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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101348/evans-blue-mediated-white-light-detection-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-preclinical-feasibility-and-safety-study-using-a-rat-bladder-urothelial-cell-carcinoma-model
#1
Sanne Elsen, Evelyne Lerut, Frank Van Der Aa, Ben Van Cleynenbreugel, Hendrik Van Poppel, Peter De Witte
Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) improves the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, white-light (WL) cystoscopy remains the technique routinely used in urological clinics. A more cost-effective but equally performant alternative to PDD may encompass the use of an intense tumoritropic dye in combination with WL cystoscopy. Using a preclinical setting, we investigated the practical aspects of the use of Evans blue (EB) dye for the possible future detection of NMIBC using WL cystoscopy...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094956/radiolabeled-r954-derivatives-for-imaging-bradykinin-b1-receptor-expression-with-positron-emission-tomography
#2
Hsiou-Ting Kuo, Jinhe Pan, Joseph Lau, Chengcheng Zhang, Jutta Zeisler, Nadine Colpo, Francois Benard, Kuo-Shyan Lin
Peptide receptors have emerged as promising targets for diagnosis and therapy. The aberrant overexpression of these receptors in different cancer subtypes allows for the adoption of new treatment strategies that complement conventional chemotherapies. Bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in many cancers, with limited expression in healthy tissues. Previously, we developed 68Ga- and 18F-labeled derivatives of B1R antagonist peptides B9858 and B9958, and successfully targeted B1R-expressing tumor xenografts in vivo...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046472/th-cd-202-12-online-inter-beam-replanning-based-on-real-time-dose-reconstruction
#3
C P Kamerling, M F Fast, P Ziegenhein, S Nill, U Oelfke
PURPOSE: This work provides a proof-of-concept study for online replanning during treatment delivery for step-and-shoot prostate SBRT, based on real-time dose reconstruction. Online replanning is expected to improve the trade-off between target coverage and organ-at-risk dose in the presence of intra-fractional motion. METHODS: We have implemented an online replanning workflow on top of our previously reported real-time dose reconstruction software which connects to an Elekta research linac...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008925/biallelic-jak1-mutations-in-immunodeficient-patient-with-mycobacterial-infection
#4
Davide Eletto, Siobhan O Burns, Ivan Angulo, Vincent Plagnol, Kimberly C Gilmour, Frances Henriquez, James Curtis, Miguel Gaspar, Karolin Nowak, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Rainer Doffinger, Adrian J Thrasher, Sergey Nejentsev
Mutations in genes encoding components of the immune system cause primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we study a patient with recurrent atypical mycobacterial infection and early-onset metastatic bladder carcinoma. Exome sequencing identified two homozygous missense germline mutations, P733L and P832S, in the JAK1 protein that mediates signalling from multiple cytokine receptors. Cells from this patient exhibit reduced JAK1 and STAT phosphorylation following cytokine stimulations, reduced induction of expression of interferon-regulated genes and dysregulated cytokine production; which are indicative of signalling defects in multiple immune response pathways including Interferon-γ production...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986820/identification-of-complex-genomic-rearrangements-in-cancers-using-cougar
#5
Misko Dzamba, Arun K Ramani, Pawel Buczkowicz, Yue Jiang, Man Yu, Cynthia Hawkins, Michael Brudno
The genomic alterations associated with cancers are numerous and varied, involving both isolated and large-scale complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood, CGRs have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we introduce CouGaR, a novel method for characterizing the genomic structure of amplified CGRs, leveraging both depth of coverage (DOC) and discordant pair-end mapping techniques. We applied our method to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identify amplified CGRs in at least 5...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930669/development-of-rna-fish-assay-for-detection-of-oncogenic-fgfr3-tacc3-fusion-genes-in-ffpe-samples
#6
Masahiro Kurobe, Takahiro Kojima, Kouichi Nishimura, Shuya Kandori, Takashi Kawahara, Takayuki Yoshino, Satoshi Ueno, Yuichi Iizumi, Koji Mitsuzuka, Yoichi Arai, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Tomonori Habuchi, Takashi Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki Matsui, Osamu Ogawa, Mikio Sugimoto, Yoshiyuki Kakehi, Yoshiyuki Nagumo, Masakazu Tsutsumi, Takehiro Oikawa, Koji Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and FGFR3 mutations are target candidates for small molecule inhibitors in bladder cancer (BC). Because FGFR3 and TACC3 genes are located very closely on chromosome 4p16.3, detection of the fusion by DNA-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) is not a feasible option. In this study, we developed a novel RNA-FISH assay using branched DNA probe to detect FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human BC samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929483/a-dosimetric-evaluation-of-knowledge-based-vmat-planning-with-simultaneous-integrated-boosting-for-rectal-cancer-patients
#7
Hao Wu, Fan Jiang, Haizhen Yue, Sha Li, Yibao Zhang
RapidPlan, a commercial knowledge-based optimizer, has been tested on head and neck, lung, esophageal, breast, liver, and prostate cancer patients. To appraise its performance on VMAT planning with simultaneous integrated boosting (SIB) for rectal cancer, this study configured a DVH (dose-volume histogram) estimation model consisting 80 best-effort manual cases of this type. Using the model-generated objectives, the MLC (multileaf collimator) sequences of other 70 clinically approved plans were reoptimized, while the remaining parameters, such as field geometry and photon energy, were maintained...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896485/biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-bladder-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Takahiro Kojima, Koji Kawai, Jun Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
Bladder cancer (BC) is classified as non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) or muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). Because the recurrence and mortality rates of BC are high, suitable biomarkers for early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses are needed. Urinary markers simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors, especially in NMIBC. Various markers have been identified at DNA, RNA, and protein levels with different sensitivities and specificities. Several biomarkers show a higher sensitivity than urinary cytology, but they are not accurate enough to replace it...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#9
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836246/emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-urothelial-carcinoma-immunobiology-biomarkers
#10
REVIEW
Randy F Sweis, Matthew D Galsky
Urothelial bladder cancer is one of the first cancers recognized to be immunogenic since 40 years ago when the use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin was shown to prevent recurrence. Since that time, our knowledge of immune biology of cancer has expanded tremendously, and patients with bladder cancer finally have new active immunotherapeutic drugs on the horizon. Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) therapy has shown impressively durable responses in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), but the reported response rates warrant improvement...
December 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823983/genomic-profiling-is-predictive-of-response-to-cisplatin-treatment-but-not-to-pi3k-inhibition-in-bladder-cancer-patient-derived-xenografts
#11
Lei Wei, Sreenivasulu Chintala, Eric Ciamporcero, Swathi Ramakrishnan, May Elbanna, Jianmin Wang, Qiang Hu, Sean T Glenn, Mitsuko Murakami, Lu Liu, Eduardo Cortes Gomez, Yuchen Sun, Jacob Conroy, Kiersten Marie Miles, Kullappan Malathi, Sudha Ramaiah, Anand Anbarasu, Anna Woloszynska-Read, Candace S Johnson, Jeffrey Conroy, Song Liu, Carl D Morrison, Roberto Pili
PURPOSE: Effective systemic therapeutic options are limited for bladder cancer. In this preclinical study we tested whether bladder cancer gene alterations may be predictive of treatment response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed genomic profiling of two bladder cancer patient derived tumor xenografts (PDX). We optimized the exome sequence analysis method to overcome the mouse genome interference. RESULTS: We identified a number of somatic mutations, mostly shared by the primary tumors and PDX...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807073/archetype-and-rearranged-non-coding-control-regions-in-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-of-immunocompetent-individuals
#12
Elena Anzivino, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Valeria Antonietta Pietropaolo, Alessandra Oliva, Francesco Iori, Antonio Ciardi, Donatella Maria Rodio, Francesca Antonini, Cesare Giovanni Fedele, Alessandra D'Abramo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Maria Rosa Ciardi
BACKGROUND: Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are potential transforming viruses. Despite their involvement in human tumours still being debated, there is evidence to suggest a role for PyVs in bladder carcinoma (BC). Therefore, a possible association between PyVs and BC was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine, blood and fresh bladder tissue specimens were collected from 29 patients with BC. PyV prevalence, non-coding control region (NCCR) organization and genotypic analysis were assessed...
November 2016: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784990/molecular-targets-in-urothelial-cancer-detection-treatment-and-animal-models-of-bladder-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Dmitriy Smolensky, Kusum Rathore, Maria Cekanova
Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774692/isolation-and-partial-characterization-of-3-nontoxic-d-galactose-specific-isolectins-from-seeds-of-momordica-balsamina
#14
Amna K E Awadallah, Makarim Elfadil M Osman, Mariam A Ibrahim, Emerson S Bernardes, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Emadeldin Hassan E Konozy
Three isolectins denoted hereforth MBaL-30, MBaL-60, and MBaL-80 were isolated from seeds extract of Momordica balsamina by 30%, 60%, and 80% ammonium sulfate saturations, respectively. The native molecular weights of these lectins, as judged by gel filtration, were 108, 56, and 160 kDa, respectively. On SDS-PAGE, under reduced condition, 27 kDa band was obtained for all isolectins. The lectins hemagglutinating activities were variably inhibited by d-galactose (minimum inhibitory concentrations = 12.5mM, 50mM, and 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756245/a-diagnostic-marker-for-superficial-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-lack-of-nuclear-atbf1-zfhx3-by-immunohistochemistry-suggests-malignant-progression
#15
Makoto Kawaguchi, Noboru Hara, Vladimir Bilim, Hiroshi Koike, Mituko Suzuki, Tae-Sun Kim, Nan Gao, Yu Dong, Sheng Zhang, Yuji Fujinawa, Osamu Yamamoto, Hiromi Ito, Yoshihiko Tomita, Yuchi Naruse, Akira Sakamaki, Yoko Ishii, Koichi Tsuneyama, Masaaki Inoue, Johbu Itoh, Masanori Yasuda, Nobuo Sakata, Cha-Gyun Jung, Satoshi Kanazawa, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Hiroshi Minato, Takayuki Nojima, Kiyofumi Asai, Yutaka Miura
BACKGROUND: Pathological stage and grade have limited ability to predict the outcomes of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma at initial transurethral resection (TUR). AT-motif binding factor 1 (ATBF1) is a tumor suppressive transcription factor that is normally localized to the nucleus but has been detected in the cytoplasm in several cancers. Here, we examined the diagnostic value of the intracellular localization of ATBF1 as a marker for the identification of high risk urothelial bladder carcinoma...
October 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751785/circulating-biomarkers-to-guide-systemic-therapy-for-urothelial-carcinoma
#16
Philip H Abbosh, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Elizabeth R Plimack
There are very few biomarkers used to diagnose bladder cancer and no clinically approved biomarkers for prediction or prognostication of this disease. All currently available biomarkers are based on urine tests, and thus, they may not be applicable to patients with extravesical tumors. Biopsy of metastatic sites requires an invasive procedure, whereas serum-based markers, which can be easily obtained and serially measured, thus have obvious merit. These deficiencies may be overcome with advances in genome sequencing, identification of circulating tumor cells, and RNA-, protein-, and DNA-based biomarkers...
October 14, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750214/genomic-characterization-of-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#17
Joshua J Meeks, Benedito A Carneiro, Sachin G Pai, Daniel T Oberlin, Alfred Rademaker, Kyle Fedorchak, Sohail Balasubramanian, Julia Elvin, Nike Beaubier, Francis J Giles
The genetic mechanisms associated with progression of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) have not been described. We conducted selective next-generation sequencing (NGS) of HR-NMIBC and compared the genomic profiles of cancers that responded to intravesical therapy and those that progressed to muscle-invasive or advanced disease. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded sections from 25 HR-NMIBCs (22 with T1HG; 3 with TaHG with or without carcinoma in situ). Ten patients with HR-NMIBC developed progression (pT2+ or N+) ("progressors")...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725446/cyp2a13-genetic-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-bladder-cancer-in-japanese-smokers
#18
Masaki Kumondai, Hiroki Hosono, Kazuhiko Orikasa, Yoichi Arai, Tomio Arai, Haruhiko Sugimura, Seiichiro Ozono, Takayuki Sugiyama, Tatsuya Takayama, Takamitsu Sasaki, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines including 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), which can be activated by the metabolic enzyme CYP2A13, are potent procarcinogens. Smoking plays a role in carcinogenesis in the human bladder, which expresses CYP2A13 at a relatively high level. Numerous genetic polymorphisms of CYP2A13 causing amino acid substitution might reduce CYP2A13 metabolic activity toward NNK and NNN, resulting in decreased susceptibility to bladder cancer. The aim of this study was to reveal any association between bladder cancer development and CYP2A13 genetic polymorphisms in Japanese smokers...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714486/optimized-workflow-and-imaging-protocols-for-whole-body-oncologic-pet-mri
#19
Shirou Ishii, Takamitsu Hara, Takeyuki Nanbu, Hiroki Suenaga, Shigeyasu Sugawara, Daichi Kuroiwa, Hirofumi Sekino, Masayuki Miyajima, Hitoshi Kubo, Noboru Oriuchi, Hiroshi Ito
Although PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and higher diagnostic accuracy...
November 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698873/investigation-of-the-association-between-mitochondrial-dna-and-p53-gene-mutations-in-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bladder
#20
Tuba Avcilar, Deniz Kirac, Deniz Ergec, Gulsah Koc, Korkut Ulucan, Zehra Kaya, Elif Cigdem Kaspar, Levent Turkeri, Ahmet Ilter Guney
Bladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. The major aim of the present study is to investigate the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and p53 gene mutations in bladder carcinoma. A total of 30 patients with transitional cell carcinoma and 27 controls were recruited for the study. Bladder cancer tissues were obtained by radical cystectomy or transurethral resection. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. mtDNA and p53 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced directly...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
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