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Christina Boeck, Anja Maria Gumpp, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Christiane Waller, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with an increased risk for the development of psychiatric and somatic diseases in later life. Individual risk and resilience factors may, however, influence how deep psychological stress gets under the skin. We hypothesized that the stress-related hormone cortisol and the attachment-related hormone oxytocin constitute biological factors that might moderate the biological sequelae and long-term health outcomes associated with CM. As biological outcome, we thereby focused on immunocellular oxygen consumption, which we previously found to be increased with a higher severity of CM experiences...
June 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Xiaoli Meng, Daniel Yerly, Dean J Naisbitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed-type or nonimmediate drug hypersensitivity reactions often involve the activation of drug-specific T cells. As such, the molecular initiating event is an interaction between HLA proteins, HLA-binding peptides and the drug. For many years, the formation of covalently modified drug protein adducts was assumed to be a prerequisite for T-cell activation. The purpose of this article is to review recent studies using human PBMC, T-cell lines and clones, which show that drugs are in fact loaded onto HLA molecules in different forms to activate T cells...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yang Lei, Lang Lei, Yunbing Wang, Sasha A Singh, Elena Aikawa
Vascular calcification contributes to clinical mortality and morbidity. One possible mechanism for vascular calcification is lack of functional osteoclast formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we seek to discover novel regulators of osteoclastogenesis with the aim to reduce vascular calcification. We used quantitative proteomics and functional network analysis to identify novel proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-derived osteoclast model. In the current studies we focus on novel proteins in osteoclast ruffled border, a plasma membrane contacting the bone surface during bone resorption...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ashley E Mason, Frederick M Hecht, Jennifer J Daubenmier, David A Sbarra, Jue Lin, Patricia J Moran, Samantha G Schleicher, Michael Acree, Aric A Prather, Elissa S Epel
OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a weight-loss clinical trial for obesity, the impact of intervention arm, weight change, and weight-loss maintenance on telomere length (TL). METHODS: Adults (N=194) with a BMI between 30 and 45 were randomized to a 5.5-month weight-loss program with (n=100) or without (n=94) mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. We assessed TL at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline in immune cell populations (primarily in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs], but also in granulocytes and T and B lymphocytes)...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Léa Paolini, Caroline Poli, Simon Blanchard, Thierry Urban, Anne Croué, Marie-Christine Rousselet, Sarah Le Roux, Nathalie Labarrière, Pascale Jeannin, José Hureaux
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) target T cell inhibitory pathways that are responsible for cancer tolerance by down-modulating immune functions. ICI have revolutionized patients care with lung cancer. Nevertheless, restoring endogenous antitumor T-cell responses can induce immune related adverse events, such as sarcoidosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here the first case of a thoracic and cutaneous sarcoid-like reaction in a patient with a relapsing unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 mAb...
June 13, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Paulina López, Andrea Castro, Martha Flórez, Karen Miranda, Pilar Aranda, Cristina Sánchez-González, Juan Llopis, Miguel Arredondo
Obesity is characterized by mild chronic inflammation that is linked with impaired iron homeostasis. Studies in human and murine show that there is a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes in obesity; however, there is little information on changes in the expression of microRNAs related to inflammation and iron homeostasis in spermatozoa from obese subjects. The present study investigated the expression of microRNAs related to inflammation (miR-21 y miR-155) and iron nutrition (miR-122 and miR-200b) in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and spermatozoa from normozoospermic controls (Cn; n = 17; BMI: 24...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jorge Gallego-Valle, Verónica Astrid Pérez-Fernández, Rafael Correa-Rocha, Marjorie Pion
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) participate in auto-tolerance maintenance and immune homeostasis. Despite their impact on many diseases and due to the difficulty to define them, knowledge about their origin and their physiological inducers is still unclear. The incomplete understanding about the generation of Bregs and their limited numbers in periphery make it difficult to develop Breg-based therapy. Therefore, identifying factors that promote their development would allow their ex-vivo production in order to create new immunotherapy...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Floriane Groell, Olivier Jordan, Gerrit Borchard
Immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins is routinely performed through various techniques during the drug development process: (i) in silico to design the least immunogenic protein possible, (ii) in vitro using mainly classic 2D assays with PBMC-derived cells or immune cell lines to follow protein uptake, immune cell maturation and pro-inflammatory cytokines released, (iii) in vitro using 3D models of the human immune lymphatic system or full-thickness skin, (iv) and finally in vivo with preclinical and clinical studies...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Emmanouil Papasavvas, Steven M Lada, Jocelin Joseph, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Livio Azzoni, Karam Mounzer, Jay R Kostman, Douglas Richman, Luis J Montaner
OBJECTIVE: The impact of short-term analytical antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruptions on the levels of cellular HIV and of residual activation after subsequent ART-mediated plasma HIV viral load re-suppression remains under active investigation. DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 23 ART-suppressed, chronically HIV-1-infected subjects were evaluated at the initiation of an analytical treatment interruption (ATI), during ATI, and following plasma re-suppression of HIV with ART...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Rajkumar Paul, Sandeep Jaiswal, Natarajan Mahalakshmi, Perumal Kaliraj
Human lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne neglected tropical parasitic disease, needs an early development of prophylactic agents such as a vaccine for its successful elimination. Our earlier study suggested the enhanced immunological response by fusion protein (P-TUFT-ALT-2) of Tuftsin and ALT-2 in a mice model. We cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and treated cells with Escherichia coli -expressed ALT-2 (E-ALT-2) and P-TUFT-ALT-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the mRNA copy number of various cytokine and transcription factor genes...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Karl A Brokstad, Marita Fredriksen, Fan Zhou, Brith Bergum, Johan G Brun, Rebecca J Cox, Kathrine Skarstein
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by exocrine gland dysfunction, mainly causing sicca symptoms. B cells have a prominent role in SS, and the T follicular helper (TFH ) cells provide B cells with survival- and specialization signals in germinal centers. Here we investigate peripheral TFH cells in pSS. Sixteen pSS patients and healthy controls were enrolled in the study, with thirteen women and three men in each group. Whole blood was collected and separated into PBMC and plasma, followed by cryopreservation...
June 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Kathleen Weigt, Alexandra Wiessner, Annette Moter, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Kristina Allers, Thomas Schneider, Verena Moos
INTRODUCTION: Chronic infection with Tropheryma whipplei, known as Whipple's disease (WD), classically affects the gastrointestinal tract, but any organ system may be affected, and isolated manifestations occur. Reliable diagnosis based on a combination of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, T. whipplei-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from duodenal biopsies may be challenging in cases without classical gastrointestinal infection, so the need for additional diagnostic materials is urgent...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Bei Cao, Yongping Chen, Qingqing Zhou, Lingyu Zhang, Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Ying Wu, Hui-Fang Shang
Background: Given the overlap of clinical manifestations and pathological characteristics between Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), we investigated the associations between five functional polymorphisms of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 ( NOD2 ) which were associated with PD, and MSA in a Chinese population. Methods: A cohort of 431 MSA patients and 441 unrelated healthy controls (HCs) were included in the study. Five polymorphisms in NOD2 , including P268S, R702W, G908R, 1007fs, and rs3135500, were genotyped...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jaqueline Poleto Bragato, Larissa Martins Melo, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Gabriela Torres Rebech, Leandro Encarnação Garcia, Flavia Lombardi Lopes, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
This paper contains data on differentially expressed miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania ( L. ) infantum compared to healthy dogs. In recent years, studies with miRNAs have shown that these molecules play a critical role in the regulation and function of immune response.Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by microarray, validated by real time PCR and compared with parasite load in the dogs. Targets and pathways were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis program...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Meng Li, Betty C A M van Esch, Paul A J Henricks, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Background and Aim: Previously, we found that short chain fatty acids (SCFA) inhibit LPS or TNFα-induced endothelial inflammatory responses and excessive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, two important steps in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. We hypothesized that the effects of SCFA are associated with activation of G-protein coupled receptor 41/43 (GPR41/43) and/or inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Methods: The expression and location of GPR41/43 and HDAC3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were confirmed...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Janko Ignjatovic, Urban Svajger, Matjaz Ravnikar, Peter Molek, Darko Zadravec, Alenka Paris, Borut Strukelj
BACKGROUND: Development of new recombinant biotechnology products has greatly expanded in the field of modern pharmacy and medicine. Since biological recombinant molecules are sensitive, simple or composed proteins, their function is heavily dependent of their structure. In addition to their efficacy, biological medicinal products could show side effects such as immunogenicity. METHODS: Therefore, detection and characterization of protein structural variants is essential during development and quality control of therapeutic proteins that might trigger immunogenic response in organism...
June 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Timothy C Granade, Maja Kodani, Susan K Wells, A S Youngpairoj, Silvina Masciotra, Kelly M Curtis, Saleem Kamili, S Michele Owen
Real-time PCR assays for nucleic acid testing (NAT) of hepatitis viruses A-E and for HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been developed; however, a multiplex assay that can simultaneously detect all of these agents is not yet available. Standardized TaqMan assays for detection of hepatitis viruses A-E have been described and applied to TaqMan Array Cards (TAC) which are capable of multiple pathogen detection using a single set of optimized PCR conditions. Assays for three gene regions of HIV-1 (long-terminal repeat (LTR), gag, and polymerase) and HIV-2 (overlap of LTR and gag, protease and integrase) were designed using the hepatitis assay conditions...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Sandra Fernandes, Neetu Srivastava, Raki Sudan, Frank A Middleton, Amandeep K Shergill, James C Ryan, William G Kerr
In our previous study, we observed a severe reduction in the Src homology 2-containing-inositol-phosphatase-1 (SHIP1) protein in a subpopulation of subjects from a small adult Crohn's Disease (CD) cohort. This pilot study had been undertaken since we had previously demonstrated that engineered deficiency of SHIP1 in mice results in a spontaneous and severe CD-like ileitis. Here, we extend our analysis of SHIP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a second much larger adult Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) cohort, comprised of both CD and Ulcerative Colitis patients, to assess contribution of SHIP1 to the pathogenesis of human IBD...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yu-Hua Chao, Chiao-Wen Lin, Hui-Hsien Pan, Shun-Fa Yang, Te-Fu Weng, Ching-Tien Peng, Kang-Hsi Wu
BACKGROUND: Although immune-mediated pathogenesis is considered an important aspect of severe aplastic anemia (SAA), its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are essential to the formation of specialized microenvironments in the bone marrow (BM), and MSC insufficiency can trigger the development of SAA. METHODS: To find MSC alterations in the SAA BM, we compared BM MSCs from five children with SAA and five controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cocultured with MSCs to evaluate the supportive effects of MSCs on hematopoiesis...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Cristina Andreoli, Giorgio Leter, Barbara De Berardis, Paolo Degan, Isabella De Angelis, Francesca Pacchierotti, Riccardo Crebelli, Flavia Barone, Andrea Zijno
In the last years, a number of in vitro studies have been performed to assess the genotoxic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). To resolve the contradictory results, in this study, we investigated the genotoxic activity of commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles of different forms (anatase, rutile and mix of both). We evaluated micronucleus formation in stimulated lymphocytes, as well as DNA strand breaks and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), a mixed population of lymphocytes and monocytes...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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