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Pregnancy marihuana

Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Marcos Ucha, Emilio Ambrosio
Marihuana is the most widely consumed illicit drug, even among adolescents and pregnant women. Given the critical developmental processes that occur in the adolescent and fetal nervous system, marihuana consumption during these stages may have permanent consequences on several brain functions in later adult life. Here, we review what is currently known about the long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure. The most consistent findings point to long-term impairments in cognitive function that are associated with structural alterations and disturbed synaptic plasticity...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
M B Rabinowitz, H L Needleman
Blood lead was measured at birth for 11,837 infants in Boston. Extensive maternal demographic, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics were recorded for 4354 of them. For 249 of these, intensive environmental sampling was done. Many medical factors were unrelated to blood lead, including diabetes, venereal diseases, preeclampsia, toxemia, hypertension, age, hematocrit, contraceptive use, presentation, type of delivery, fetal distress, premature rupture of membrane, blood type, gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score, jaundice, and mortality by one month...
February 1984: Biological Trace Element Research
A Cánovas-Conesa, V Gomariz-Peñalver, M F Sánchez-Sauco, D C Jaimes Vega, J A Ortega-García, M J Aranda García, J L Delgado Marín, A Trujillo Ascanio, F López Hernández, J I Ruiz Jimenez, C de Paco Matallana, O P Soldin, M Sánchez Solis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in early pregnancy maternal and the offspring's risk of gastroschisis. METHODS: Case-control study. We describe 11 cases of gastroschisis in the region of Murcia from 2007 to 2012 and 34 concurrent controls. At the time of diagnosis each of the cases completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) consisting of 98 items on the periconceptional diet. Confounding factors: smoking, exposure to cannabis / marihuana, age of the parents, BMI, income and educational level...
January 2013: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Albert Stuart Reece
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers...
July 2009: Clinical Toxicology
Nydia M Vélez, Inés E García, Lourdes García, Marta Valcárcel
BACKGROUND: Tobacco, alcohol and/or illicit drug use during pregnancy are risk factors for neonatal complications. In Puerto Rico, the Department of Health reports that 32% of pregnant women use alcohol and 3% use illicit drugs. Nineteen percent (19.1%) of newborns are born prematurely. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use during pregnancy in mothers of premature infants. METHODS: This study included the data of 218 mothers of premature infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Pediatric Hospital during 2002 to 2005 enrolled in an educational program...
September 2008: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Ester Fride
Recent research suggests that the endogenous cannabinoids ("endocannabinoids") and their cannabinoid receptors have a major influence during pre- and postnatal development. First, high levels of the endocannaboid anandamide and cannabinoid receptors are present in the preimplantation embryo and in the uterus, while a temporary reduction of anandamide levels is essential for embryonal implantation. In women accordingly, an inverse association has been reported between fatty acid amide hydrolase (the anandamide degrading enzyme) in human lymphocytes and miscarriage...
October 1, 2004: European Journal of Pharmacology
Peter A Fried, Barbara Watkinson, Robert Gray
Cognitive performance was examined in 145 thirteen- to sixteen-year-old adolescents for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing, longitudinal study. The assessment battery included tests of general intelligence, achievement, memory, and aspects of executive functioning (EF). Consistent with results obtained at earlier ages, the strongest relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and cognitive variables was seen with overall intelligence and aspects of auditory functioning whereas prenatal exposure to marihuana was negatively associated with tasks that required visual memory, analysis, and integration...
July 2003: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
T Wenger, G Moldrich
The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of several visceral processes, including food intake, thermoregulation and control of anterior pituitary secretion. Endogenous cannabinoids and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors have been found in the hypothalamus. In the present review, we would like to clarify the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the above-mentioned visceral functions. There is historical support for the role of marihuana (i.e. exogenous cannabinoids) in the regulation of appetite...
February 2002: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
P A Fried
BACKGROUND: Behavioral teratology, particularly as it is applied to the evaluation of cognition and behavior of children beyond the toddler stage, has become an area of burgeoning activity. In the area of drug abuse, children exposed in utero are often at developmental peril because of non-drug pre- and postnatal risk factors that make a causal association between the drug of interest and a behavioral teratogenic outcome increasingly problematic as the child gets older. METHODS: In the first portion of this review, the strategies that behavioral teratologists have undertaken to investigate the putative consequences of in utero exposure are discussed in terms of research design, statistical methods and interpretative approaches...
January 2002: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
P A Fried, D S James, B Watkinson
Weight, height, head circumference, and pubertal milestones were examined in one hundred fifty-two 13- to 16-year-old adolescents for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing, longitudinal study and whose growth has been monitored since birth. The weight of the 13- to 16-year-old children of heavy cigarette smokers, after statistical adjustment, did not differ from control subjects but they had a significantly higher Ponderal Index (PI)...
September 2001: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
P A Fried, B Watkinson
Facets of attention were examined in 152 13- to 16-year-old adolescents for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample. The assessment battery included 11 variables derived from a Continuous Performance Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Stroop Test, a number of memory tasks and four subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. A principal components analysis yielded a five-factor model that was highly concordant with a recent model of attention proposed by Mirsky...
September 2001: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
L Kukla, D Hrubá, M Tyrlík
The international longitudinal prospective ELSPAC study also includes women from the Czech Republic: the results sum up data from 4530 women from City of Brno and District of Znojmo who had different exposure to active and passive smoking. Anamnestic data were collected by fulfilling the internationally unified questionnaires during pregnancy and at the 2nd month after delivery. Gynaecologists, obstetricians and pediatricians, using the unified procedures, were collecting objective data in the course of the pregnancy, delivery, monitoring health status of women and newborns...
May 2001: Central European Journal of Public Health
P A Fried, A M Smith
In spite of marihuana being the most widely used illegal drug among women of reproductive age, there is a relative paucity of literature dealing with the neurobehavioral consequences in offspring--particularly the longer-term effects. However, there is a degree of consistency in the limited data, both across cross-sectional reports and longitudinally, where offspring have been followed for a number of years. Two cohort studies fall into the latter category; one involving a low-risk sample and, the other, a high-risk sample...
January 2001: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
M C Esmer, G Rodriguez-Soto, D Carrasco-Daza, M L Iracheta, V Del Castillo
The case of a girl with cloverleaf skull (CLS) and multiple congenital anomalies is reported. Both parents have a history of drug use. Maternal cocaine abuse during the first trimester of pregnancy was obvious, and other drugs, such as marihuana and alcohol, were also taken by the mother. Many central nervous system malformations have been reported in association with cocaine abuse, the most severe being midline defects and neural tube defects. To our knowledge this is the first case reported of CLS anomaly associated with drug exposure...
March 2000: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
P A Fried, B Watkinson
Visuoperceptual performance was examined in 146 9- to 12-year old children for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, were from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample. The tasks ranged in complexity from those that required basic visuoperceptual skills to those that required considerable integration and cognitive manipulation of such skills. Trend analysis revealed a dose dependent negative association between prenatal cigarette exposure and an overall score reflecting basic visuoperceptual functioning...
January 2000: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
T Wenger, B E Tóth, C Juanéda, J Leonardelli, G Tramu
It has been shown that the main psychoactive component of marihuana, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has mainly inhibitory effects on the regulation of reproduction. Recently, the purification and availability of the endogenous ligand of the cannabinoid receptor, arachidonyl ethanolamide, anandamide, (ANA) and its specific long lasting antagonist, the SR 141716 (SR) provided us the opportunity to compare the effects of THC and ANA on the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. ANA decreases serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) levels in rats of both sexes...
1999: Life Sciences
P A Fried, B Watkinson, R Gray
Cognitive performance was examined in 131 9-12-year-old children for whom prenatal marihuana and cigarette exposure had been ascertained. The subjects, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, were from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample. The tasks included the WISC-III and a series of tests assessing aspects of cognition subsumed under the rubric of executive function. Consistent with results obtained at earlier ages, discriminant function analysis revealed a dose-dependent association, which remained after controlling for potential confounds (including secondhand smoke), between prenatal cigarette exposure and lower global intelligence scores with the verbal subtests of the WISC maximally discriminating among levels of in utero exposure...
May 1998: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
K A DeVille, L M Kopelman
Pregnant women who abuse drugs, such as alcohol, cocaine, and marihuana may face a variety of legal and social responses, including involuntary commitment, forced treatment, and criminal sanctions. These programs are intended to remedy apparent maternal-fetal conflicts but paradoxically may encourage some women to avoid beneficial medical and social services or to seek abortion. Although pregnant women have ethical duties to give due consideration to their offspring, these moral obligations fail to justify coercive and punitive programs regarding substance abuse...
March 1998: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
M J Lee
Marihuana and tobacco smoking are two of the most commonly abused substances in pregnancy. Smoke from both agents contain a multitude of potentially active components, which make them difficult to study. Both have been associated with adverse effects in pregnancy in animal and human studies. Data on marihuana use during pregnancy have been conflicting. There is much evidence, however, demonstrating adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with cigarette smoking which, fortunately, can be reversed with smoking cessation...
March 1998: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
T Wenger, G Fragkakis, P Giannikou, K Probonas, N Yiannikakis
The present study was to test whether the recently described endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor; arachidonyl-ethanolamide (anandamide, ANA), may produce similar effects on pregnancy as the main psychoactive component of marihuana: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. ANA, THC (0.02 mg/kg i.p./day, respectively) or vehicle were injected daily over the third week of pregnancy. The pregnant rats were either killed on day 21 of pregnancy or followed up to delivery. Results show a significant increase in the duration of pregnancy after both THC and ANA treatment...
1997: Life Sciences
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