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distal convoluted tubule

Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Michael A Bohl, James Forseth, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A series of six neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Birgitte M Christensen
Renal Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is expressed in early distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 1 and late DCT (DCT2). NCC activity can be stimulated by aldosterone, and the mechanism is assumed to depend on the enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which inactivates glucocorticoids that would otherwise occupy aldosterone receptors. Because 11β-HSD2 in rat may only be abundantly expressed in DCT2 cells and not in DCT1 cells, it has been speculated that aldosterone specifically stimulates NCC activity in DCT2 cells...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
X Liu, R S Edinger, C A Klemens, Y L Phua, A J Bodnar, W A LaFramboise, J Ho, M B Butterworth
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules and cortical collecting duct (CCD) in the kidney nephron. Under the regulation of the steroid hormone aldosterone, ENaC is a major determinant of sodium (Na(+) ) and water balance. The ability of aldosterone to regulate microRNAs (miRs) in the kidney has recently been realized, but the role of miRs in Na(+) regulation has not been well established. Here we demonstrate that expression of a miR cluster mmu-miR-23∼24∼27, is upregulated in the CCD by aldosterone stimulation both in vitro and in vivo...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Pablo A Ortiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Hypertension
Erika Moreno, Consuelo Plata, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gama, Eduardo R Argaiz, Norma Vázquez, Karla Leyva-Ríos, León Islas, Christopher Cutler, Diana Pacheco-Alvarez, Adriana Mercado, Raquel Cariño, María Castañeda-Bueno, Gerardo Gamba
The thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter NCC is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian distal convoluted tubule. NCC plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure. Its inhibition with thiazides constitutes primary baseline therapy for arterial hypertension. However, the thiazide-binding site in NCC is unknown. Mammals have only one gene encoding for NCC. The eel, however, contains a duplicate gene. NCCα is an ortholog of mammalian NCC and is expressed in the kidney. NCCβ is present in the apical membrane of the rectum...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Francesco Trepiccione, Christelle Soukaseum, Anna Iervolino, Federica Petrillo, Miriam Zacchia, Gunther Schütz, Dominique Eladari, Giovambattista Capasso, Juliette Hadchouel
The distal nephron is a heterogeneous part of the nephron composed by six different cell types forming the epithelium of the distal convolute (DCT), connecting (CNT) and collecting duct (CD). To dissect the function of these cells, knock out models specific for their unique cell marker have been created. However, since this part of the nephron develops at the border between the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme, the specificity of the single cell-markers has been recently questioned. Here, by mapping the fate of the AQP2, NCC-positive cells using transgenic mouse lines expressing the YFP fluorescent marker, we showed that the origin of the distal nephron is extremely composite...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Maria Czarina Acelajado, R Michael Culpepper, Wilburn D Bolton Iii
Introduction. Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive inherited defect in the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCCT) in the renal distal convoluted tubule. Physiologic changes of pregnancy promote renal potassium wasting, but serum potassium levels are kept in the physiologic range by increased levels of progesterone, which resist kaliuresis. In the presence of GS, this compensatory mechanism is easily overwhelmed, resulting in profound hypokalemia. We present a case of an 18-year-old primigravida with undiagnosed GS who presented with hyperemesis gravidarum in her 7th week of pregnancy...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér, Seymour Rosen
The renal biopsy is a dynamic way of looking at renal disease, and tubular elements are an important part of this analysis. The mitochondria in 20 renal biopsies were examined by immunohistochemical (electron transport chain enzyme: cytochrome C oxidase IV [COX IV]) and enzyme histochemical methods (COX), both by light and electron microscopy. The distal convoluted tubules and thick ascending limbs showed the greatest intensity in the COX immunostains and enzyme activity in controls. The degree of mitochondrial COX protein and enzyme activity diminished as the tubules became atrophic...
September 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
L Graham, D Graham, M W McBride, A F Dominiczak, S Padmanabhan
OBJECTIVE: UMOD-/- mice have low blood pressure and decreased salt-sensitivity indicating interactions between UMOD and sodium transport in the TAL. However, it's unclear whether the effect of UMOD is solely through interaction with cognate molecules in the TAL or whether the perturbations in physiology are more complex with involvement of both TAL and other parts of the nephron. We propose to answer this by profiling mRNA expression levels of the main ion transporters and signalling molecules in tubules from UMOD+/+ and UMOD-/- mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
V Ravarotto, D Loffing-Cueni, E Pagnin, L A Calo', G P Rossi, L Loffing
OBJECTIVE: Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by electrolytic alterations. Clinical features are hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, and hypo- or normotension notwithstanding marked activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These abnormalities are due to mutations affecting the thiazide sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), which reabsorbs sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Over 100 mutations are known, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the impaired function remained unclear...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
V M Shcherbakova
The objective of the present work was to study the morphometric characteristics of the main structural components of renal nephrons in the white rats with the experimentally induced acute and chronic alcohol intoxication. We undertook the morphometric examination of the structural elements of rat kidneys with the subsequent statistical analysis of the data obtained. The results of the study give evidence of the toxic action of ethanol on all structural components of the nephron in the case of both acute and chronic alcohol intoxication...
July 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Gabriel G Malouf, Eva Compérat, Hui Yao, Roger Mouawad, Veronique Lindner, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Virginie Verkarre, Xavier Leroy, Linda Dainese, Marion Classe, Jean-Luc Descotes, Philippe Barthelemy, Mokrane Yacoub, Morgan Rouprêt, Jean-Christophe Bernhard, Chad J Creighton, Jean-Philippe Spano, Xiaoping Su, David Khayat
Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules...
2016: Scientific Reports
Armando Luis Negri
Renal tubular calcium reabsorption is one of the principal factors that determine serum calcium concentration and calcium excretion. Calcium excretion is regulated by the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, where the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5 can be found, which limits the rate of transcellular calcium transport. The dynamic presence of the TRPV5 channel on the surface of the tubular cell is mediated by an endosomal recycling process. Different intrarenal factors are involved in calcium channel fixation in the apical membrane, including the anti-ageing hormone klotho and tissue kallikrein (TK)...
July 25, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Maria Ardiaca, Mark D Bennett, Andres Montesinos, Carles Juan-Sallés, Mario Soriano-Navarro
Two cases of renal klossiellosis were diagnosed by histopathology in pet sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). In both cases, parasites were associated with tubular dilation and mild interstitial nephritis. Rare schizonts were seen in the proximal convoluted renal tubular epithelium, whereas all other life cycle stages were found within distal convoluted tubule cells or the urinary space of the structures distal to the loop of Henle. Conventional optical and transmission electron microscopies were used to assess the life stages of the parasite...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Ana I Prieto Ortega, Isabel M Moreno, Victoria Ríos, Rosario Moyano, Alfonso Blanco, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ana M Cameán
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a highly water-soluble cytotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and it is considered the second most studied cyanotoxin worldwide. CYN acts as a potent protein and glutathione synthesis inhibitor, as well as inducing genotoxicity, oxidative stress and histopathological alterations. Studies concerning the depuration of cyanobacterial toxins in aquatic organisms, especially in fish, are of great interest for fish economy and public health, but are scarce in the case of CYN...
July 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Masaru Matsui, Yoshihiko Saito
The link between chronic kidney disease(CKD)and cardiovascular diseases has recently been attracting attention as cardiorenal connection. Vascular calcification due to down-regulation of klotho is partly involved in the pathogenesis of cardiorenal connection. Klotho protein which is mainly expressed in the distal convoluted tubule, is directly correlated with renal function. Of note, its expression has already been decreased in patients with estimated glomerula filtration rate(eGFR)of 60~90 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with those with eGFR of more than 90 mL/min/1...
August 2016: Clinical Calcium
David Penton, Jan Czogalla, Agnieszka Wengi, Nina Himmerkus, Dominique Loffing-Cueni, Monique Carrel, Renuga Devi Rajaram, Olivier Staub, Markus Bleich, Frank Schweda, Johannes Loffing
A high dietary potassium (K(+) ) intake causes a rapid dephosphorylation, and hence inactivation, of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Based on experiments in heterologous expression systems, it was proposed that changes in extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+) ]ex ) modulate NCC phosphorylation via a Cl(-) dependent modulation of the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 kinase pathway. We used the isolated perfused mouse kidney technique and ex vivo preparations of mouse kidney slices to test the physiological relevance of this model on native DCT...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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