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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922061/thermo-sensitive-hydrogels-combined-with-decellularised-matrix-deliver-bfgf-for-the-functional-recovery-of-rats-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#1
He-Lin Xu, Fu-Rong Tian, Cui-Tao Lu, Jie Xu, Zi-Liang Fan, Jing-Jing Yang, Pian-Pian Chen, Ya-Dong Huang, Jian Xiao, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Because of the short half-life, either systemic or local administration of bFGF shows significant drawbacks to spinal injury. In this study, an acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASC) was encapsulated in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel to overcome these limitations. The ASC was firstly prepared from the spinal cord of healthy rats and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. bFGF could specifically complex with the ASC scaffold via electrostatic or receptor-mediated interactions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918825/early-postnatal-hyperoxia-in-mice-leads-to-severe-persistent-vitreoretinopathy
#2
Paul G McMenamin, Rachel Kenny, Sjakon Tahija, Jeremiah Lim, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Xiangting Chen, Sheena Bouch, Foula Sozo, Bang Bui
Purpose: To describe a mouse model of hyperoxia-induced vitreoretinopathy that replicated some of the clinical and pathologic features encountered in infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity and congenital ocular conditions such as persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Methods: Experimental mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 65% oxygen between postnatal days (P)0 to P7 and studied at P10, P14, and 3, 5, 8, 20, and 40 weeks. Controls were exposed to normoxic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899316/inhibition-or-ablation-of-transglutaminase-2-impairs-astrocyte-migration
#4
Alina Monteagudo, Changyi Ji, Abdullah Akbar, Jeffrey W Keillor, Gail V W Johnson
Astrocytes play numerous complex roles that support and facilitate the function of neurons. Further, when there is an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) they can both facilitate or ameliorate functional recovery depending on the location and severity of the injury. When a CNS injury is relatively severe a glial scar is formed, which is primarily composed of astrocytes. The glial scar can be both beneficial, by limiting inflammation, and detrimental, by preventing neuronal projections, to functional recovery...
November 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895121/neuronal-mtorc1-is-required-for-maintaining-the-nonreactive-state-of-astrocytes
#6
Yue Zhang, Song Xu, Kang-Yan Liang, Kai Li, Zhi-Peng Zou, Cui-Lan Yang, Kang Tan, Xiong Cao, Yu Jiang, Tian-Ming Gao, Xiao-Chun Bai
Astrocytes respond to central nervous system (CNS) insults through reactive astrogliosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we show that inactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) signaling in postnatal neurons induces reactive astrogliosis in mice. Ablation of Raptor (an mTORC1-specific component) in postmitotic neurons abolished mTORC1 activity and produced neurons with smaller soma and fewer dendrites, resulting in microcephaly and aberrant behavior in adult mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885959/bone-marrow-stromal-cell-sheets-may-promote-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-with-suppression-of-glial-scar-formation-after-spinal-cord-transection-injury-in-rats
#7
Akinori Okuda, Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Takamasa Shimizu, Hideki Shigematsu, Eiichiro Iwata, Yasuhiko Morimoto, Keisuke Masuda, Munehisa Koizumi, Manabu Akahane, Mayumi Nishi, Yasuhito Tanaka
OBJECTIVE Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a theoretical potential as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although a scaffold is sometimes used for retaining transplanted cells in damaged tissue, it is also known to induce redundant immunoreactions during the degradation processes. In this study, the authors prepared cell sheets made of BMSCs, which are transplantable without a scaffold, and investigated their effects on axonal regeneration, glial scar formation, and functional recovery in a completely transected SCI model in rats...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865778/curcumin-inhibits-glial-scar-formation-by-suppressing-astrocyte-induced-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Jichao Yuan, Wei Liu, Haitao Zhu, Yaxing Chen, Xuan Zhang, Lan Li, Weihua Chu, Zexian Wen, Hua Feng, Jiangkai Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to glial scar formation by astrocytes, which severely hinders neural regeneration. Curcumin (cur) can inhibit glial scar formation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study investigated the phenotypic transformation of astrocytes following cur and siRNA intervention during the processes of inflammation and fibrosis and determined details of the relationship between cur treatment and the glial scar components GFAP and CSPG...
November 16, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863083/promotion-of-neurological-recovery-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-nerve-guided-collagen-scaffold-through-increasing-alternatively-activated-macrophage-polarization
#9
Zhan Peng, Wei Gao, Bing Yue, Jie Jiang, Yong Gu, Jianwu Dai, Liang Chen, Qin Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)characterized by multi-differentiation potent and immunoregulatory have been used in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI), but the direct transplantation may limit its effectiveness due to quick diffusion. In addition, the role of macrophages in healing is being increasingly recognized because of the ability to polarize into pro- and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. In the present study, we developed the nerve-guide collagen scaffold (CS) and rat MSCs. After CS was confirmed to minimize MSCs distribution in vivo by the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the repair capacity of combined implantation of CS and MSCs and the effect on classically activated macrophage (M1)/alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization was assessed in a hemisected SCI rat model...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847705/a-model-of-glial-scarring-analogous-to-the-environment-of-a-traumatically-injured-spinal-cord-using-kainate
#10
Jong Yoon Yoo, Chang Ho Hwang, Hea Nam Hong
OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model analogous to the environment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), the authors evaluated change of astrogliosis following treatments with kainate and/or scratch, and degree of neurite outgrowth after treatment with a kainate inhibitor. METHODS: Astrocytes were obtained from the rat spinal cord. Then, 99% of the cells were confirmed to be GFAP-positive astrocytes. For chemical injury, the cells were treated with kainate at different concentrations (10, 50 or 100 µM)...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818801/extrinsic-and-intrinsic-regulation-of-axon-regeneration-by-micrornas-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Ping Li, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
Spinal cord injury is a devastating disease which disrupts the connections between the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. Most injured neurons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration after injury. MicroRNAs can modulate multiple genes' expression and are tightly controlled during nerve development or the injury process. Evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs and their signaling pathways play important roles in mediating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818039/regenerative-potential-of-ependymal-cells-for-spinal-cord-injuries-over-time
#12
Xiaofei Li, Elisa M Floriddia, Konstantinos Toskas, Karl J L Fernandes, Nicolas Guérout, Fanie Barnabé-Heider
Stem cells have a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). We have shown previously that endogenous stem cell potential is confined to ependymal cells in the adult spinal cord which could be targeted for non-invasive SCI therapy. However, ependymal cells are an understudied cell population. Taking advantage of transgenic lines, we characterize the appearance and potential of ependymal cells during development. We show that spinal cord stem cell potential in vitro is contained within these cells by birth...
October 28, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811277/injury-induced-ctgfa-directs-glial-bridging-and-spinal-cord-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#13
Mayssa H Mokalled, Chinmoy Patra, Amy L Dickson, Toyokazu Endo, Didier Y R Stainier, Kenneth D Poss
Unlike mammals, zebrafish efficiently regenerate functional nervous system tissue after major spinal cord injury. Whereas glial scarring presents a roadblock for mammalian spinal cord repair, glial cells in zebrafish form a bridge across severed spinal cord tissue and facilitate regeneration. We performed a genome-wide profiling screen for secreted factors that are up-regulated during zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. We found that connective tissue growth factor a (ctgfa) is induced in and around glial cells that participate in initial bridging events...
November 4, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807407/mdivi-1-inhibits-astrocyte-activation-and-astroglial-scar-formation-and-enhances-axonal-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#14
Gang Li, Yang Cao, Feifei Shen, Yangsong Wang, Liangjie Bai, Weidong Guo, Yunlong Bi, Gang Lv, Zhongkai Fan
After spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes become hypertrophic, and proliferative, forming a dense network of astroglial processes at the site of the lesion. This constitutes a physical and biochemical barrier to axonal regeneration. Mitochondrial fission regulates cell cycle progression; inhibiting the cell cycle of astrocytes can reduce expression levels of axon growth-inhibitory molecules as well as astroglial scar formation after SCI. We therefore investigated how an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, Mdivi-1, would affect astrocyte proliferation, astroglial scar formation, and axonal regeneration following SCI in rats...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787894/docosahexaenoic-acid-up-regulates-both-pi3k-akt-dependent-fabp7-ppar%C3%AE-interaction-and-mkp3-that-enhance-gfap-in-developing-rat-brain-astrocytes
#15
Sachin Tripathi, Rajesh Kushwaha, Juhi Mishra, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Harish Kumar, Somali Sanyal, Dhirendra Singh, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Amogh Anant Sahasrabuddhe, Mohan Kamthan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
The astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), has essential functions in the brain, but may trigger astroglial scarring when expressed in excess. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 fatty acid that is protective during brain development. However, the effect of DHA on GFAP levels of developing brain remains unexplored. Here we detected that treating developing rats with DHA-enriched fish-oil caused dose-dependent GFAP augmentation. We investigated the mechanism promoting GFAP, hypothesizing the participation of fatty acid-binding protein-7 (FABP7), known to bind DHA...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780189/changes-in-the-expression-of-mir-34a-and-its-target-genes-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#16
Ying Chen, Shuyan Cao, Pingping Xu, Wei Han, Tiankai Shan, Jingying Pan, Weiwei Lin, Xue Chen, Xiaodong Wang
BACKGROUND Results from DNA microarray experiments have shown that the expression of miR-34s undergoes significant changes following spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to detect changes in the expression of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining for myelin was used to observe the differences in the general morphology of the spinal cord after SCI in a contusion model in rats. qPCR was carried out to determine the expression variation of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779250/the-preparation-of-rat-s-acellular-spinal-cord-scaffold-and-co-culture-with-rat-s-spinal-cord-neuron-in-vitro
#17
D-X Ban, Y Liu, T-W Cao, S-J Gao, S-Q Feng
STUDY DESIGN: The rat's acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASCS) and spinal cord neurons were prepared in vitro to explore their biocompatibility. OBJECTIVES: The preparation of ASCS and co-culture with neuron may lay a foundation for clinical treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ChinaMethods:ASCS was prepared by chemical extraction method. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), myelin staining and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the surface structure of ASCS...
October 25, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778377/dynamics-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-expression-in-different-cell-types-after-brain-injury
#18
Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757072/influence-of-biphasic-stimulation-on-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-for-neuroprosthetic-devices
#19
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753790/self-assembling-peptide-reduces-glial-scarring-attenuates-posttraumatic-inflammation-and-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-of-spinal-motor-neurons
#20
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
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