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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909897/nha2-is-expressed-in-distal-nephron-and-regulated-by-dietary-sodium
#1
Kalyan C Kondapalli, R Todd Alexander, Jennifer L Pluznick, Rajini Rao
Increased renal reabsorption of sodium is a significant risk factor in hypertension. An established clinical marker for essential hypertension is elevated sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity. NHA2 is a newly identified Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter with potential genetic links to hypertension, which has been shown to mediate SLC activity and H(+)-coupled Na(+)(Li(+)) efflux in kidney-derived MDCK cells. To evaluate a putative role in sodium homeostasis, we determined the effect of dietary salt on NHA2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906866/inherited-and-acquired-disorders-of-magnesium-homeostasis
#2
Matthias Tilmann Florian Wolf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnesium (Mg) imbalances are frequently overlooked. Hypermagnesemia usually occurs in preeclamptic women after Mg therapy or in end-stage renal disease patients, whereas hypomagnesemia is more common with a prevalence of up to 15% in the general population. Increasing evidence points toward a role for mild-to-moderate chronic hypomagnesemia in the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidneys are the major regulator of total body Mg homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906863/bartter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndrome
#3
Hannsjörg W Seyberth, Stefanie Weber, Martin Kömhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical presentations of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome will be reviewed including two most recently described hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. By taking the quite heterogeneous presentations and the apparently different pathophysiologies as the basis, the applicability of the physiologic classification has been tested. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the physiologic approach, salt-losing tubulopathies can be divided into two major groups (with completely different tubular defects): first, disorders of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (loop disorders); second, disorders of the distal convolute tubule (DCT disorders)...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882813/dietary-zinc-modifies-diabetic-induced-renal-pathology-in-rats
#4
Wael M Elsaed, Hazem Abdelhamid Mohamed
This study was conducted to investigate how far dietary zinc (Zn) modifies the histomorphological alterations induced by diabetes in rat kidneys. The animals were divided into negative control group (10 rats). Diabetes was induced in thirty animals by streptozotocin. After confirming diabetes, the animals were divided into three groups (n = 10). Group II served as the positive control group (fed on standard diet), group III was fed on Zn deficient diet, and group IV was fed on Zn supplemented diet. Caspase-3 immune staining was used to estimate the caspase activity...
November 24, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798456/future-considerations-based-on-the-information-from-barrter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndromes
#5
Hadas Alfandary, Daniel Landau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bartter and Gitelman syndromes are typical normotensive salt losing hypokalaemic tubulopathies. Their pathogenesis was gradually deciphered in the past 5 decades, first by typical salt balance studies and histopathology, followed by genetic characterization and discovery of the affected different ion channels. Although the different genotypic subtypes were originally thought to show a similar phenotype, important clinical and biochemical differences can now be found...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789743/channel-transporter-complexes-an-emerging-theme-in-cell-signaling
#6
Geoffrey W Abbott
In a recent edition of Biochemical Journal, Mistry and colleagues described the discovery of a novel protein complex, formed from the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) [Biochem. J. (2016) Hoover, S.R]. The importance of these two proteins in the regulation of salt balance and blood pressure has long been known, as has their overlapping expression in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. The new study by Mistry et al. now demonstrates their physical interaction in the kidney and when heterologously co-expressed...
November 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753890/ish-nia-os-05-interleukin-6-transactivation-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#7
Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752013/transient-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-following-hump-nosed-viper-bite-two-cases-from-sri-lanka
#8
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742514/transient-diabetes-insipidus-after-discontinuation-of-vasopressin-in-neurological-icu-patients-case-series-and-literature-review
#9
Michael A Bohl, James Forseth, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A series of six neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733368/long-term-aldosterone-administration-increases-renal-na-cl-cotransporter-abundance-in-late-distal-convoluted-tubule
#10
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Birgitte M Christensen
Renal Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is expressed in early distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 1 and late DCT (DCT2). NCC activity can be stimulated by aldosterone, and the mechanism is assumed to depend on the enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which inactivates glucocorticoids that would otherwise occupy aldosterone receptors. Because 11β-HSD2 in rat may only be abundantly expressed in DCT2 cells and not in DCT1 cells, it has been speculated that aldosterone specifically stimulates NCC activity in DCT2 cells...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643236/ish-nia-os-05-interleukin-6-transactivation-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#11
Brandi Wynne, Trinity Kronk, Otor Al-Khalili, Benjamin Ko, Franziska Theilig, Douglas Eaton, Robert Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is characterized by increased sodium reabsorption along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a possible mediator, signaling via the transmembrane IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα); however, whether IL-6Rα is present in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is unknown. Increased sodium reabsorption is not always correlated with increased aldosterone (Aldo). Thus, understanding how Aldo-independent sodium reabsorption occurs is critical...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636893/a-microrna-cluster-mir-23%C3%A2-24%C3%A2-27-is-upregulated-by-aldosterone-in-the-distal-kidney-nephron-where-it-alters-sodium-transport
#12
X Liu, R S Edinger, C A Klemens, Y L Phua, A J Bodnar, W A LaFramboise, J Ho, M B Butterworth
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules and cortical collecting duct (CCD) in the kidney nephron. Under the regulation of the steroid hormone aldosterone, ENaC is a major determinant of sodium (Na(+) ) and water balance. The ability of aldosterone to regulate microRNAs (miRs) in the kidney has recently been realized, but the role of miRs in Na(+) regulation has not been well established. Here we demonstrate that expression of a miR cluster mmu-miR-23∼24∼27, is upregulated in the CCD by aldosterone stimulation both in vitro and in vivo...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600180/k-mediated-regulation-of-distal-convoluted-tubule-na-cl-cotransporter-phosphorylation-during-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#13
EDITORIAL
Pablo A Ortiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587391/the-european-eel-ncc%C3%AE-gene-encodes-a-thiazide-resistant-na-cl-cotransporter
#14
Erika Moreno, Consuelo Plata, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gama, Eduardo R Argaiz, Norma Vázquez, Karla Leyva-Ríos, León Islas, Christopher Cutler, Diana Pacheco-Alvarez, Adriana Mercado, Raquel Cariño-Cortés, María Castañeda-Bueno, Gerardo Gamba
The thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian distal convoluted tubule. NCC plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure. Its inhibition with thiazides constitutes the primary baseline therapy for arterial hypertension. However, the thiazide-binding site in NCC is unknown. Mammals have only one gene encoding for NCC. The eel, however, contains a duplicate gene. NCCα is an ortholog of mammalian NCC and is expressed in the kidney. NCCβ is present in the apical membrane of the rectum...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582101/a-fate-mapping-approach-reveals-the-composite-origin-of-the-connecting-tubule-and-alerts-on-single-cell-specific-ko-model-of-the-distal-nephron
#15
Francesco Trepiccione, Christelle Soukaseum, Anna Iervolino, Federica Petrillo, Miriam Zacchia, Gunther Schütz, Dominique Eladari, Giovambattista Capasso, Juliette Hadchouel
The distal nephron is a heterogeneous part of the nephron composed by six different cell types forming the epithelium of the distal convolute (DCT), connecting (CNT) and collecting duct (CD). To dissect the function of these cells, knock out models specific for their unique cell marker have been created. However, since this part of the nephron develops at the border between the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme, the specificity of the single cell-markers has been recently questioned. Here, by mapping the fate of the AQP2, NCC-positive cells using transgenic mouse lines expressing the YFP fluorescent marker, we showed that the origin of the distal nephron is extremely composite...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579038/hyperemesis-gravidarum-in-undiagnosed-gitelman-s-syndrome
#16
Maria Czarina Acelajado, R Michael Culpepper, Wilburn D Bolton Iii
Introduction. Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive inherited defect in the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCCT) in the renal distal convoluted tubule. Physiologic changes of pregnancy promote renal potassium wasting, but serum potassium levels are kept in the physiologic range by increased levels of progesterone, which resist kaliuresis. In the presence of GS, this compensatory mechanism is easily overwhelmed, resulting in profound hypokalemia. We present a case of an 18-year-old primigravida with undiagnosed GS who presented with hyperemesis gravidarum in her 7th week of pregnancy...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578326/the-use-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-enzyme-activity-and-immunohistochemistry-in-defining-mitochondrial-injury-in-kidney-disease
#17
Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér, Seymour Rosen
The renal biopsy is a dynamic way of looking at renal disease, and tubular elements are an important part of this analysis. The mitochondria in 20 renal biopsies were examined by immunohistochemical (electron transport chain enzyme: cytochrome C oxidase IV [COX IV]) and enzyme histochemical methods (COX), both by light and electron microscopy. The distal convoluted tubules and thick ascending limbs showed the greatest intensity in the COX immunostains and enzyme activity in controls. The degree of mitochondrial COX protein and enzyme activity diminished as the tubules became atrophic...
September 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508833/-op-7c-01-uromodulin-nacl-interaction-on-mrna-expression-of-ion-transporters-in-isolated-tubules-of-umod-and-umod-mice
#18
L Graham, D Graham, M W McBride, A F Dominiczak, S Padmanabhan
OBJECTIVE: UMOD-/- mice have low blood pressure and decreased salt-sensitivity indicating interactions between UMOD and sodium transport in the TAL. However, it's unclear whether the effect of UMOD is solely through interaction with cognate molecules in the TAL or whether the perturbations in physiology are more complex with involvement of both TAL and other parts of the nephron. We propose to answer this by profiling mRNA expression levels of the main ion transporters and signalling molecules in tubules from UMOD+/+ and UMOD-/- mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508724/-op-4d-05-a-novel-mutation-in-the-renal-nacl-cotransporter-causes-impaired-glycosylation-and-gitelman-s-syndrome-gs
#19
V Ravarotto, D Loffing-Cueni, E Pagnin, L A Calo', G P Rossi, L Loffing
OBJECTIVE: Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by electrolytic alterations. Clinical features are hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, and hypo- or normotension notwithstanding marked activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These abnormalities are due to mutations affecting the thiazide sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), which reabsorbs sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Over 100 mutations are known, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the impaired function remained unclear...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500479/-the-morphometric-characteristics-of-the-main-structural-components-of-renal-nephrons-in-the-white-rats-with-experimentally-induced-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-intoxication
#20
V M Shcherbakova
The objective of the present work was to study the morphometric characteristics of the main structural components of renal nephrons in the white rats with the experimentally induced acute and chronic alcohol intoxication. We undertook the morphometric examination of the structural elements of rat kidneys with the subsequent statistical analysis of the data obtained. The results of the study give evidence of the toxic action of ethanol on all structural components of the nephron in the case of both acute and chronic alcohol intoxication...
July 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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