Read by QxMD icon Read

Brain mass

Steffen Dettling, Slava Stamova, Rolf Warta, Martina Schnölzer, Carmen Rapp, Anchana Rathinasamy, David Reuss, Kolja Pocha, Saskia Roesch, Christine Jungk, Uwe Warnken, Volker Eckstein, Niels Grabe, Christoph Schramm, Markus A Weigand, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Unterberg, Philipp Beckhove, Christel Herold-Mende
PURPOSE: Successful immunotherapies for IDH mut gliomas require better knowledge of T-cell target antigens. Here, we elucidated their antigen repertoire recognized by spontaneous T-cell responses using an unbiased proteomic approach. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Protein fractionations of tissue lysates from IDH mut gliomas (n=4) were performed. Fractions were tested by IFN-ᵯE; ELISpot assay for recognition through patient's T-cells. Proteins of immunogenic fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and validated by in silico-predicted synthetic long-peptides in patients of origin, additional IDH mut glioma patients (n=16), and healthy donors (n=13)...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann, Volker Baur, Jürgen Hänggi, Lutz Jäncke, Marco Piccirelli, Spyros Kollias, Ulrich Schnyder, Ofer Pasternak, Chantal Martin-Soelch, Gabriella Milos
BACKGROUND: Acute anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by reduced brain mass and corresponding increased sulcal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Recent studies of white matter using diffusion tensor imaging consistently identified alterations in the fornix, such as reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). However, because the fornix penetrates the ventricles, it is prone to cerebrospinal fluid-induced partial volume effects that interfere with a valid assessment of FA. We investigated the hypothesis that in the acute stage of AN, FA of the fornix is markedly affected by ventricular volumes...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Dillon F Da Fonte, Chris J Martyniuk, Lei Xing, Vance L Trudeau
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are the main macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis. They are the only brain cell type expressing aromatase B ( cyp19a1b ), the enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors. There are few studies on the regulation of RGC functions, but our previous investigations demonstrated that dopamine stimulates cyp19a1b expression in goldfish RGCs, while secretoneurin A (SNa) inhibits the expression of this enzyme. Here, we determine the range of proteins and cellular processes responsive to SNa treatments in these steroidogenic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marzieh Salimi, Saeed Sarkar, Samaneh Fathi, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Reza Saber, Fatemeh Moradi, Hamid Delavari
Background: The possibility of using a specific nanoparticle in nanomedicine highly depends on its biodistribution profile and biocompatibility. Due to growing demand for iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and dendrimers in biomedical applications, this study was performed to assess the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (G4 @IONPs). Materials and methods: IONPs were synthesized via co-precipitation and coated with the fourth generation (G4 ) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Marian Christoph Neidert, Daniel Johannes Kowalewski, Manuela Silginer, Konstantina Kapolou, Linus Backert, Lena Katharina Freudenmann, Janet Kerstin Peper, Ana Marcu, Sophie Shih-Yüng Wang, Juliane Sarah Walz, Fabian Wolpert, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Reinhard Henschler, Katrin Lamszus, Manfred Westphal, Patrick Roth, Luca Regli, Stefan Stevanović, Michael Weller, Günter Eisele
Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. In a hierarchical tumor model, glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) play a major role in tumor initiation and maintenance as well as in therapy resistance and recurrence. Thus, targeting this cellular subset may be key to effective immunotherapy. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based analysis of HLA-presented peptidomes of GSC and glioblastoma patient specimens. Based on the analysis of patient samples (n = 9) and GSC (n = 3), we performed comparative HLA peptidome profiling against a dataset of normal human tissues...
March 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Feng Fu, Xiang Zhu, Zhe Qin, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Li-Na Wang, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Rui-Xin Li, Xiao-Hong Li, Ming-Liang Zhao
Degradation rate is an important index for evaluating biomaterials. The authors' aim was to determine whether the degradation rate of biomaterials is different in distinct tissues and to clarify the underlying mechanism of degradation. The collagen-chitosan (CG-CS) composite scaffolds were prepared using freeze-drying technology. The porosity, water absorption and swelling ratio of the scaffolds were tested in vitro. The scaffolds were implanted into the subcutis, spinal cord and brain tissues of SD rats, the rate of degradation was assessed by continuous monitoring of weight loss, the pathological changes of target areas were observed by histological staining, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and lysozyme were detected at the rapid stage of degradation of the scaffolds...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Nikita M Bajwa, Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Subburaman Mohan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term cognitive, behavioral, affective deficits, and increase neurodegenerative diseases. It is only in recent years that there is growing awareness that TBI even in its milder form poses long-term health consequences to not only the brain but to other organ systems. Also, the concept that hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate in the hypothalamus play key roles in regulating skeletal system is gaining recognition based on recent mouse genetic studies. Accordingly, many TBI patients have also presented with hormonal dysfunction, increased skeletal fragility, and increased risk of skeletal diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Abhilasha Siyag, Tej P Soni, Anil K Gupta, Lalit M Sharma, Naresh Jakhotia, Shantanu Sharma
Plasmacytoma of the skull-base is a rare entity. Differential diagnosis includes chordoma, osteosarcoma, carcinoma nasopharynx, meningioma, metastatic carcinoma, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Accurate and precise diagnosis is extremely important for plasmacytoma of the skull-base as its treatment and prognosis is different from other skull-base lesions. A 41-year-old man presented with concerns of headache, diplopia, and left eye strabismus. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of his brain showed a large expansile mass measuring 51 mm involving the clivus and central skull-base...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Tomoya Suzuki, Shogo Kaku, Kengo Nishimura, Akihiko Teshigawara, Yuichi Sasaki, Ken Aoki, Toshihide Tanaka, Kostadin Karagiozov, Yuichi Murayama
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of VA thrombosed giant aneurysms requires to achieve both obliteration of the parent artery to prevent bleeding and dome thrombectomy to relieve the brain stem from mass effect. To secure both proximal and distal control of complex VA aneurysms, contralateral approach to the aneurysm might be a useful alternative as previously described. We successfully treated a case of VA thrombosed giant aneurysm in a new original way by combining craniotomy (ipsilateral and contralateral) and endovascular technique...
March 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shelley N Jackson, Ludovic Muller, Aurelie Roux, Berk Oktem, Eugene Moskovets, Vladimir M Doroshenko, Amina S Woods
Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is widely used as a unique tool to record the distribution of a large range of biomolecules in tissues. 2,6-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHA) matrix has been shown to provide efficient ionization of lipids, especially gangliosides. The major drawback for DHA as it applies to MS imaging is that it sublimes under vacuum (low pressure) at the extended time necessary to complete both high spatial and mass resolution MSI studies of whole organs...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Jose M Sanchez Bornot, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Alwani Liyana Ahmad, Girijesh Prasad
The brain's functional connectivity (FC) estimated at sensor level from electromagnetic (EEG/MEG) signals can provide quick and useful information towards understanding cognition and brain disorders. Volume conduction (VC) is a fundamental issue in FC analysis due to the effects of instantaneous correlations. FC methods based on the imaginary part of the coherence (iCOH) of any two signals are readily robust to VC effects, but neglecting the real part of the coherence leads to negligible FC when the processes are truly connected but with zero or π-phase (modulus 2π) interaction...
March 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Xiaoqun Zhang, Ioannis Mantas, Alexandra Alvarsson, Takashi Yoshitake, Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Marcela Pereira, Anna Nilsson, Jan Kehr, Per E Andrén, Mark J Millan, Karima Chergui, Per Svenningsson
The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is expressed by dopaminergic neurons, but the precise influence of trace amines upon their functional activity remains to be fully characterized. Here, we examined the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) compared to 3-iodothyronamine (T1 AM). Immunoblotting and amperometry were performed in dorsal striatal slices from wild-type (WT) and TAAR1 knockout (KO) mice. T1 AM increased TH phosphorylation at both Ser19 and Ser40 , actions that should promote functional activity of TH...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yi Zheng, Wei Shen, Jian Zhang, Bo Yang, Yao-Nan Liu, Huihui Qi, Xia Yu, Si-Yao Lu, Yun Chen, Yu-Zhou Xu, Yun Li, Fred H Gage, Shuangli Mi, Jun Yao
In the version of this article initially published, the affiliation for Jian Zhang and Shuangli Mi was incomplete. In addition to the Key Laboratory of Genomics and Precision Medicine, they are also affiliated with the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. In Supplementary Fig. 1h,l, the molecular mass marker accompanying Snap25 was labeled 58 kDa; the correct value is 25 kDa. In Supplementary Fig. 9b,c, the top panel was labeled Syt1, with molecular mass markers ranging from 46 to 100 kDa; it is actually Snap25, with molecular mass markers ranging from 17 to 46 kDa...
March 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Yanting Wang, Wenxian Lan, Zhenzhen Yan, Jing Gao, Xinlian Liu, Sheng Wang, Xiying Guo, Chunxi Wang, Hu Zhou, Jiuping Ding, Chunyang Cao
Large-conductance Ca2+ - and voltage-dependent K+ (BK) channels display diverse biological functions while their pore-forming α subunit is coded by a single Slo1 gene. The variety of BK channels is correlated with the effects of BKα coexpression with auxiliary β (β1-β4) subunits, as well as newly defined γ subunits. Charybdotoxin (ChTX) blocks BK channel through physically occluding the K+ -conduction pore. Human brain enriched β4 subunit (hβ4) alters the conductance-voltage curve, slows activation and deactivation time courses of BK channels...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Georges Al-Helou, Nardos Temesgen, Jonathan Gwizdala, Jalil Ahari
Our patient is a 69-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with left-sided hemiparesis that started 4 hours prior to presentation. Brain CT showed right basal ganglia and internal capsule haemorrhagic strokes. MRI revealed multiple brain lesions suspicious for metastases. Further workup revealed a 5 cm lung mass and a 1 cm pancreatic nodule. Biopsy of both pulmonary and pancreatic lesions was consistent with melanoma and was similar histologically. The patient underwent cyberknife stereotactic radiosurgery to the brain metastases followed by immunotherapy with pembrolizumab, and then by nivolumab and ipilimumab...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sarah Caughlin, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Aaron J Harris, Kristina Jurcic, Ken K-C Yeung, David F Cechetto, Shawn N Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rong-Ming Lyu, Alan Cowan, Ying Zhang, Yi-Hung Chen, Siok L Dun, Jaw-Kang Chang, Nae J Dun, Jin Jun Luo
In this brief review we summarize the current fndings relative to the discovery of a small peptide ligand, phoenixin (PNX). Using a bioinformatic approach, two novel peptides PNX-14 and PNX-20 containing 14 and 20 amino acids, respectively, were isolated from diverse tissues including the brain, heart, lung and stomach. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a major and minor peak corresponding to PNX-14 and PNX-20, in rat or mouse spinal cord extracts. With the use of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum, phoenixin immunoreactivity (irPNX) was detected in discrete areas of the rodent brain including several hypothalamic subnuclei and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ji Yong Choi, Cheol Young Choi
This study was conducted to identify the possible effect of recombinant vertebrate ancient long (VAL) opsin as a non-visual "photoreceptor" in the deep brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus. In addition, we investigated the effects of green-wavelength light on the predictable reproductive function of VAL-opsin as a green-sensitive pigment in the deep brain. To determine this, we quantified changes in gonadotropin hormone (GTH) [GTHα, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estrogen receptor (ER; ERα and ERβ) mRNA expression levels associated with goldfish reproduction as well as changes in plasma FSH, LH, and 17β-estradiol (E2 ) activities after injection of recombinant VAL-opsin protein in two concentrations (0...
March 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"