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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453441/circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-but-not-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-is-elevated-in-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Daniel Lindqvist, Owen M Wolkowitz, Martin Picard, Lars Ohlsson, Francesco S Bersani, Johan Fernström, Åsa Westrin, Christina M Hough, Jue Lin, Victor I Reus, Elissa S Epel, Synthia H Mellon
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to mitochondrial defects, which could manifest in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms or mutations. Additionally, copy number of mtDNA (mtDNA-cn) can be quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)s, indirectly reflecting cellular energetics, or in the circulating cell-free mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA) levels, which may reflect a fraction of the mitochondrial genome released during cellular stress. Few studies have examined ccf-mtDNA in MDD, and no studies have tested its relationship with intracellular mtDNA-cn or with antidepressant treatment response...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453429/human-neutrophils-can-mimic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-pmn-mdsc-and-suppress-microbead-or-lectin-induced-t-cell-proliferation-through-artefactual-mechanisms
#2
Dmitri Negorev, Ulf H Beier, Tianyi Zhang, Jon G Quatromoni, Pratik Bhojnagarwala, Steven M Albelda, Sunil Singhal, Evgeniy Eruslanov, Falk W Lohoff, Matthew H Levine, Joshua M Diamond, Jason D Christie, Wayne W Hancock, Tatiana Akimova
We report that human conventional CD15 + neutrophils can be isolated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) layer during Ficoll gradient separation, and that they can impair T cell proliferation in vitro without concomitant neutrophil activation and killing. This effect was observed in a total of 92 patients with organ transplants, lung cancer or anxiety/depression, and in 18 healthy donors. Although such features are typically associated in the literature with the presence of certain myeloid-derived suppressor cell (PMN-MDSC) populations, we found that commercial centrifuge tubes that contained membranes or gels for PBMC isolation led to up to 70% PBMC contamination by CD15 + neutrophils, with subsequent suppressive effects in certain cellular assays...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451684/intracellular-pharmacokinetics-of-gemcitabine-its-deaminated-metabolite-2-2-difluorodeoxyuridine-and-their-nucleotides
#3
Ellen J B Derissen, Alwin D R Huitema, Hilde Rosing, Jan H M Schellens, Jos H Beijnen
AIMS: Gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, dFdC) is a prodrug that has to be phosphorylated within the tumour cell to become active. Intracellularly formed gemcitabine diphosphate (dFdCDP) and triphosphate (dFdCTP) are held responsible for the antineoplastic effects. However, a major part of gemcitabine is converted into 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (dFdU) by deamination. In the cell, dFdU can also be phosphorylated to its monophosphate (dFdUMP), diphosphate (dFdUDP) and triphosphate (dFdUTP)...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446180/pigs-expressing-the-human-inhibitory-ligand-pd-l1-cd-274-provide-a-new-source-of-xenogeneic-cells-and-tissues-with-low-immunogenic-properties
#4
Anna Buermann, Stoyan Petkov, Björn Petersen, Rabea Hein, Andrea Lucas-Hahn, Wiebke Baars, Antje Brinkmann, Heiner Niemann, Reinhard Schwinzer
BACKGROUND: The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1, CD279)/PD-Ligand1 (PD-L1, CD274) receptor system is crucial for controlling the balance between immune activation and induction of tolerance via generation of inhibitory signals. Expression of PD-L1 is associated with reduced immunogenicity and renders cells and tissues to an immune-privileged/tolerogenic state. METHODS: To apply this concept for clinical xenotransplantation, we generated human (h)PD-L1 transgenic pigs and characterized expression and biological function of the transgene at the cellular level...
February 15, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443062/generation-of-discriminative-human-monoclonal-antibodies-from-rare-antigen-specific-b-cells-circulating-in-blood
#5
Marie-Claire Devilder, Mélinda Moyon, Xavier Saulquin, Laetitia Gautreau-Rolland
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are powerful tools useful for both fundamental research and in biomedicine. Their high specificity is indispensable when the antibody needs to distinguish between highly related structures (e.g., a normal protein and a mutated version thereof). The current way of generating such discriminative mAbs involves extensive screening of multiple Ab-producing B cells, which is both costly and time consuming. We propose here a rapid and cost-effective method for the generation of discriminative, fully human mAbs starting from human blood circulating B lymphocytes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443050/a-co-culture-method-to-investigate-the-crosstalk-between-x-ray-irradiated-caco-2-cells-and-pbmc
#6
Gabriele Babini, Jacopo Morini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Giovanni Battista Ivaldi, Marco Liotta, Paola Tabarelli de Fatis, Andrea Ottolenghi
The protocol adopted in this work aims at unraveling how X-rays perturb the functioning of the intestinal barrier, focusing on the interplay between colorectal tumor cells and the immune system. Colorectal carcinoma is among the most common type of cancer, typically treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Advantages of radiotherapy in targeting the tumor are well known. However, even limited exposures of healthy tissues are of great concern, particularly regarding the effects on the intestinal barrier and the immune system...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442043/satb1-promotes-osteoclastogenesis-by-recruiting-cbp-to-upregulate-mir-223-expression-in-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#7
Jun Li, Guangqun Xing, Lili Zhang, Jinchun Shang, Yuan Li, Chunmei Li, Fen Tian, Xiangdong Yang
Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a complex disease which is associated with alterations of bone and mineral metabolism. miR-223 is implicated in both vascular calcification and osteoporosis. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Stab1 gene on miRNA-223 expression in osteoclastogenesis. Differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursors was assessed by using RAW264.7 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). TRAP activity and bone resorption were used to measure osteoclast activity...
November 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439842/zinc-supplementation-plays-a-crucial-role-in-t-helper-9-differentiation-in-allogeneic-immune-reactions-and-non-activated-t-cells
#8
Martina Maywald, Fudi Wang, Lothar Rink
T helper (Th) 9 cells play a critical role in immune-mediated diseases, including allergic airway inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer development. Thus, the promotion or suppression of Th9 cell differentiation, transcriptional control, and function is very important for a healthy immune system. Interestingly, T cell maturation, differentiation and function are highly dependent on the individuals' zinc status. This is especially seen in zinc deficient individuals as in the elderly population often suffering of autoimmunity and increased incidence of infections...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439735/peripheral-mononuclear-blood-cell-apheresis-in-a-preclinical-ovine-model
#9
Helen Lydon, Roger Brooks, Andrew McCaskie, Frances Henson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated that circulating peripheral blood mononuclear fractions (PBMC) containing haematopoietic stem (HSC)/progenitor cells have the potential to play a crucial role in regenerative medicine strategies. Work in our laboratory has shown that a peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction (PBMC) enhances cartilage repair in an osteochondral defect model in sheep and has a significant effect on cells in the joint niche. In order to obtain PBMC rich blood containing HSCs for further studies, we have performed, for the first time, apheresis on adult sheep...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438524/elevated-cyclic-amp-inhibits-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-stimulated-t-cell-ifn-%C3%AE-secretion-through-type-i-protein-kinase-a
#10
Yoon-Tae Chung, Virginia Pasquinelli, Javier O Jurado, Xisheng Wang, Na Yi, Peter F Barnes, Veronica E Garcia, Buka Samten
cAMP is critical in immune regulation, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) intoxicates macrophages through cAMP secretion. To examine the role of cAMP in the immune response to Mtb infection, we determined cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis patients and the mechanisms for cAMP suppression of T cell IFN-γ production. PBMC from tuberculosis patients contained significantly higher cAMP levels than latent tuberculosis infected subjects (LTBI), with an inverse correlation with Mtb-stimulated IFN-γ production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434980/augmentation-of-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-with-defucosylated-monoclonal-antibodies-in-patients-with-gi-tract-cancer
#11
Takahiro Nakajima, Hirokazu Okayama, Mai Ashizawa, Masaru Noda, Keita Aoto, Motonobu Saito, Tomoyuki Monma, Shinji Ohki, Masahiko Shibata, Seiichi Takenoshita, Koji Kono
Enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with some modalities may be a promising approach to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). It has previously been demonstrated that the removal of fucose from antibody oligosaccharides (defucosylation) leads to augmentation of ADCC activity. To establish clinically relevant evidence of this procedure, the present study evaluated trastuzumab- and cetuximab-mediated ADCC by comparing defucosylated mAbs with conventional mAbs using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431478/high-intensity-interval-training-improves-inflammatory-and-adipokine-profiles-in-postmenopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Flávia Mariel Steckling, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Felipe da Cunha Figueiredo, Daniela Lopes Dos Santos, Guilherme Bresciani, Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann, Sílvio Terra Stefanello, Aline Alves Courtes, Maristela de Oliveira Beck, Manuela Sangoi Cardoso, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Rafael Noal Moresco, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428931/increased-expression-of-the-innate-immune-receptor-tlr10-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-association-with-ros-mediated-oxidative-stress
#13
Sardar Sindhu, Nadeem Akhter, Shihab Kochumon, Reeby Thomas, Ajit Wilson, Steve Shenouda, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D) are known to be associated with chronic low-grade inflammation called metabolic inflammation together with an oxidative stress milieu found in the expanding adipose tissue. The innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLR) such as TLR2 and TLR4 have emerged as key players in metabolic inflammation; nonetheless, TLR10 expression in the adipose tissue and its significance in obesity/T2D remain unclear. METHODS: TLR10 gene expression was determined in the adipose tissue samples from healthy non-diabetic and T2D individuals, 13 each, using real-time RT-PCR...
January 30, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428196/evaluation-of-cellular-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-cytochrome-p450-cyp141-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-human-and-mouse-model
#14
Mahshid Salehi, Rahman Abdizadeh, Batoul Pourgheysari, Behnam Zamanzad, Amin Soltani, Abolfazl Gholipour, Reza Heidari
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is still considered one of the unsolved problems for the World Health Organization Identifying and selecting an immunogenic antigen capable of generating specific immune responses is generally the goal of all studies being carried out in to designing new vaccines. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of a M. tuberculosis recombinant protein which exist in the regions of the bacterium genome and may be an immunogenic protein. Immunogenicity of purified proteins was measured by PBMC and mouse spleen lymphocytes culturing methods using ELISA after an appropriate amount of time of incubation with Recombinant cytochrome P450 CYP141 protein...
February 7, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427373/advanced-cirrhosis-drives-enhanced-b-cell-differentiation-resulting-in-hyperglobulinemia
#15
Hiroyoshi Doi, Eiichi Hayashi, Jun Arai, Masayuki Tojo, Kenichi Morikawa, Junichi Eguchi, Takayoshi Ito, Tatsuya Kanto, David E Kaplan, Hitoshi Yoshida
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The mechanism underlying hyperglobulinemia in cirrhosis, a long appreciated phenomenon, has never been clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the basis for changes in humoral immunity observed in cirrhosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our medical record to analyze serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with liver disease. We also prospectively analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and sera from liver disease patients...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426321/systemic-autoinflammation-with-intractable-epilepsy-managed-with-interleukin-1-blockade
#16
Allen D DeSena, Thuy Do, Grant S Schulert
BACKGROUND: Autoinflammatory disorders are distinguished by seemingly random episodes of systemic hyperinflammation, driven in particular by IL-1. Recent pre-clinical work has shown a key role for IL-1 in epilepsy in animal models, and therapies for autoinflammation including IL-1 blockade are proposed for refractory epilepsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an adolescent female with signs of persistent systemic inflammation and epilepsy unresponsive to multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AED)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420849/expression-of-microrna-155-in-inflammatory-cells-modulates-liver-injury
#17
Delia Blaya, Beatriz Aguilar-Bravo, Fengjie Hao, Silvia Casacuberta-Serra, Mar Coll, Luis Perea, Júlia Vallverdú, Isabel Graupera, Elisa Pose, Laura Llovet, Jordi Barquinero, Francisco Javier Cubero, Juan Caballería, Pere Ginès, Pau Sancho-Bru
miR-155 is involved in immune and inflammatory diseases and is associated with liver fibrosis and steatohepatitis. However, the mechanisms involved in miR-155 regulation of liver injury are largely unknown. The role of miR-155 in acute liver injury was assessed in wild type (WT), miR-155-/- and miR-155-/- mice transplanted with WT bone marrow. Additionally, miR-155 expression was evaluated in liver tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Concanavalin A (ConA) but not acetaminophen (APAP) treatment increased the expression of miR-155 in liver tissue of WT mice...
February 8, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420643/immunophenotypic-characterization-of-human-t-cells-after-in-vitro-exposure-to-different-silicone-breast-implant-surfaces
#18
Giuseppe Cappellano, Christian Ploner, Susanne Lobenwein, Sieghart Sopper, Paul Hoertnagl, Christina Mayerl, Nikolaus Wick, Gerhard Pierer, Georg Wick, Dolores Wolfram
The most common complication of silicone breast implants is capsular contracture (massive scar formation around the implant). We postulate that capsular contracture is always a sequel to inflammatory processes, with both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms participating. In general, fibroblasts and macrophages have been used as cell types to evaluate in vitro the biocompatibility of breast implant surfaces. Moreover, also T cells have been found at the implant site at the initial stage of fibrous capsule formation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420357/acetyl-cholinesterase-inhibitors-and-cell-derived-peripheral-inflammatory-cytokines-in-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Nikolaos Kokras, Evangelia Stamouli, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Everina A Katirtzoglou, Kostas T Siarkos, Georgia Dalagiorgou, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Stavroula Coulocheri, Christina Piperi, Antonios M Politis
BACKGROUND: Clinical and preclinical studies firmly support the involvement of the inflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) being widely used in AD patients, there is no conclusive evidence about their impact on the inflammatory response. METHODS: This study investigates peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukins 1β [IL-1β] and 6 [IL-6]) by firstly comparing peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived secretion in drug-naïve and AChEI-treated AD patients versus healthy controls...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420090/lxr%C3%AE-is-expressed-at-higher-levels-in-healthy-people-compared-to-atherosclerosis-patients-and-its-over-expression-polarizes-macrophages-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-m%C3%AE-2-phenotype
#20
Mengyuan Liu, Weijian Yang, Shuling Liu, Duncan Hock, Bohao Zhang, Ruth Ya Huo, Xiaoguang Tong, Hua Yan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the expression patterns of MΦ1 and MΦ2 phenotype markers of peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC)-derived macrophages in atherosclerosis patients and healthy controls, as well as the expression correlation among these genes. (2) To elucidate whether a high level of liver X receptor α (LXRα) expression is associated with anti-inflammatory MΦ2-type polarization. DESIGN: Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were obtained from 28 patients with carotid artery plaques and 10 normal persons, who did not have carotid artery plaques...
February 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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