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Marc N Jarczok, Corina Aguilar-Raab, Julian Koenig, Michael Kaess, Jeremy C Borniger, Randy J Nelson, Martica Hall, Beate Ditzen, Julian F Thayer, Joachim E Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Successful regulation of emotional states is positively associated to mental health, while difficulties in regulating emotions are negatively associated to overall mental health and in particular associated with anxiety or depression symptoms. A key structure associated to socio-emotional regulatory processes is the central autonomic network. Activity in this structure is associated to vagal activity can be indexed noninvasively and simply by measures of peripheral cardiac autonomic modulations such as heart rate variability...
March 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
Andrew J Lawrence, Daniel J Tozer, Emmanuel A Stamatakis, Hugh S Markus
Objective: MRI measures of network integrity may be useful disease markers in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). We compared the sensitivity and reproducibility of MRI derived structural and functional network measures in healthy controls and SVD subjects. Methods: Diffusion tractography and resting state fMRI were used to create connectivity matrices from 26 subjects with symptomatic MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and 19 controls. Matrices were constructed at multiple scales based on a multi-resolution cortical atlas and at multiple thresholds for the matrix density...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
Alexander Lischke, Rike Pahnke, Anett Mau-Moeller, Martin Behrens, Hans J Grabe, Harald J Freyberger, Alfons O Hamm, Matthias Weippert
In the present study, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) would be associated with inter-individual differences in empathy and alexithymia. To this end, we determined resting state HF-HRV in 90 individuals that also completed questionnaires assessing inter-individual differences in empathy and alexithymia. Our categorical and dimensional analyses revealed that inter-individual differences in HF-HRV were differently associated with inter-individual differences in empathy and alexithymia...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jaime Gómez-Ramírez, Shelagh Freedman, Diego Mateos, José Luis Pérez Velázquez, Taufik A Valiante
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tao-Mian Mi, Shan-Shan Mei, Pei-Peng Liang, Lin-Lin Gao, Kun-Cheng Li, Tao Wu, Piu Chan
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Linqiong Sang, Lin Chen, Li Wang, Jingna Zhang, Ye Zhang, Pengyue Li, Chuanming Li, Mingguo Qiu
Cognitive impairment caused by subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) has been elucidated by many neuroimaging studies. However, little is known regarding the changes in brain functional connectivity networks in relation to the severity of cognitive impairment in SIVD. In the present study, 20 subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment no dementia patients (SIVCIND) and 20 dementia patients (SIVaD) were enrolled; additionally, 19 normal controls were recruited. Each participant underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Laurel J Gabard-Durnam, Adriana S Mendez Leal, Carol L Wilkinson, April R Levin
Electroenchephalography (EEG) recordings collected with developmental populations present particular challenges from a data processing perspective. These EEGs have a high degree of artifact contamination and often short recording lengths. As both sample sizes and EEG channel densities increase, traditional processing approaches like manual data rejection are becoming unsustainable. Moreover, such subjective approaches preclude standardized metrics of data quality, despite the heightened importance of such measures for EEGs with high rates of initial artifact contamination...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Wing Ting To, Justin Eroh, John Hart, Sven Vanneste
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been identified as a core region affected by many disorders, representing a promising target for neuromodulation. High Definition-transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has already shown promising outcomes and has been tested to engage deeper structures. This study investigates whether it is possible to modulate dACC activity using anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS. Furthermore, it examines what effects anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS targeting dACC have on cognitive and emotional processing...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bo Hou, Eyleen S Heidrich, Denise Mehner-Breitfeld, Thomas Brüser
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system that comprises the TatA, TatB, and TatC components transports folded proteins across energized membranes of prokaryotes and plant plastids. It is not known, however, how the transport of this protein cargo is achieved. Favored models suggest that the TatA component supports transport by weakening the membrane upon full translocon assembly. Using Escherichia coli as model organism, we now demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminus of TatA can indeed destabilize the membrane, resulting in a lowered membrane energization in growing cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qi Zhu, Jiashuang Huang, Xijia Xu
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome, and its causes have not been well determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the alteration of brain functional connectivity between schizophrenia and healthy control, and present a practical solution for accurately identifying schizophrenia at single-subject level. METHODS: 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched healthy subjects were recruited to undergo the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning...
March 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
March 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Gilad Sorek, Sharon Shaklai, Shirley Meyer, Michal Katz-Leurer
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) present a range of physical and cognitive as well as cardiac autonomic control system (CACS) dysfunctions. AIM: To examine the CACS response to an executive task, a physical task and a combined physical and executive task, in adolescents with ABI and typically developed (TD) controls. METHODS: Included were two groups: The first group consisted of 17 adolescents (11-18 years) with ABI, during the in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation period...
March 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Chunfang Wang, Yuanyuan Chen, Changcheng Sun, Ying Zhang, Dong Ming, Jingang Du
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the electrophysiological changes in poststroke subjects with depressed mood. METHODS: Resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 16 electrodes in 35 poststroke depressed, 24 poststroke nondepressed, and 35 age-matched healthy control subjects were analyzed by means of spectral power analysis, a quantitative EEG measurement of different frequency bands. The relationship among depressed mood, functional status, lesion side, and poststroke time was assessed by using variance and Spearman correlation analysis...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Panlong Li, Han Shan, Shengxiang Liang, Binbin Nie, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Xi Sun, Ting Feng, Lin Ma, Baoci Shan, Demin Li, Hua Liu
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays a key role in various cognitive functions. The fiber connectivity of RSC had been reported in rodent and primate studies by tracer injection methods To explore structural and functional connectivity of two sub-regions of RSC, Brodmann area (BA)29 and BA30, we constructed fiber connectivity networks of two sub-regions by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional connectivity networks by resting-state functional MRI...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Luqing Wei, Xiao Hu, Yonggui Yuan, Weiguo Liu, Hong Chen
Neuropathology suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression may involve a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have shown that dopamine changes in individual brain regions constituting the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic circuits are associated with depression in PD. However, few studies have been conducted on the circuit-level alterations in this disease...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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