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distal convoluted tubule

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767557/polycystin-1-dysfunction-impairs-electrolyte-and-water-handling-in-a-renal-pre-cystic-mouse-model-for-adpkd
#1
Eric H J Verschuren, Sami G Mohammed, Wouter N Leonhard, Caro Overmars-Bos, Kimberly A M Veraar, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Dorien J M Peters, Francisco J Arjona
The PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), a mechanosensor triggering intracellular responses upon urinary flow sensing in kidney tubular cells. Mutations in PKD1 lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The involvement of PC1 in renal electrolyte handling remains unknown since renal electrolyte physiology in ADPKD patients has only been characterized in cystic ADPKD. We thus studied the renal electrolyte handling in inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout (iKsp-Pkd1-/-) mice manifesting a pre-cystic phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720668/central-role-of-the-proximal-tubular-%C3%AE-klotho-fgf-receptor-complex-in-fgf23-regulated-phosphate-and-vitamin-d-metabolism
#2
Ai Takeshita, Kazuki Kawakami, Kenryo Furushima, Masayasu Miyajima, Kazushige Sakaguchi
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays critical roles in phosphate handling and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. However, the effector cells of FGF23 in the kidney remain unclear. αKlotho, a putative enzyme possessing β-glucuronidase activity and also a permissive co-receptor for FGF23 to bind to FGF receptors (FGFRs), is expressed most abundantly in distal convoluted tubules, whereas it is expressed modestly in proximal tubules. Key molecular players of phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes are known to localize in proximal tubules...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686978/novel-aspects-of-renal-magnesium-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Paula Giménez-Mascarell, Carlotta Else Schirrmacher, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz, Dominik Müller
Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is indispensable for several vital functions, such as neurotransmission, cardiac conductance, blood glucose, blood pressure regulation, and proper function of more than 300 enzymes. Thus, Mg2+ homeostasis is subject to tight regulation. Besides the fast and immediate regulation of plasma Mg2+ , a major part of Mg2+ homeostasis is realized by a concerted action of epithelial molecular structures that tightly control intestinal uptake and renal absorption. This mechanism is provided by a combination of para- and transcellular pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667910/role-of-wnk4-and-kidney-specific-wnk1-in-mediating-the-effect-of-high-dietary-k-intake-on-romk-channel-in-the-distal-convoluted-tubule
#4
Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Xiao-Tong Su, David H Ellison, Juliette Hadchouel, Jacques Teulon, Wen-Hui Wang
With-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) and kidney-Specific (KS)-WNK1 regulate ROMK (Kir1.1) channels in a variety of cell models. We now explore the role of WNK4 and KS-WNK1 in regulating ROMK in the native distal convoluted tubule (DCT)/connecting tubule (CNT) by measuring TPNQ (ROMK inhibitor)-sensitive K+ currents with whole-cell recording. TPNQ-sensitive K+ currents in DCT2/CNT of KS-WNK1-/- and WNK4-/- mice were significantly smaller than that of WT mice. In contrast, the basolateral K+ channels (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the DCT were not inhibited...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621145/zebrafish-as-a-model-system-for-investigating-the-compensatory-regulation-of-ionic-balance-during-metabolic-acidosis
#5
REVIEW
Lletta Lewis, Raymond W M Kwong
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) have become an important model for integrative physiological research. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-osmotic environment; to maintain ionic and acid-base homeostasis, they must actively take up ions and secrete acid to the water. The gills in the adult and the skin at larval stage are the primary sites of ionic regulation in zebrafish. The uptake of ions in zebrafish is mediated by specific ion transporting cells termed ionocytes. Similarly, in mammals, ion reabsorption and acid excretion occur in specific cell types in the terminal region of the renal tubules (distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608890/ischemic-acute-kidney-injury-and-klotho-in-renal-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Fatemeh Panah, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Hassan Argani, Maryam Asadi Zarmehri, Saeed Nazari Soltan Ahmad
Post-transplant ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), secondary to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), is a major problem influencing on the short and long term graft and patient survival. Many molecular and cellular modifications are observed during IRI, for example, tissue damage result production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, chemokines, and leukocytes recruitment which are activated by NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) signaling pathway. Therefore, inhibiting these processes can significantly protect renal parenchyma from tissue damage...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606134/tgr5-expression-in-normal-kidney-and-renal-neoplasms
#7
Chaohui Lisa Zhao, Ali Amin, Yiang Hui, Dongfang Yang, Weibiao Cao
BACKGROUND: The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) is a cell surface receptor which induces the production of intracellular cAMP and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cell lines. TGR5 is found in a wide variety of tissues including the kidney. However, the patterns of TGR5 expression have not been well characterized in physiologic kidney or renal neoplasms. We explore the expression of TGR5 in benign renal tissue and renal neoplasms and assess its utility as a diagnostic marker...
April 2, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561186/transcription-factor-hnf1%C3%AE-regulates-expression-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-the-kidney
#8
Andreas Kompatscher, J H F de Baaij, Karam Aboudehen, Shayan Farahani, Lex H J Van Son, Susanne Milatz, Nina Himmerkus, Gert Jan C Veenstra, René J M Bindels, Joost G J Hoenderop
Mutations in HNF1β cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD-HNF1β), and patients tend to develop renal cysts, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), and suffer from electrolyte disturbances, including hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalciuria. Previous HNF1β research focused on the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) to elucidate the ADTKD-HNF1β electrolyte phenotype, although 70% of Mg2+ is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL). An important regulator of Mg2+ reabsorption in the TAL is the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534834/immunohistochemical-localization-of-osteoblast-activating-peptide-in-the-mouse-kidney
#9
Ahmed E Noreldin, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon, Katsuhiko Warita, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Osteoblast activating peptide (OBAP) is a newly discovered peptide detected in the rat stomach, which has a major role in osteogenesis. Recently, we revealed its localization in the parietal cells of the rat stomach. There have been no data regarding OBAP expression in the kidney, despite its role in calcium reabsorption in renal tubules. The current study aimed to inspect the expression of OBAP in the kidney of twelve 10-week-old male C3H/HeNJc1 mice using immunohistochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopic localization...
March 10, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521601/rna-sequencing-of-kidney-distal-tubule-cells-reveals-multiple-mediators-of-chronic-aldosterone-action
#10
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Kavee Limbutara, Robert A Fenton, Trairak Pisitkun, Birgitte Mønster Christensen
The renal aldosterone-sensitive distal tubule (ASDT) is crucial for sodium reabsorption and blood pressure regulation. The ASDT consists of the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT2), connecting tubule (CNT), and collecting duct. Due to difficulties in isolating epithelial cells from the ASDT in large quantities, few transcriptome studies have been performed on this segment. Moreover, no studies exist on isolated DCT2 and CNT cells (excluding intercalated cells), and the role of aldosterone for regulating the transcriptome of these specific cell types is largely unknown...
May 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506055/changes-in-expression-of-special-at-rich-sequence-binding-protein-1-and-phosphatase-and-tensin-homologue-in-kidneys-of-diabetic-rats-during-ageing
#11
Ivana Kristina Delic Jukic, Sandra Kostic, Natalija Filipovic, Larissa Gudelj Ensor, Marijeta Ivandic, Josefina Josipa Dukic, Marija Vitlov Uljevic, Lejla Ferhatovic Hamzic, Livia Puljak, Katarina Vukojevic
Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). We studied the expression of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in the kidneys of diabetic rats during ageing. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) (DM group) or with citrate buffer (control group). Kidneys were collected after 2 weeks, 6 months and 12 months, and were analysed in three different kidney structures: glomeruli, proximal (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules (DCT)...
March 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483225/at2r-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-ncc-na-cl-cotransporter-and-renal-k-excretion-depends-on-the-k-channel-kir4-1
#12
Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Xin-Peng Duan, Xiao-Tong Su, Ming-Xiao Wang, Dao-Hong Lin, Ruimin Gu, Wen-Hui Wang
AT2R (AngII [angiotensin II] type 2 receptor) is expressed in the distal nephrons. The aim of the present study is to examine whether AT2R regulates NCC (Na-Cl cotransporter) and Kir4.1 of the distal convoluted tubule. AngII inhibited the basolateral 40 pS K channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule treated with losartan but not with PD123319. AT2R agonist also inhibits the K channel, indicating that AT2R was involved in tonic regulation of Kir4.1. The infusion of PD123319 stimulated the expression of tNCC (total NCC) and pNCC (phosphorylated NCC; Thr53 ) by a time-dependent way with the peak at 4 days...
April 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483157/mechanism-of-hyperkalemia-induced-metabolic-acidosis
#13
Autumn N Harris, P Richard Grimm, Hyun-Wook Lee, Eric Delpire, Lijuan Fang, Jill W Verlander, Paul A Welling, I David Weiner
Background Hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis that are out of proportion to changes in glomerular filtration rate defines type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), the most common RTA observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated metabolic acidosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine whether hyperkalemia directly causes metabolic acidosis and, if so, the mechanisms through which this occurs. Methods We studied a genetic model of hyperkalemia that results from early distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific overexpression of constitutively active Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (DCT-CA-SPAK)...
May 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412704/with-no-lysine-kinase-4-modulates-sodium-potassium-2-chloride-cotransporter-activity-in-vivo
#14
Andrew Scott Terker, Maria Castaneda-Bueno, Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus, Ryan J Cornelius, Kayla J Erspamer, Xiao-Tong Su, Lauren N Miller, James A McCormick, Wen-Hui Wang, Gerardo Gamba, Chao-Ling Yang, David H Ellison
With no lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) is essential to activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) along the distal convoluted tubule, an effect central to the phenotype of familial hyperkalemic hypertension. Although effects on potassium and sodium channels along the connecting and collecting tubules have also been documented, WNK4 is typically believed to have little role in modulating sodium chloride reabsorption along the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Yet wnk4-/- mice (knockout mice lacking WNK4) do not demonstrate the hypocalciuria typical of pure distal convoluted tubule dysfunction...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412701/the-rise-and-fall-of-novel-renal-magnesium-transporters
#15
Olivier J M Schäffers, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, J H F de Baaij
Body Mg2+ balance is finely regulated in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), where a tight interplay between transcellular reabsorption, mitochondrial exchange and basolateral extrusion takes place. In the last decades, several research groups have aimed to identify the molecular players in these processes. A multitude of proteins have been proposed to function as Mg2+ transporter in eukaryotes based on phylogenetic analysis, differential gene expression and overexpression studies. However, functional evidence for many of these proteins is lacking...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393842/a-study-of-urinary-tamm-horsfall-protein-excretion-in-adult-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Mao Zheng, Shandong Ye, Yan Chen, Meinan Chen
AIM: To study the excretion of urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) with a wide range of urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective investigation was performed in 3,599 adult inpatients with T2DM in Anhui Provincial Hospital of China. Demographic information, urinary THP data, and other lab reports were obtained from the Electronic Patient Record (EPR)...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393534/regionally-distinct-patterns-of-stat3-phosphorylation-in-the-seminiferous-epithelia-of-mouse-testes
#17
Keiya Nagasawa, Kasane Imura-Kishi, Aya Uchida, Ryuji Hiramatsu, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Yoshiakira Kanai
In mouse testes, Sertoli cells support the continuous process of spermatogenesis, which is dependent on seminiferous epithelial cycles along the longitudinal axis of the seminiferous tubule. Sertoli cell function is modulated partly by local cytokines and/or growth factors derived from adjacent tissues such as blood vessels, macrophages, rete testis, etc. However, the spatial activation patterns by local signals in vivo remain unclear. In this study, we focused on Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) signaling in Sertoli cells, because STAT is a major crucial cytokine transducer for somatic cyst cell regulation in Drosophila testis niches...
March 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384416/differential-roles-of-wnk4-in-regulation-of-ncc-in-vivo
#18
Yih-Sheng Yang, Jian Xie, Sung-Sen Yang, Shih-Hua Lin, Chou-Long Huang
The Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) in distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays important roles in renal NaCl reabsorption. Current hypothesis for the mechanism of regulation of NCC focuses on WNK4 and intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). WNK kinases bind Cl- and Cl- binding decreases the catalytic activity. It is believed that hypokalemia under low K+ intake decreases [Cl-]i to activate WNK4, which thereby phosphorylates and stimulates NCC through activation of SPAK. However, increased NCC activity and apical NaCl entry would mitigate the fall in [Cl-]i...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371419/plasma-potassium-determines-ncc-abundance-in-adult-kidney-specific-%C3%AE-enac-knockout
#19
Emilie Boscardin, Romain Perrier, Chloé Sergi, Marc P Maillard, Johannes Loffing, Dominique Loffing-Cueni, Robert Koesters, Bernard C Rossier, Edith Hummler
The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) are key regulators of sodium and potassium and colocalize in the late distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. Loss of the α ENaC subunit leads to a perinatal lethal phenotype characterized by sodium loss and hyperkalemia resembling the human syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA-I). In adulthood, inducible nephron-specific deletion of α ENaC in mice mimics the lethal phenotype observed in neonates, and as in humans, this phenotype is prevented by a high sodium (HNa+ )/low potassium (LK+ ) rescue diet...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357414/effects-of-a-high-sodium-low-potassium-diet-on-renal-calcium-magnesium-and-phosphate-handling
#20
Jenny van der Wijst, Omar A Z Tutakhel, Caro Bos, A H Jan Danser, Ewout J Hoorn, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of the kidney plays an important role in blood pressure regulation by modulating Na+ reabsorption via the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC). A diet containing high salt (NaCl) and low K+ activates NCC, thereby causing Na+ retention and a rise in blood pressure. Since high blood pressure, hypertension, is associated with changes in serum calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) levels, we hypothesized that dietary Na+ and K+ intake affects Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport in the DCT. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a high Na+/low K+ diet on renal Ca2+ and Mg2+ handling...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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