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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325739/anti-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-1-pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-urothelial-carcinoma-state-of-the-art-and-future-development
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Powles, Andrea Necchi, Galit Rosen, Subramanian Hariharan, Andrea B Apolo
Immunotherapy with programmed cell death 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has expanded a previously limited pool of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, particularly those with recurring or refractory disease and those who are ineligible for cisplatin. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in urothelial carcinoma. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313114/bladder-cancer-local-staging-multiparametric-mri-performance-following-transurethral-resection
#2
Christian B van der Pol, Atul B Shinagare, Sree Harsha Tirumani, Mark A Preston, Mark G Vangel, Stuart G Silverman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for the local staging of bladder cancer following transurethral resection of bladder tumor. METHODS: This Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study identified 45 patients with pathology-proven bladder cancer who underwent transurethral resection followed by mpMRI between August 2011 and October 2016. Two radiologists reviewed each MRI independently and assigned T and N stage. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated for the presence of muscle invasion (T2 or higher), peri-vesical invasion (T3 or higher), and regional nodal disease compared to findings at cystectomy as the reference standard...
January 9, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291244/unveiling-massive-numbers-of-cancer-related-urinary-microrna-candidates-via-nanowires
#3
Takao Yasui, Takeshi Yanagida, Satoru Ito, Yuki Konakade, Daiki Takeshita, Tsuyoshi Naganawa, Kazuki Nagashima, Taisuke Shimada, Noritada Kaji, Yuta Nakamura, Ivan Adiyasa Thiodorus, Yong He, Sakon Rahong, Masaki Kanai, Hiroshi Yukawa, Takahiro Ochiya, Tomoji Kawai, Yoshinobu Baba
Analyzing microRNAs (miRNAs) within urine extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for realizing miRNA-based, simple, and noninvasive early disease diagnoses and timely medical checkups. However, the inherent difficulty in collecting dilute concentrations of EVs (<0.01 volume %) from urine has hindered the development of these diagnoses and medical checkups. We propose a device composed of nanowires anchored into a microfluidic substrate. This device enables EV collections at high efficiency and in situ extractions of various miRNAs of different sequences (around 1000 types) that significantly exceed the number of species being extracted by the conventional ultracentrifugation method...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280466/image-distortions-on-a-plastic-interstitial-computed-tomography-magnetic-resonance-brachytherapy-applicator-at-3%C3%A2-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-their-dosimetric-impact
#4
Laura E van Heerden, Zdenko van Kesteren, Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Antonetta C Houweling, Kees Koedooder, Coen R N Rasch, Bradley R Pieters, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: To quantify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) distortions on a plastic intracavitary/interstitial applicator with plastic needles at a field strength of 3 T and to determine the dosimetric impact, using patient data. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 11 cervical cancer patients, our clinical MRI protocol was extended with 3 scans. From the first scan, a multi-echo acquisition, a map of the magnetic field (B0) was calculated and used to quantify the field inhomogeneity...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259186/mutational-patterns-in-chemotherapy-resistant-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#5
David Liu, Philip Abbosh, Daniel Keliher, Brendan Reardon, Diana Miao, Kent Mouw, Amaro Weiner-Taylor, Stephanie Wankowicz, Garam Han, Min Yuen Teo, Catharine Cipolla, Jaegil Kim, Gopa Iyer, Hikmat Al-Ahmadie, Essel Dulaimi, David Y T Chen, R Katherine Alpaugh, Jean Hoffman-Censits, Levi A Garraway, Gad Getz, Scott L Carter, Joaquim Bellmunt, Elizabeth R Plimack, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Eliezer M Van Allen
Despite continued widespread use, the genomic effects of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and implications for subsequent treatment are incompletely characterized. Here, we analyze whole exome sequencing of matched pre- and post-neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy primary bladder tumor samples from 30 muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. We observe no overall increase in tumor mutational burden post-chemotherapy, though a significant proportion of subclonal mutations are unique to the matched pre- or post-treatment tumor, suggesting chemotherapy-induced and/or spatial heterogeneity...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232796/-four-cases-of-bacteremia-caused-by-helicobacter-cinaedi-in-the-urological-ward-at-about-the-same-time
#6
Yoshiki Hiyama, Satoshi Takahashi, Naotaka Nishiyama, Mami Nakae, Satoshi Fujii, Masaaki Shinagawa, Naoya Masumori
Here we report the outbreak of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi) in the urology ward. Case 1 was a man in his seventies with prostate cancer. Bacteremia caused by H. cinaedi developed 6 days after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Case 2 was a man in his sixties with small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Bacteremia developed at 5 days of docetaxel therapy. Case 3 was a man in his fifties with left renal pelvis carcinoma. Bacteremia developed 3 days after laparoscopic left nephroureterectomy...
November 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222807/long-non-coding-rna-expression-in-bladder-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Taheri, Mir Davood Omrani, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
The advent of novel high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated identification of non-coding RNAs with fundamental roles in cellular biological and pathological conditions. A group of these consisting of at least 200 nucleotides are called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Their participation in the pathogenesis of cancer has been highlighted in recent years. Bladder cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, exhibits altered expression levels of several lncRNAs. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have assessed the effects of silencing RNAs on cancer cell phenotypes and in vivo tumor growth...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221192/tumor-suppressive-function-of-unc5d-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#8
Man-Man Zhang, Feng Sun, Bing Cui, Le-Le Zhang, Ya Fang, Yan Li, Rui-Jia Zhang, Xiao-Ping Ye, Yu-Ru Ma, Bing Han, Huai-Dong Song
Background: Studies have shown an association of the UNC5D gene with kidney and bladder cancer and neuroblastoma. We investigated whether UNC5D acts as a tumor suppressor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: Primary PTC tumors and matched normal thyroid tissues were obtained from 112 patients to detect UNC5D mRNA by real-time PCR. Genomic DNA sequencing was performed to detect BRAF mutation in PTC tumors. The association between UNC5D expression and clinicopathological data from PTC patients was reviewed retrospectively...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200659/electrochemical-detection-of-urinary-micrornas-via-sulfonamide-bound-antisense-hybridisation
#9
Daniel A Smith, Lucy J Newbury, Guido Drago, Timothy Bowen, James E Redman
Altered serum and plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been observed in numerous human diseases, with a number of studies describing circulating miRNA biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment, and recruitment to clinical trials for miRNA-based drug therapy already underway. Electrochemical detection of biomarkers in urine has several significant advantages over circulating biomarker analysis including safety, cost, speed and ease of conversion to the point of care environment...
December 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197858/image-based-3d-surface-approximation-of-the-bladder-using-structure-from-motion-for-enhanced-cystoscopy-based-on-phantom-data
#10
Quentin Péntek, Simon Hein, Arkadiusz Miernik, Alexander Reiterer
Bladder cancer is likely to recur after resection. For this reason, bladder cancer survivors often undergo follow-up cystoscopy for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer recurrence. 3D modeling of the bladder could provide more reliable cystoscopic documentation by giving an overall picture of the organ and tumor positions. However, 3D reconstruction of the urinary bladder based on endoscopic images is challenging. This is due to the small field of view of the endoscope, considerable image distortion, and occlusion by urea, blood or particles...
December 4, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187884/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-hpgd-gene-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer-risk
#11
Xiaofei Qi, Yu Wang, Jianquan Hou, Yuhua Huang
Introduction: The HPGD gene was associated with some cancers, such as colorectal, breast, prostate, and bladder. However, detailed role of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) gene remain unclear in prostate cancer. The study was to investigate the correlation between rs8752 that located in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) gene and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Materials and Methods: 109 patients from the First Affiliate Hospital of Soochow University were recruited...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165379/role-of-non-coding-rnas-in-the-etiology-of-bladder-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Caterina Gulìa, Stefano Baldassarra, Fabrizio Signore, Giuliano Rigon, Valerio Pizzuti, Marco Gaffi, Vito Briganti, Alessandro Porrello, Roberto Piergentili
According to data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, GLOBOCAN, and the World Health Organization Mortality), bladder is among the top ten body locations of cancer globally, with the highest incidence rates reported in Southern and Western Europe, North America, Northern Africa and Western Asia. Males (M) are more vulnerable to this disease than females (F), despite ample frequency variations in different countries, with a M:F ratio of 4...
November 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151929/identification-of-circular-rna-signature-in-bladder-cancer
#13
Xiao Yang, Wenbo Yuan, Jun Tao, Peng Li, Chengdi Yang, Xiaheng Deng, Xiaolei Zhang, Jingyuan Tang, Jie Han, Jingzi Wang, Pengchao Li, Qiang Lu, Min Gu
Circular RNA (circRNA) comprises a class of endogenous species of RNA consisting of a circular loop that is crucial for genetic and epigenetic regulation. The significance of circRNA in bladder cancer (BCa) remains to be investigated. Here we performed genome‑wide circRNA analysis of 5 paired tumour and adjacent normal tissue samples from BCa patients via next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Next we confirmed NGS data in a separate set of 32 paired BCa samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141603/detect-i-detect-ii-a-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-observational-study-to-validate-the-uromark-assay-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer-from-urinary-cells
#14
Wei Shen Tan, Andrew Feber, Liqin Dong, Rachael Sarpong, Sheida Rezaee, Simon Rodney, Pramit Khetrapal, Patricia de Winter, Frelyn Ocampo, Rumana Jalil, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, John D Kelly
BACKGROUND: Haematuria is a common finding in general practice which requires visual inspection of the bladder by cystoscopy as well as upper tract imaging. In addition, patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) often require surveillance cystoscopy as often as three monthly depending on disease risk. However, cystoscopy is an invasive procedure which is uncomfortable, requires hospital attendance and is associated with a risk of urinary tract infection. We have developed the UroMark assay, which can detect 150 methylation specific alteration specific to bladder cancer using DNA from urinary sediment cells...
November 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121415/efficacy-and-safety-of-trametinib-in-japanese-patients-with-advanced-biliary-tract-cancers-refractory-to-gemcitabine
#15
Masafumi Ikeda, Tatsuya Ioka, Akira Fukutomi, Chigusa Morizane, Akiyoshi Kasuga, Hideaki Takahashi, Akiko Todaka, Takuji Okusaka, Caretha L Creasy, Shelby Gorman, Daniel J Felitsky, Mikiro Kobayashi, Fanghong Zhang, Junji Furuse
Gemcitabine-based therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with biliary tract cancers (BTCs) with no second-line treatment(s) established yet. Aberrant activation of MAPK pathway in patients with BTC indicates its importance in BTC. Trametinib is a potent, highly selective, allosteric non-competitive inhibitor of MEK1/MEK2. In this Phase IIa open-label, single-arm study, we investigated efficacy and safety of trametinib in Japanese patients with advanced BTC refractory to gemcitabine-based therapy...
November 9, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119511/a-method-for-cross-species-visualization-and-analysis-of-rna-sequence-data
#16
Stephen A Ramsey
In this methods article, I describe a computational workflow for cross-species visualization and comparison of mRNA-seq transcriptome profiling data. The workflow is based on gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and is illustrated using commands in the R programming language. I provide a complete step-by-step procedure for the workflow using mRNA-seq data sets from dog and human bladder cancer as an example.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119388/potentialities-of-microrna-diagnosis-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer
#17
P V Shegay, A A Zhavoronkov, N M Gaifullin, N V Vorob'ev, B Ya Alekseev, S V Popov, A V Garazha, A A Buzdin, A D Kaprin
Despite promising vista of the use of microRNA in molecular diagnosis of bladder cancer, there are few data on their expression profiles, which impedes assessment of diagnostic value of these marker molecules. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization, on-chip hybridization, and high-throughput deep sequencing focused on profiling microRNA and assessing the diagnostic value of revealed marker molecules.
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107929/viral-sequences-in-human-cancer
#18
Paul G Cantalupo, Joshua P Katz, James M Pipas
We have developed a virus detection and discovery computational pipeline, Pickaxe, and applied it to NGS databases provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed a collection of whole genome (WGS), exome (WXS), and RNA (RNA-Seq) sequencing libraries from 3052 participants across 22 different cancers. NGS data from nearly all tumor and normal tissues examined contained contaminating viral sequences. Intensive computational and manual efforts are required to remove these artifacts. We found that several different types of cancers harbored Herpesviruses including EBV, CMV, HHV1, HHV2, HHV6 and HHV7...
November 3, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067547/low-levels-of-psma-expression-limit-the-utility-of-18-f-dcfpyl-pet-ct-for-imaging-urothelial-carcinoma
#19
Scott P Campbell, Alexander S Baras, Mark W Ball, Max Kates, Noah M Hahn, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Michael H Johnson, Martin G Pomper, Mohamad E Allaf, Steven P Rowe, Michael A Gorin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical utility of PSMA-targeted (18)F-DCFPyL PET/CT in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: Three patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma were imaged with (18)F-DCFPyL PET/CT. All lesions with perceptible radiotracer uptake above background were considered positive. Maximum standardized uptake values were recorded for each detected lesion and findings on (18)F-DCFPyL PET/CT were compared to those on conventional imaging studies...
October 24, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061046/visual-label-free-telomerase-activity-monitor-via-enzymatic-etching-of-gold-nanorods
#20
Haitang Yang, Anran Liu, Min Wei, Yuanjian Liu, Bingjing Lv, Wei Wei, Yuanjian Zhang, Songqin Liu
Early diagnosis and life-long surveillance are clinically important to improve the long-term survival of cancer patients. Telomerase activity is a valuable biomarker for cancer diagnosis, but its measurement often used complex label procedures. Herein, we designed a novel, simple, visual and label-free method for telomerase detection by using enzymatic etching of gold nanorods (GNRs). First, repeating (TTAGGG)x sequences were extented on telomerase substrate (TS) primer. It formed G-quadruplex under the help of Hemin and K(+)...
November 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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