molecular barrier that prevents cell migration and restricts the neuroregeneration ability. METHODS: This review aims to present innovations in the scene of treatment of spinal cord injury, approaching cell therapy, administration of enzyme, anti-inflammatory, and other active principles capable of modulating the inflammatory response, resulting in glial scar reduction and subsequent functional improvement of animals...
February 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
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