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neuroretinal disorder

Katherine J Wert, Vinit B Mahajan, Lijuan Zhang, Yuanqing Yan, Yao Li, Joaquin Tosi, Chun Wei Hsu, Takayuki Nagasaki, Kerstin M Janisch, Maria B Grant, MaryAnn Mahajan, Alexander G Bassuk, Stephen H Tsang
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects approximately one-third of diabetic patients and, if left untreated, progresses to proliferative DR (PDR) with associated vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, iris neovascularization, glaucoma and irreversible blindness. In vitreous samples of human patients with PDR, we found elevated levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α). HIFs are transcription factors that promote hypoxia adaptation and have important functional roles in a wide range of ischemic and inflammatory diseases...
2016: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Nazli Demirkaya, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Thomas J T P van Den Berg, Katherine W Kooij, Maria Prins, Reinier O Schlingemann, Michael D Abramoff, Peter Reiss, Frank D Verbraak
PURPOSE: Loss of neuroretinal structure and function, ascribed to a 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder' (HIV-NRD), in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections, has been reported in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Whether HIV-infected individuals with prolonged well-suppressed infection remain at risk for HIV-NRD, is unknown. METHODS: Ninety-two HIV-infected men with suppressed viremia on cART for at least 12 months (HIV+) and 63 HIV-uninfected, highly comparable, male controls (HIV-), aged at least 45 years, underwent functional measurements of spatial (Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity [PR CS]) and temporal contrast sensitivity (TCS) and straylight, as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis measured total and individual retinal layer thickness...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Davin C Ashraf, K Patrick May, Gary N Holland, Mark L Van Natta, Albert W Wu, Jennifer E Thorne, Douglas A Jabs
PURPOSE: Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have evidence of optic nerve or retinal dysfunction that manifests as decreased contrast sensitivity, even with good best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). This condition, termed HIV-related neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), is a risk factor for vision impairment (BCVA <20/40), blindness (BCVA ≤20/200), and increased mortality. We investigated the effect of HIV-NRD on vision-specific quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective, observational study...
December 2015: Ophthalmology
Nazli Demirkaya, Ferdinand Wit, Reinier Schlingemann, Franciscus Verbraak
Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 counts<100 cells/μL are most at risk for neuroretinal damage, with a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, subtle loss of color vision and/or contrast sensitivity, visual field deficits, and subnormal electrophysiological responses...
October 2015: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Alfredo Niro, Sabino Strippoli, Giovanni Alessio, Luigi Sborgia, Nicola Recchimurzo, Michele Guida
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features and management of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor-associated ocular side effects in 4 patients with advanced melanoma and a review of literature. DESIGN: Interventional case series. METHODS: Four patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma were treated with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor as single therapy or together with a v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitor...
November 2015: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Hyun-Kyung Cho, Wool Suh, Changwon Kee
PURPOSE: To investigate the visual and structural prognosis of untreated initial non-glaucomatous fellow eyes of unilateral normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, 50 NTG patients with unilateral visual field (VF) loss and no VF defect, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect or neuroretinal rim (NRR) notching in the fellow eyes, and those who had initial non-glaucomatous fellow eyes untreated were included...
September 2015: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Nazli Demirkaya, Sophie Cohen, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Michael D Abramoff, Reinier O Schlingemann, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Dasja Pajkrt, Frank D Verbraak
PURPOSE: Subtle structural and functional neuroretinal changes have been described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults without retinitis treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, studies on this subject in HIV-infected children are scarce. This study aimed to assess the presence of (neuro)retinal functional and structural differences between a group of perinatally HIV-infected children on cART and age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and socioeconomically matched healthy controls...
June 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Samar Younes, Meriem Abdellaoui, Fadoua Zahir, Idriss Benatiya, Hicham Tahri
Neuroretinitis (NR) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by optic disc edema and subsequent formation of a macular star. We present a case of a 33 year old woman patient admitted for a progressive bilateral visual loss since two weeks. Fundus examination showed bilateral stellate neuroretinitis. Physical examination revealed a malignant hypertension of 210/150 mmHg. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a left suprarenal mass, whereas urinary catecholamine level was abnormally high which supported a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
Immanuel P Seitz, Ahmad Zhour, Susanne Kohl, Pablo Llavona, Tobias Peter, Barbara Wilhelm, Eberhart Zrenner, Marius Ueffing, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, M Dominik Fischer
PURPOSE: Choroideremia (CHM) is a X-chromosomal disorder leading to blindness by progressive degeneration of choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and retinal neurons. A current clinical gene therapy trial (NCT01461213) showed promising safety and efficacy data in a carefully selected patient population. The present study was performed to shed light on pre-treatment characteristics of a larger cohort of CHM patients using a high resolution multi-modal approach. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, data from 58 eyes of 29 patients with clinically confirmed CHM were analysed including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), perimetry, and tonometry...
December 2015: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Manuel Gonzalez de la Rosa, Marta Gonzalez-Hernandez, Silvia Alayon
PURPOSE: To compare direct morphologic measurements with the ones deduced from functional tests. METHODS: A total of 111 normal eyes (examined twice) and 112 consecutive eyes with suspected or confirmed glaucoma were analyzed using Spark strategy (Oculus Easyfield Perimeter) and Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). The threshold values were used to deduce the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in 25 sectors. They were also used to derive a normalized value of the neuroretinal rim area, correcting the influence of the optic disc area size, and expressing the result as a percentage of their normal average relation...
November 2015: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Douglas A Jabs, Lea Drye, Mark L Van Natta, Jennifer E Thorne, Gary N Holland
PURPOSE: Patients with AIDS have an abnormality of retina/optic nerve function, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity (in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity), abnormalities on automated perimetry, and loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, even among those with good visual acuity, termed the "human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neuroretinal disorder." The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of HIV neuroretinal disorder...
April 2015: Ophthalmology
Konstantinos Karampatsas, Himanshu Patel, Sheikh N Basheer, Andrew J Prendergast
A previously well 12-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of headache, nausea, vomiting and left-sided weakness. He subsequently developed meningism, right abducens nerve palsy, persistent papilloedema and reduced visual acuity in association with a bilateral macular star, consistent with neuroretinitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination indicated chronic meningitis and serological testing confirmed recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, although PCR in CSF was negative. He was treated for aseptic meningitis with ceftriaxone, aciclovir, azithromycin and acetazolamide for intracranial hypertension, with gradual improvement in clinical condition and visual acuity over several weeks...
2014: BMJ Case Reports
Neal M Rao, Pradeep S Prasad, Charles C Flippen, Aaron S Wagner, Catherine M Yim, Noriko Salamon, Harry V Vinters
A middle-aged woman who experienced recurrent episodes of unilateral vision loss and eye pain. On presentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left optic nerve enhancement with patchy hyperintensities in the white matter of both frontal lobes and ill-defined enhancement in a lenticulostriate distribution. Ophthalmologic examination revealed left optic disc edema with a macular scar consistent with neuroretinitis. Her subsequent clinical course was notable for 2 episodes of painful vision loss, without associated neurologic symptoms, which resolved with intravenous and oral steroids...
December 2014: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Masoud Soheilian, Ramin Nourinia, Ali Tavallali, Gholam A Peyman
PURPOSE: To describe an unusual case of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome associated with a positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test. METHODS: This is an interventional case report. A 22-year-old man with decreased vision underwent ophthalmoscopic, angiographic, and laboratory evaluation. The left eye underwent laser therapy due to circinate retinopathy and more severe involvement. RESULTS: Extensive systemic workup was negative...
2010: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Ketan Laud, Wael El-Haig, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and retinitis (IRVAN) with macroaneurysms confined to the optic disk. METHODS: A patient with IRVAN was examined with biomicroscopy and fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: IRVAN typically presents with macroaneurysms along the first- and second-order arterioles. Our patient presented with peripapillary lipid exudation and macroaneurysms limited to the optic nerve. The macroaneurysms were best appreciated with fluorescein angiography...
2008: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Kristina Narfström, Koren Holland Deckman, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond
Over 200 hereditary diseases have been identified and reported in the cat, several of which affect the eye, with homology to human hereditary disease. Compared with traditional murine models, the cat demonstrates more features in common with humans, including many anatomic and physiologic similarities, longer life span, increased size, and a genetically more heterogeneous background. The development of genomic resources in the cat has facilitated mapping and further characterization of feline models. During recent years, the wealth of knowledge in feline ophthalmology and neurophysiology has been extended to include new diseases of significant interest for comparative ophthalmology...
January 2013: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Masoud Soheilian, Ramin Nourinia, Ali Tavallali, Gholam A Peyman
PURPOSE: To describe an unusual case of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome associated with a positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test. METHODS: This is an interventional case report. A 22-year-old man with decreased vision underwent ophthalmoscopic, angiographic, and laboratory evaluation. The left eye underwent laser therapy due to circinate retinopathy and more severe involvement. RESULTS: Extensive systemic workup was negative...
September 2, 2009: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Soufiane Berradi, Zouheir Hafidi, Rajae Daoudi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Harsha L Rao, Ravi K Yadav, Uday K Addepalli, Viquar U Begum, Sirisha Senthil, Nikhil S Choudhari, Chandra S Garudadri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of the neuroretinal rim (NRR) rules determined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in diagnosing glaucoma and to study the effect of optic disc size and disease severity on the diagnostic ability of these rules. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 125 eyes of 96 glaucoma patients and 96 eyes of 72 control subjects underwent optic nerve head (ONH) imaging with SDOCT. Inferior (I), superior (S), nasal (N) and temporal (T) NRR areas were automatically determined by the sdoct software...
May 2015: Acta Ophthalmologica
Laura P Cohen, Louis R Pasquale
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder in which degenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGC) produce significant visual disability. Clinically, glaucoma refers to an array of conditions associated with variably elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that contributes to RGC loss via mechanical stress, vascular abnormalities, and other mechanisms, such as immune phenomena. The clinical diagnosis of glaucoma requires assessment of the ocular anterior segment with slit lamp biomicroscopy, which allows the clinician to recognize signs of conditions that can produce elevated IOP...
June 2014: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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