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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437939/exploiting-high-order-phase-shift-keying-modulation-and-direct-detection-in-silicon-photonic-systems
#1
Jie You, Nicolae C Panoiu
A computational approach to evaluate the bit-error ratio (BER) in silicon photonic systems employing high-order phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation formats is presented. Specifically, the investigated systems contain a silicon based optical interconnect, namely a strip silicon photonic waveguide or a silicon photonic crystal waveguide, and direct-detection receivers suitable to detect PSK and amplitude-shaped PSK signals. The superposition of a PSK signal and complex additive white Gaussian noise passes through the optical interconnect and subsequently through two detection-branch receivers...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437790/utility-in-treating-kidney-failure-in-end-stage-liver-disease-with-simultaneous-liver-kidney-transplantation
#2
Xingxing S Cheng, Margaret R Stedman, Glenn M Chertow, W Ray Kim, Jane C Tan
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation plays an important role in treating kidney failure in patients with end-stage liver disease. It used 5% of deceased donor kidney transplanted in 2015. We evaluated the utility, defined as posttransplant kidney allograft lifespan, of this practice. METHODS: Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we compared outcomes for all SLK transplants between January 1, 1995, and December 3, 2014, to their donor-matched kidney used in kidney-alone (Ki) or simultaneous pancreas kidney (SPK) transplants...
May 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437030/selective-nucleation-of-gaas-on-si-nanofacets
#3
Ivan Prieto, Roksolana Kozak, Oliver Skibitzki, Marta D Rossell, Thomas Schroeder, Rolf Erni, Hans von Känel
The early growth stage of GaAs by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on a novel kind of Si substrate is investigated. The substrate consists of nanotips (NTs) fabricated on a Si(001) wafer by means of lithography and reactive ion etching. 3D GaAs nanocrystals are found to nucleate with a probability of 90% on the (n0m), (-n0m), (0nm), and (0-nm) facets (n, m integers) of these NTs. Additionally, in terms of nucleation yield, an average of 2 GaAs nanocrystals in each of those facets is observed. By contrast, facets of type {±nnm} remain virtually free of any 3D nuclei...
April 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436057/the-effect-of-ph-on-chronic-zn-toxicity-differs-between-daphnid-species-development-of-a-preliminary-chronic-zn-ceriodaphnia-dubia-bioavailability-model
#4
Charlotte Nys, Colin R Janssen, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
In the present study, we observed that the chronic Zn Daphnia magna biotic ligand model (BLM) could not accurately predict the chronic Zn toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in a series of (modified) field waters, although the intrinsic sensitivities of the D. magna BLM was specifically calibrated on the sensitivity of C. dubia. Moreover, it was observed that the D. magna BLM underestimated the effect of pH on toxicity of the free Zn(2+) ion. A preliminary species-specific chronic Zn C. dubia bioavailability model was developed based on the data...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435870/nanoparticles-that-do-not-adhere-to-mucus-provide-uniform-and-long-lasting-drug-delivery-to-airways-following-inhalation
#5
Craig S Schneider, Qingguo Xu, Nicholas J Boylan, Jane Chisholm, Benjamin C Tang, Benjamin S Schuster, Andreas Henning, Laura M Ensign, Ethan Lee, Pichet Adstamongkonkul, Brian W Simons, Sho-Yu S Wang, Xiaoqun Gong, Tao Yu, Michael P Boyle, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes
Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) have been widely explored for pulmonary drug delivery because of their perceived benefits in improving particle residence in the lungs. However, retention of particles adhesively trapped in airway mucus may be limited by physiologic mucus clearance mechanisms. In contrast, particles that avoid mucoadhesion and have diameters smaller than mucus mesh spacings rapidly penetrate mucus layers [mucus-penetrating particles (MPP)], which we hypothesized would provide prolonged lung retention compared to MAP...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435259/methotrexate-coupled-nanoparticles-and-magnetic-nanochemothermia-for-the-relapse-free-treatment-of-t24-bladder-tumors
#6
Marcus Stapf, Ulf Teichgräber, Ingrid Hilger
Heat-based approaches have been considered as promising tools due to their ability to directly eradicate tumor cells and/or increase the sensitivity of tumors to radiation- or chemotherapy. In particular, the heating of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via an alternating magnetic field can provide a handy alternative for a localized tumor treatment. To amplify the efficacy of magnetically induced thermal treatments, we elucidated the superior tumor-destructive effect of methotrexate-coupled MNPs (MTX/MNPs) in combination with magnetic heating (nanochemothermia) over the thermal treatment alone...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434232/modeling-bi-solute-adsorption-of-aromatic-compounds-based-on-adsorbed-solution-theories-asts
#7
Huichun Zhang, Shubo Wang
A large number of organic contaminants are commonly found in industrial and municipal wastewaters. For proper unit design to remove contaminant mixtures by adsorption, multi-component adsorption equilibrium models are necessary. The present work examined the applicability of Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST), a prevailing thermodynamic model, and its derivatives, i.e., Segregated IAST (SIAST) and Real Adsorbed Solution Theory (RAST), to bi-solute adsorption of organic compounds onto a hyper-crosslinked polystyrene resin, MN200...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434200/land-use-for-animal-production-in-global-change-studies-defining-and-characterizing-a-framework
#8
Leanne N Phelps, Jed O Kaplan
Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22 - 26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change...
April 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#9
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433939/enhanced-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-stimulated-by-a-nitric-oxide-releasing-polymer
#10
Wei Du, Kaiyue Zhang, Shuaiqiang Zhang, Ran Wang, Yan Nie, Hongyan Tao, Zhibo Han, Lu Liang, Di Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Na Liu, Zhongchao Han, Deling Kong, Qiang Zhao, Zongjin Li
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been recognized as new candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases or injury and may provide an alternative to cell-based therapy. However, the compositions in MSC-derived exosomes are highly influenced by the microenvironment in which their original cells reside. Here, we hypothesized that a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymer can boost the proangiogenic compositions of exosomes and enhance their proangiogenic capacity. Our results demonstrated that exosomes, released from human placenta-derived MSCs (hP-MSCs) by NO stimulation, augment the angiogenic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro...
April 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433680/organocatalyzed-and-mechanochemical-solvent-free-synthesis-of-novel-and-functionalized-bis-biphenyl-substituted-thiazolidinones-as-potent-tyrosinase-inhibitors-sar-and-molecular-modeling-studies
#11
Sadaf Mutahir, Muhammad Asim Khan, Islam Ullah Khan, Muhammad Yar, Muhammad Ashraf, Sidra Tariq, Ren-Long Ye, Bao-Jing Zhou
Eluding the involvement of solvents in organic synthesis and introducing environment friendly procedures can control environmental problems. A facile and an efficient solvent free mechanochemical method (grinding) is achieved to synthesize novel bis-biphenyl substituted thiazolidinones using non-toxic and cheap N-acetyl glycine (NAG). Organocatalytic condensation of a series of Schiff's bases bearing different substituents with thioglycolic acid produces a variety of thiazolidinones derivatives in good to excellent yield...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433036/an-eqt-based-cdft-approach-for-thermodynamic-properties-of-confined-fluid-mixtures
#12
M H Motevaselian, N R Aluru
We present an empirical potential-based quasi-continuum theory (EQT) to predict the structure and thermodynamic properties of confined fluid mixtures. The central idea in the EQT is to construct potential energies that integrate important atomistic details into a continuum-based model such as the Nernst-Planck equation. The EQT potentials can be also used to construct the excess free energy functional, which is required for the grand potential in the classical density functional theory (cDFT). In this work, we use the EQT-based grand potential to predict various thermodynamic properties of a confined binary mixture of hydrogen and methane molecules inside graphene slit channels of different widths...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433014/phase-behavior-of-supported-lipid-bilayers-a-systematic-study-by-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#13
Asma Poursoroush, Maria Maddalena Sperotto, Mohamed Laradji
Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few computational studies have been performed on such systems thus far, here we present the results from a systematic study based on molecular dynamics simulations of an implicit-solvent model for solid-supported lipid bilayers with varying lipid-substrate interactions...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432889/reducing-domestic-heating-demand-managing-the-impact-of-behavior-changing-feedback-devices-via-marketing
#14
Thorben Jensen, Émile J L Chappin
Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432579/hcv-cure-and-reinfection-among-people-with-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#15
REVIEW
Marianne Martinello, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highly effective, well-tolerated interferon-free direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionised hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutics, with the opportunity for broad treatment scale-up among marginalised or "high-risk" populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID) and people with HIV/HCV coinfection. RECENT FINDINGS: Concern that HCV reinfection may compromise HCV treatment outcomes is sometimes cited as a reason for not offering treatment to current and former PWID...
April 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431930/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-key-proteins-regulated-by-eicosapentaenoic-acid-in-endothelial-activation
#16
Lu Zhang, Kunhong Xiao, Xuyang Zhao, Xiaoli Sun, Jianshu Zhang, Xian Wang, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), has been shown to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis by attenuating endothelial activation. In this study, we used mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics to study the protective mechanisms of EPA and to identify key proteins that regulated by EPA in endothelial activation. Arachidonic acid (AA) was used as a control. HUVECs were pretreated with each of the two PUFAs, and then stimulated with TNFα as a model of endothelial activation...
April 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#17
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429776/global-distribution-of-particle-phase-state-in-atmospheric-secondary-organic-aerosols
#18
Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429683/biokinetics-of-yttrium-and-comparison-with-its-geochemical-twin-holmium
#19
Richard Wayne Leggett
The transition metal yttrium (Y, atomic number 39) is chemically similar to elements in the lanthanide family (atomic numbers 57-71) and is found with the lanthanides in rare earth ores. Yttrium and the lanthanide holmium are referred to as geochemical twins because they generally show little fractionation from metamorphic or weathering processes, due to their closely similar chemical properties and nearly identical ionic radii. Extensive measurements on rocks, soils, and meteorites indicate that the Y/Ho mass concentration ratio rarely falls far from the so-called chondritic or solar system ratio of ~26...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429314/evolutionary-origin-of-euglena
#20
Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski, Anna Karnkowska
Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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