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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667991/estimating-system-parameters-for-solvent-water-and-plant-cuticle-water-using-quantum-chemically-estimated-abraham-solute-parameters
#1
Yuzhen Liang, Tifany L Torralba-Sanchez, Dominic M Di Toro
Polyparameter Linear Free Energy Relationships (pp-LFERs) using Abraham system parameters have many useful applications. However, developing the Abraham system parameters depends on the availability and quality of the Abraham solute parameters. Using Quantum Chemically estimated Abraham solute Parameters (QCAP) is shown to produce pp-LFERs that have lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) of predictions for solvent-water partition coefficients than parameters that are estimated using other presently available methods...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667336/optimal-breastfeeding-durations-for-hiv-exposed-infants-the-impact-of-maternal-art-use-infant-mortality-and-replacement-feeding-risk
#2
Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Roger Shapiro, Francois Dabis, Barbara Engelsmann, Kenneth A Freedberg, Valeriane Leroy, Shahin Lockman, Rochelle Walensky, Nigel Rollins, Andrea Ciaranello
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. METHODS: Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666597/a-computational-model-of-working-memory-integrating-time-based-decay-and-interference
#3
Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat
There is still a strong debate in the working memory literature about the cause of forgetting, with many articles providing evidence for the existence of temporal decay and as many publications providing evidence compatible with interference being the only mechanism involved in forgetting. In order to reconcile the two views, this article describes TBRS∗ -I (for Time-Based Resource-Sharing∗ -Interference), a computational model of working memory which incorporates an interference-based mechanism to the decay-based implementation TBRS∗ within the TBRS theoretical framework...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666568/biologically-inspired-spike-based-automatic-speech-recognition-of-isolated-digits-over-a-reproducing-kernel-hilbert-space
#4
Kan Li, José C Príncipe
This paper presents a novel real-time dynamic framework for quantifying time-series structure in spoken words using spikes. Audio signals are converted into multi-channel spike trains using a biologically-inspired leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) spike generator. These spike trains are mapped into a function space of infinite dimension, i.e., a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) using point-process kernels, where a state-space model learns the dynamics of the multidimensional spike input using gradient descent learning...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666466/a-nanofluidic-knot-factory-based-on-compression-of-single-dna-in-nanochannels
#5
Susan Amin, Ahmed Khorshid, Lili Zeng, Philip Zimny, Walter Reisner
Knots form when polymers self-entangle, a process enhanced by compaction with important implications in biological and artificial systems involving chain confinement. In particular, new experimental tools are needed to assess the impact of multiple variables influencing knotting probability. Here, we introduce a nanofluidic knot factory for efficient knot formation and detection. Knots are produced during hydrodynamic compression of single DNA molecules against barriers in a nanochannel; subsequent extension of the chain enables direct assessment of the number of independently evolving knots...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666238/rapid-acquisition-and-model-based-analysis-of-cell-free-transcription-translation-reactions-from-nonmodel-bacteria
#6
Simon J Moore, James T MacDonald, Sarah Wienecke, Alka Ishwarbhai, Argyro Tsipa, Rochelle Aw, Nicolas Kylilis, David J Bell, David W McClymont, Kirsten Jensen, Karen M Polizzi, Rebekka Biedendieck, Paul S Freemont
Native cell-free transcription-translation systems offer a rapid route to characterize the regulatory elements (promoters, transcription factors) for gene expression from nonmodel microbial hosts, which can be difficult to assess through traditional in vivo approaches. One such host, Bacillus megaterium , is a giant Gram-positive bacterium with potential biotechnology applications, although many of its regulatory elements remain uncharacterized. Here, we have developed a rapid automated platform for measuring and modeling in vitro cell-free reactions and have applied this to B...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666237/goamazon2014-5-campaign-points-to-deep-inflow-approach-to-deep-convection-across-scales
#7
Kathleen A Schiro, Fiaz Ahmed, Scott E Giangrande, J David Neelin
A substantial fraction of precipitation is associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), which are currently poorly represented in climate models. Convective parameterizations are highly sensitive to the assumptions of an entraining plume model, in which high equivalent potential temperature air from the boundary layer is modified via turbulent entrainment. Here we show, using multiinstrument evidence from the Green Ocean Amazon field campaign (2014-2015; GoAmazon2014/5), that an empirically constrained weighting for inflow of environmental air based on radar wind profiler estimates of vertical velocity and mass flux yields a strong relationship between resulting buoyancy measures and precipitation statistics...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666118/a-simplified-scoring-system-in-de-novo-follicular-lymphoma-treated-initially-with-immunochemotherapy
#8
Emmanuel Bachy, Matthew J Maurer, Thomas M Habermann, Bénédicte Gelas-Dore, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Jane A Estell, Eric Van den Neste, Réda Bouabdallah, Emmanuel Gyan, Andrew L Feldman, Joan Bargay, Alain Delmer, Susan L Slager, Maria Gomes da Silva, Olivier Fitoussi, David Belada, Hervé Maisonneuve, Tanin Intragumtornchai, Stephen M Ansell, Thierry Lamy, Peggy Dartigues, Brian K Link, John F Seymour, James R Cerhan, Gilles Salles
In follicular lymphoma (FL), no prognostic index has been built based solely on a cohort of patients treated with initial immunochemotherapy. There is currently a need to define parsimonious clinical models for trial stratification and to add on biomolecular factors. Here, we confirmed the validity of both the FLIPI and the FLIPI2 in the large prospective PRIMA trial cohort of 1,135 patients treated with initial R-chemotherapy +/- R maintenance. Furthermore, we developed a new prognostic tool comprising only 2 simple parameters (bone marrow involvement and β2-microglobulin (β2m)) to predict progression-free survival (PFS)...
April 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665226/tunable-spectrum-selectivity-for-multiphoton-absorption-with-enhanced-visible-light-trapping-in-zno-nanorods
#9
Kok Hong Tan, Fang Sheng Lim, Alfred Zhen Yang Toh, Xia-Xi Zheng, Chang Fu Dee, Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis, Siang-Piao Chai, Wei Sea Chang
Observation of visible light trapping in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) correlated to the optical and photoelectrochemical properties is reported. In this study, ZnO NR diameter and c-axis length respond primarily at two different regions, UV and visible light, respectively. ZnO NR diameter exhibits UV absorption where large ZnO NR diameter area increases light absorption ability leading to high efficient electron-hole pair separation. On the other hand, ZnO NR c-axis length has a dominant effect in visible light resulting from a multiphoton absorption mechanism due to light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663855/collagen-analysis-by-second-harmonic-generation-microscopy-predicts-outcome-of-luminal-breast-cancer
#10
Rodrigo A Natal, José Vassallo, Geisilene R Paiva, Vitor B Pelegati, Guilherme O Barbosa, Guilherme R Mendonça, Caroline Bondarik, Sophie F Derchain, Hernandes F Carvalho, Carmen S Lima, Carlos L Cesar, Luís Otávio Sarian
Second-harmonic generation microscopy represents an important tool to evaluate extracellular matrix collagen structure, which undergoes changes during cancer progression. Thus, it is potentially relevant to assess breast cancer development. We propose the use of second-harmonic generation images of tumor stroma selected on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides to evaluate the prognostic value of collagen fibers analyses in peri and intratumoral areas in patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast carcinoma...
April 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663698/comparative-study-of-two-droplet-based-dissolving-microneedle-fabrication-methods-for-skin-vaccination
#11
Chisong Lee, Hongil Kim, Suyong Kim, Shayan F Lahiji, Na-Young Ha, Huisuk Yang, Geonwoo Kang, Hai Yen Thi Nguyen, Yuri Kim, Myung-Sik Choi, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Hyungil Jung
Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) have been widely studied in medical applications due to their pain-free administration, superior efficiency, and safe drug delivery. In skin vaccination, preserving the activity of the encapsulated antigen is an important consideration, as antigen activity is lost during DMN fabrication because of various stress factors. These stress factors vary between fabrication methods and each method affects the antigen's activity to different degrees. In this study, the activity of encapsulated antigens delivered by DMNs is compared between two recently developed DMN fabrication methods; droplet-born air blowing (DAB) and centrifugal lithography (CL) for a model scrub typhus vaccine antigen, ScaA...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663099/feasibility-study-of-stain-free-classification-of-cell-apoptosis-based-on-diffraction-imaging-flow-cytometry-and-supervised-machine-learning-techniques
#12
Jingwen Feng, Tong Feng, Chengwen Yang, Wei Wang, Yu Sa, Yuanming Feng
This study was to explore the feasibility of prediction and classification of cells in different stages of apoptosis with a stain-free method based on diffraction images and supervised machine learning. Apoptosis was induced in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells by cis-platinum (DDP). A newly developed technique of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) was performed to acquire diffraction images of the cells in three different statuses (viable, early apoptotic and late apoptotic/necrotic) after cell separation through fluorescence activated cell sorting with Annexin V-PE and SYTOX® Green double staining...
April 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661774/accuracy-safety-and-reliability-of-novel-phase-i-trial-designs
#13
Heng Zhou, Ying Yuan, Lei Nie
A number of novel model-based and model-assisted designs have been proposed to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in phase I clinical trials, but their differences and relative pros and cons are not clear to many practitioners. We review three model-based designs, including the continual reassessment method (CRM), dose escalation with overdose control (EWOC), and Bayesian logistic regression model (BLRM), and three model-assisted designs, including the modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI), Bayesian optimal interval (BOIN), and keyboard designs...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661281/acute-high-altitude-exposure-shortens-survival-after-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#14
Jingxiang Zhao, Guoxing You, Yujing Yin, Yuha Zhang, Ying Wang, Gan Chen, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hemorrhage (UH) remains the most common cause of death on the battlefield. This study examined the pathophysiological characteristics of UH in rats acutely exposed to high altitude. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats raised at sea level were randomly divided into two groups. Rats in the high-altitude group were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (simulating 4000 m above sea level) for 2 d and then were performed a hemorrhagic shock protocol in the hypobaric chamber...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660591/inverse-relationship-between-the-evans-index-and-cognitive-performance-in-non-disabled-stroke-free-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-population-based-study
#15
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Danielle Gladstone, María Sarmiento-Bobadilla, Kristen Cagino, Mauricio Zambrano, Aldo F Costa, Mark J Sedler
OBJECTIVE: The Evans Index (EI) is used for recognition of individuals with normal pressure hydrocephalus. However, recent studies suggest that the EI is not a reliable marker of this condition. Rather, the EI may be inversely correlated with cognitive performance, but information on this correlation is lacking. We aimed to assess the relationship between the EI and cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 314 non-disabled, stroke-free, individuals aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project undergoing brain MRI and MoCA testing...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660407/application-of-water-soluble-polyvinyl-alcohol-based-film-patches-on-laser-microporated-skin-facilitates-intradermal-macromolecule-and-nanoparticle-delivery
#16
Laura Engelke, Gerhard Winter, Julia Engert
The intradermal delivery of biologics has long been recognized as attractive approach for cutaneous immunotherapy, particularly vaccination. Although intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection provide reproducible dosing and good cost- and delivery efficiency, the major objective to avoid sharps and the need for enhanced storage stability have renewed the interest in alternative needle-free delivery strategies. This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659933/circulating-tumor-cells-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-by-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-a-meta-analysis
#17
François-Clément Bidard, Stefan Michiels, Sabine Riethdorf, Volkmar Mueller, Laura J Esserman, Anthony Lucci, Bjørn Naume, Jun Horiguchi, Rafael Gisbert-Criado, Stefan Sleijfer, Masakazu Toi, Jose A Garcia-Saenz, Andreas Hartkopf, Daniele Generali, Françoise Rothé, Jeffrey Smerage, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Justin Stebbing, Patrice Viens, Mark Jesus M Magbanua, Carolyn S Hall, Olav Engebraaten, Daisuke Takata, José Vidal-Martínez, Wendy Onstenk, Noriyoshi Fujisawa, Eduardo Diaz-Rubio, Florin-Andrei Taran, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Michail Ignatiadis, Charlotte Proudhon, Denise M Wolf, Jessica B Bauldry, Elin Borgen, Rin Nagaoka, Vicente Carañana, Jaco Kraan, Marisa Maestro, Sara Yvonne Brucker, Karsten Weber, Fabien Reyal, Dominic Amara, Mandar G Karhade, Randi R Mathiesen, Hideaki Tokiniwa, Antonio Llombart-Cussac, Alessandra Meddis, Paul Blanche, Koenraad d'Hollander, Klaus Pantel
Background: We conducted a meta-analysis in nonmetastatic breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) to assess the clinical validity of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection as a prognostic marker. Methods: We collected individual patient data from 21 studies in which CTC detection by CellSearch was performed in early breast cancer patients treated with NCT. The primary end point was overall survival, analyzed according to CTC detection, using Cox regression models stratified by study...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659758/accelerated-clearance-of-infliximab-is-associated-with-treatment-failure-in-patients-with-corticosteroid-refractory-acute-ulcerative-colitis
#18
David Kevans, Sanjay Murthy, Diane R Mould, Mark S Silverberg
Background and Aims: A significant proportion of patients with corticosteroid-refractory acute ulcerative colitis [UC] fail therapy. We aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics [PK] of infliximab [IFX] in patients with corticosteroid-refractory acute UC and determine the association between induction IFX PK and short- and long-term therapy outcome. Methods: A population PK model was developed using data from 51 patients with UC [n = 42] and Crohn's disease [n = 9]. A subset of patients [n = 36] with acute corticosteroid-refractory UC (median Mayo score 11 [range 8-12]; 33 of 36 hospitalized; median corticosteroid dose at study entry 50mg prednisolone equivalent IV/oral) commencing IFX were studied to assess further correlations between PK from the first induction dose and therapy outcomes...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659697/variations-in-leaf-growth-parameters-within-the-tree-structure-of-adult-coffea-arabica-in-relation-to-seasonal-growth-water-availability-and-air-carbon-dioxide-concentration
#19
Miroslava Rakocevic, Fabio Takeshi Matsunaga
Background and Aims: Dynamics in branch and leaf growth parameters, such as the phyllochron, duration of leaf expansion, leaf life span and bud mortality, determine tree architecture and canopy foliage distribution. We aimed to estimate leaf growth parameters in adult Arabica coffee plants based on leaf supporter axis order and position along the vertical profile, considering their modifications related to seasonal growth, air [CO2] and water availability. Methods: Growth and mortality of leaves and terminal buds of adult Arabica coffee trees were followed in two independent field experiments in two sub-tropical climate regions of Brazil, Londrina-PR (Cfa) and Jaguariúna-SP (Cwa)...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659657/prognostic-value-of-electrocardiographic-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-on-cardiovascular-risk-in-a-non-hypertensive-community-based-population
#20
Kentaro Tanaka, Fumitaka Tanaka, Toshiyuki Onoda, Kozo Tanno, Masaki Ohsawa, Kiyomi Sakata, Shinichi Omama, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Kazuyoshi Itai, Toru Kuribayashi, Akira Okayama, Motoyuki Nakamura
BACKGROUND: The appearance of left ventricular hypertrophy on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG-LVH) has been clarified to be associated with the risk of incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs) in hypertensive individuals and the general population, but not enough in non-hypertensive individuals. METHODS: A total of 4,927 non-hypertensive individuals ≥ 40 years of age who were free of CVE in the general population were followed for the incidence of CVE. ECG-LVH was defined according to criteria of the Sokolow-Lyon (SL) voltage, Cornell voltage (CV), or Cornell voltage product (CP)...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
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