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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470489/integration-of-machine-learning-and-meta-analysis-identifies-the-transcriptomic-bio-signature-of-mastitis-disease-in-cattle
#1
Somayeh Sharifi, Abbas Pakdel, Mansour Ebrahimi, James M Reecy, Samaneh Fazeli Farsani, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are assumed to be among the main agents that cause severe mastitis disease with clinical signs in dairy cattle. Rapid detection of this disease is so important in order to prevent transmission to other cows and helps to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics. With the rapid progress in high-throughput technologies, and accumulation of various kinds of '-omics' data in public repositories, there is an opportunity to retrieve, integrate, and reanalyze these resources to improve the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases and to provide mechanistic insights into host resistance in an efficient way...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441027/pragmatically-framed-cross-situational-noun-learning-using-computational-reinforcement-models
#2
Shamima Najnin, Bonny Banerjee
Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431647/neural-mechanisms-for-adaptive-learned-avoidance-of-mental-effort
#3
Asako Mitsuto Nagase, Keiichi Onoda, Jerome Clifford Foo, Tomoki Haji, Rei Akaishi, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Sakai, Kenji Morita
Humans tend to avoid mental effort. Previous studies have demonstrated this tendency using various demand-selection tasks; participants generally avoid options associated with higher cognitive demand. However, it remains unclear whether humans avoid mental effort adaptively in uncertain and non-stationary environments, and if so, what neural mechanisms underlie this learned avoidance and whether they remain the same irrespective of cognitive-demand types. We addressed these issues by developing novel demand-selection tasks where associations between choice options and cognitive-demand levels change over time, with two variations using mental arithmetic and spatial reasoning problems (29:4 and 18:2 males:females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408398/selection-by-reinforcement-a-critical-reappraisal
#4
José E Burgos
This essay is a critical reappraisal of the idea of ontogenetic selection by reinforcement, according to which learning, specifically conditioning, in the individual animal is deeply analogous to phylogenetic evolution by natural selection. I focus on two general versions of this idea. The traditional Skinnerian version restricts the idea to operant conditioning and excludes Pavlovian conditioning, based on a sharp dichotomy between the two types of conditioning. The other version extends the idea to Pavlovian conditioning, based on a unified principle of reinforcement that applies to both types of conditioning, and linked to a neural-network model...
February 3, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401733/an-active-learning-activity-to-reinforce-the-design-components-of-the-corticosteroids
#5
Stephen R Slauson, Prashant Mandela
Despite the popularity of active learning applications over the past few decades, few activities have been reported for the field of medicinal chemistry. The purpose of this study is to report a new active learning activity, describe participant contributions, and examine participant performance on the assessment questions mapped to the objective covered by the activity. In this particular activity, students are asked to design two novel corticosteroids as a group (6-8 students per group) based on the design characteristics of marketed corticosteroids covered in lecture coupled with their pharmaceutics knowledge from the previous semester and then defend their design to the class through an interactive presentation model...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362024/models-of-nutrition-focused-continuing-education-programs-for-nurses-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#6
Holly Mitchell, Catherine Lucas, Karen Charlton, Anne McMahon
Nurses are well-positioned to provide basic nutrition education and reinforce nutrition messages to patients in hospital and primary care settings. Despite this, nurses may not receive adequate training to provide this service, and there is limited opportunity for nurses to engage in nutrition-focused continuing education (CE). The aim of this review was to determine whether nurse nutrition education results in improved knowledge and practices; and explore which models of CE for nutrition may be most acceptable and effective in practice...
January 24, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352006/machine-learning-in-cardiovascular-medicine-are-we-there-yet
#7
REVIEW
Khader Shameer, Kipp W Johnson, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Joel T Dudley, Partho P Sengupta
Artificial intelligence (AI) broadly refers to analytical algorithms that iteratively learn from data, allowing computers to find hidden insights without being explicitly programmed where to look. These include a family of operations encompassing several terms like machine learning, cognitive learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning-based methods that can be used to integrate and interpret complex biomedical and healthcare data in scenarios where traditional statistical methods may not be able to perform...
January 19, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346018/the-tortoise-and-the-hare-interactions-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#8
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336695/-ghosts-from-the-past-the-re-emergence-of-internalised-religious-stigma-following-diagnosis-of-hiv-among-northern-irish-gay-men
#9
Keith Kerrigan, Gill Green
This paper explores how previous exposure to religious homo-negativity features in the sense making process following HIV diagnosis in a homogenous sample of six gay men living in Northern Ireland. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis was used to identify two key overarching themes: 'Negotiating authenticity in unsafe space' which relates to the experience of negotiating same sex attraction within religious environments and 'Re-emergence of religious shame in diagnosis' which relates to the way in which the men made sense of diagnosis from the position of having been exposed to religious homo-negativity earlier in their lives...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314021/greater-reinforcement-rate-during-training-increases-spontaneous-recovery
#10
Eric A Thrailkill, Ryan T Kimball, Michael E Kelley, Andrew R Craig, Christopher A Podlesnik
Spontaneous recovery occurs when a previously reinforced and recently extinguished response reemerges over the course of time, often at the beginning of a new session of extinction. Spontaneous recovery could underlie instances of treatment relapse that threaten otherwise effective behavioral interventions for problem behavior. In two experiments, we arranged multiple schedules with pigeons and a human child to assess the effects of different training reinforcer rates on spontaneous recovery. In both experiments, responding was both more resistant to extinction and more likely to relapse following training with greater reinforcement rates upon returning to extinction after time off from extinction testing...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313489/associability-modulated-loss-learning-is-increased-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Vanessa M Brown, Lusha Zhu, John M Wang, B Christopher Frueh, Brooks King-Casas, Pearl H Chiu
Disproportionate reactions to unexpected stimuli in the environment are a cardinal symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we test whether these heightened responses are associated with disruptions in distinct components of reinforcement learning. Specifically, using functional neuroimaging, a loss-learning task, and a computational model-based approach, we assessed the mechanistic hypothesis that overreactions to stimuli in PTSD arise from anomalous gating of attention during learning (i.e., associability)...
January 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300746/a-neural-network-model-for-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-task-space-acquisition-during-reinforcement-learning
#12
Zhewei Zhang, Zhenbo Cheng, Zhongqiao Lin, Chechang Nie, Tianming Yang
Reinforcement learning has been widely used in explaining animal behavior. In reinforcement learning, the agent learns the value of the states in the task, collectively constituting the task state space, and uses the knowledge to choose actions and acquire desired outcomes. It has been proposed that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encodes the task state space during reinforcement learning. However, it is not well understood how the OFC acquires and stores task state information. Here, we propose a neural network model based on reservoir computing...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289795/deconstructing-the-human-algorithms-for-exploration
#13
Samuel J Gershman
The dilemma between information gathering (exploration) and reward seeking (exploitation) is a fundamental problem for reinforcement learning agents. How humans resolve this dilemma is still an open question, because experiments have provided equivocal evidence about the underlying algorithms used by humans. We show that two families of algorithms can be distinguished in terms of how uncertainty affects exploration. Algorithms based on uncertainty bonuses predict a change in response bias as a function of uncertainty, whereas algorithms based on sampling predict a change in response slope...
December 28, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259243/a-hippocampo-cerebellar-centred-network-for-the-learning-and-execution-of-sequence-based-navigation
#14
Benedicte M Babayan, Aurélie Watilliaux, Guillaume Viejo, Anne-Lise Paradis, Benoît Girard, Laure Rondi-Reig
How do we translate self-motion into goal-directed actions? Here we investigate the cognitive architecture underlying self-motion processing during exploration and goal-directed behaviour. The task, performed in an environment with limited and ambiguous external landmarks, constrained mice to use self-motion based information for sequence-based navigation. The post-behavioural analysis combined brain network characterization based on c-Fos imaging and graph theory analysis as well as computational modelling of the learning process...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238315/approaches-to-cognitive-modeling-in-dynamic-systems-control
#15
Daniel V Holt, Magda Osman
Much of human decision making occurs in dynamic situations where decision makers have to control a number of interrelated elements (dynamic systems control). Although in recent years progress has been made toward assessing individual differences in control performance, the cognitive processes underlying exploration and control of dynamic systems are not yet well understood. In this perspectives article we examine the contribution of different approaches to modeling cognition in dynamic systems control, including instance-based learning, heuristic models, complex knowledge-based models and models of causal learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237395/insights-into-the-evolution-biogeography-and-natural-history-of-the-acorn-ants-genus-temnothorax-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae
#16
Matthew Prebus
BACKGROUND: Temnothorax (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is a diverse genus of ants found in a broad spectrum of ecosystems across the northern hemisphere. These diminutive ants have long served as models for social insect behavior, leading to discoveries about social learning and inspiring hypotheses about the process of speciation and the evolution of social parasitism. This genus is highly morphologically and behaviorally diverse, and this has caused a great deal of taxonomic confusion in recent years...
December 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233376/a-pharmacy-student-s-role-as-a-teaching-assistant-in-an-undergraduate-medicinal-chemistry-course-implementation-evaluation-and-unexpected-opportunities-for-educational-outreach
#17
Matthew J DellaVecchia, Alyssa M Claudio, Jamie L Fairclough
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs)...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230064/social-learning-may-lead-to-population-level-conformity-without-individual-level-frequency-bias
#18
Kimmo Eriksson, Daniel Cownden, Pontus Strimling
A requirement of culture, whether animal or human, is some degree of conformity of behavior within populations. Researchers of gene-culture coevolution have suggested that population level conformity may result from frequency-biased social learning: individuals sampling multiple role models and preferentially adopting the majority behavior in the sample. When learning from a single role model, frequency-bias is not possible. We show why a population-level trend, either conformist or anticonformist, may nonetheless be almost inevitable in a population of individuals that learn through social enhancement, that is, using observations of others' behavior to update their own probability of using a behavior in the future...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229706/causal-evidence-for-learning-dependent-frontal-lobe-contributions-to-cognitive-control
#19
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model" (FCM), which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229650/improving-contraceptive-access-use-and-method-mix-by-task-sharing-implanon-insertion-to-frontline-health-workers-the-experience-of-the-integrated-family-health-program-in-ethiopia
#20
Yewondwossen Tilahun, Candace Lew, Bekele Belayihun, Kidest Lulu Hagos, Mengistu Asnake
In 2009, the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health launched an Implanon scale-up program with the goal of improving the availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods at the community level. The Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP) supported the ministry to train Health Extension Workers (HEWs), a cadre of frontline health workers, on Implanon insertion. Prior to this task-sharing initiative, HEWs were only permitted to provide short-acting contraceptive methods; Implanon insertion services were only available at higher-level health facilities, such as health centers and above...
December 8, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
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