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Brain mass

David J Cote, Heloise M Dubois, Aditya V Karhade, Timothy R Smith
Background Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain tumor have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry, patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor from 2006 and 2014 were analyzed to identify risk factors for postoperative VTE. Methods The study population, identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes, included all NSQIP-reported patients who underwent a craniotomy for brain tumor resection. Results There were 629 instances of VTE among 19,409 craniotomies for brain tumor (3...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Xiao Gao, Xiao Deng, Xin Wen, Ying She, Petra Corianne Vinke, Hong Chen
Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20...
2016: PloS One
Christoph W Turck, Christian Webhofer, Markus Nussbaumer, Larysa Teplytska, Alon Chen, Giuseppina Maccarrone, Michaela D Filiou
PURPOSE: In this work we discuss how in vivo (15) N metabolic labeling in combination with mass spectrometry simultaneously provides information on protein expression and protein turnover. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We metabolically labeled mice with the stable nitrogen isotope (15) N using a (15) N-enriched diet and analyzed (15) N-labeled vs. unlabeled ((14) N) brain tissue with LC-MS/MS. We then compared the (14) N vs.(15) N peptide isotopologue clusters of (14) N and (15) N-labeled Dihydropyrimidinase-related (DPYSL) proteins...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
T Jayasena, A Poljak, N Braidy, L Zhong, B Rowlands, J Muenchhoff, R Grant, G Smythe, C Teo, M Raftery, P Sachdev
Sirtuin proteins have a variety of intracellular targets, thereby regulating multiple biological pathways including neurodegeneration. However, relatively little is currently known about the role or expression of the 7 mammalian sirtuins in the central nervous system. Western blotting, PCR and ELISA are the main techniques currently used to measure sirtuin levels. To achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity in a multiplex-format, a targeted mass spectrometric assay was developed and validated for the quantification of all seven mammalian sirtuins (SIRT1-7)...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yanhan Liu, Pan Hao, Xiao Zhang, Xiaona Zhao, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of chromic chloride (CrCl3) on Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in the brain and serum of chicken. Seventy-two chickens were randomly divided into four groups and treated with different doses of CrCl3 via drinking water: 0, 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 LD50 for 42 days. The contents of the elements were evaluated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that Cr contents in the brain and serum were higher than those in the control groups, although no significant dose-dependent changes (P > 0...
October 19, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Jeroen Aerts, Annelies Laeremans, Laurens Minerva, Kurt Boonen, Budamgunta Harshavardhan, Rudi D'hooge, Dirk Valkenborg, Geert Baggerman, Lutgarde Arckens
The Morris water maze (MWM) spatial learning task has been demonstrated to involve a cognitive switch of action control to serve the transition from an early towards a late learning phase. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this switch are largely unknown. We employed MALDI MS imaging (MSI) to screen for changes in expression of small proteins in brain structures implicated in the different learning phases. We compared mice trained for 3days and 30days in the MWM, reflecting an early and a late learning phase in relation to the acquisition of a spatial learning task...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fernando J Sialana, Peter Gulyassy, Peter Májek, Evelina Sjöstedt, Viktor Kis, André C Müller, Elena L Rudashevskaya, Jan Mulder, Keiryn L Bennett, Gert Lubec
The molecular composition of synaptic signal transduction machineries shapes synaptic neurotransmission. The repertoire of receptors, transporters and channels (RTCs) comprises major signaling events in the brain. RTCs are conventionally studied by candidate immunohistochemistry and biochemistry, which are low throughput with resolution greatly affected by available immunoreagents and membrane interference. Therefore, a comprehensive resource of synaptic brain RTCs is still lacking. In particular, studies on the detergent-soluble synaptosomal fraction, known to contain transporters and channels, are limited...
October 19, 2016: Proteomics
M Dolera, L Malfassi, S Pavesi, S Finesso, M Sala, N Carrara, S Marcarini, G Mazza, C Bianchi, G Urso
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy in treating canine adrenal tumours with vascular invasion. METHODS: A single-arm clinical study was performed. The dogs underwent total body computed tomography, brain and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging and endocrine assay. Adrenal masses were classified as cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour or non-secreting adrenal tumour. Radiotherapy treatments were delivered by hypofractionated stereotactic volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy via a linear accelerator...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Ji-Won Lee, Bill X Huang, HeungSun Kwon, Md Abdur Rashid, Giorgi Kharebava, Abhishek Desai, Samarjit Patnaik, Juan Marugan, Hee-Yong Kim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is an omega-3 fatty acid essential for proper brain development. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide), an endogenous metabolite of DHA, potently promotes neurogenesis, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. Here, we demonstrate orphan G-protein coupled receptor 110 (GPR110, ADGRF1) as the synaptamide receptor, mediating synaptamide-induced bioactivity in a cAMP-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic characterization and cellular fluorescence tracing with chemical analogues of synaptamide reveal specific binding of GPR110 to synaptamide, which triggers cAMP production with low nM potency...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Ester Pagano, Raffaele Capasso, Fabiana Piscitelli, Barbara Romano, Olga A Parisi, Stefania Finizio, Anna Lauritano, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Angelo A Izzo, Francesca Borrelli
Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ceren Kizmazoglu, Joung H Lee, Burak Sade
BACKGROUND: This paper describes a case of 4th ventricular mass, whose management had to be modified due to a rare variation of the occipital sinus (OS). CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: 32 year-old female presented with persistent headache and nausea. MRI showed a 4th ventricular mass and hydrocephalus. Venous sinus anatomy appeared unusual, thus an MRV was performed. MRV revealed the OS as the main drainage pathway for the whole brain, providing the only drainage between the superior sagittal sinus and the jugular veins through the marginal sinus (MS)...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Li Kheng Chai, Tracy Burrows, Chris May, Katherine Brain, Denise Wong See, Clare Collins
The main objective of this umbrella review is to identify the effectiveness of family-based interventions that target overweight or obesity in children aged 18 years and under. The umbrella review intends to compare and summarize existing systematic reviews of experimental studies that address a range of family-based interventions for overweight children. Family-based is defined as the involvement of first- or second-degree relatives or carers who are cohabiting under one roof. The second objective of this umbrella review is to identify strategies that are effective in improving children's body weight or body mass index (primary outcomes) and, where applicable, changes in child/family behavior, including dietary intake or physical activity...
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Hendrik Lehnert, Carla Schulz
Nesfatin-1 was identified in 2006 as a potent anorexigenic peptide involved in the regulation of homeostatic feeding. It is processed from the precursor-peptide NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) which is expressed both in the central nervous system as well as in the periphery, from where it can access the brain via non-saturable transmembrane diffusion. In hypothalamus and brainstem, nesfatin-1 recruits the oxytocin-, the melancortin- and other systems to relay its anorexigenic properties. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 peptide expression in reward-related areas suggests that nesfatin-1 might also be involved in hedonic feeding...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Yan Wang, Jin Zhang, Yuesheng Qian, Xiaofeng Tang, Huawei Ling, Kemin Chen, Pingjin Gao, Dingliang Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians, whereas whites tend to have more extracranial lesions. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been associated with ischemic stroke by a large amount of work. However, there are few studies focusing on the relationship of Lp-PLA2 and asymptomatic ICAS or extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS). We hereby sought to explore the relationship of Lp-PLA2 and ICAS, ECAS and concurrent stenosis in stroke-free hypertensive patients in Chinese population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Keiji Matsumoto, Yoshitaka Suetsugu, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Toyomi Kotaki, Shin G Goto, Tetsuro Shinoda, Sakiko Shiga
Juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis is inhibited under short-day conditions in the brown-winged green bug Plautia stali. We investigated allatostatic molecules in the brain of P. stali. Methanol brain extracts strongly inhibited JH biosynthesis. The allatostatic activities of the brain extracts were heat stable but gently suppressed by trypsin treatment, indicating that the allatostatic molecules were peptides. Grybi-MIP1, found in Gryllus bimaculatus as an allatostatic molecule, inhibited JH biosynthesis in P...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Michael M Neeki, Christine Au, Aurora Richard, Carlos Peace, Sharon Jaques, Jens Johansson
PURPOSE: We aimed to describe a case of an incarcerated adolescent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting as acute psychosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case report followed with chart and literature review. MAIN FINDINGS: An adolescent with ADEM presented with drastic behavior and personality changes that led to her incarceration for serious charges. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis leads to neuropsychiatric effects and can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging as a large mass effect that may result in a poor prognosis...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Avik Roy, Madhuchhanda Kundu, Malabendu Jana, Rama K Mishra, Yeni Yung, Chi-Hao Luan, Frank J Gonzalez, Kalipada Pahan
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) regulates hepatic fatty acid catabolism and mediates the metabolic response to starvation. Recently we found that PPARα is constitutively activated in nuclei of hippocampal neurons and controls plasticity via direct transcriptional activation of CREB. Here we report the discovery of three endogenous PPARα ligands-3-hydroxy-(2,2)-dimethyl butyrate, hexadecanamide, and 9-octadecenamide-in mouse brain hippocampus. Mass spectrometric detection of these compounds in mouse hippocampal nuclear extracts, in silico interaction studies, time-resolved FRET analyses, and thermal shift assay results clearly indicated that these three compounds served as ligands of PPARα...
October 17, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Laszlo Prokai, Petr Fryčák, Vien Nguyen, Michael J Forster
We report the evaluation of several mass spectrometry-based methods for the determination of carisoprodol and meprobamate in samples obtained from the rat brain by in vivo intracranial microdialyis. Among the techniques that aspire to perform analyses without chromatographic separation and thereby increase throughput, chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization and the use of an atmospheric pressure solids analysis probe fell short of requirements because of insufficient detection sensitivity and hard ionization, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Charlene Steinhausen, Lyuba Zehl, Michaela Haas-Rioth, Kerstin Morcinek, Wolfgang Walkowiak, Stefan Huggenberger
The general assumption that brain size differences are an adequate proxy for subtler differences in brain organization turned neurobiologists toward the question why some groups of mammals such as primates, elephants, and whales have such remarkably large brains. In this meta-analysis, an extensive sample of eutherian mammals (115 species distributed in 14 orders) provided data about several different biological traits and measures of brain size such as absolute brain mass (AB), relative brain mass (RB; quotient from AB and body mass), and encephalization quotient (EQ)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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