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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168990/model-based-meta-analysis-for-multiple-myeloma-a-quantitative-drug-independent-framework-for-efficient-decisions-in-oncology-drug-development
#1
Zhaoyang Teng, Neeraj Gupta, Zhaowei Hua, Guohui Liu, Vivek Samnotra, Karthik Venkatakrishnan, Richard Labotka
The failure rate for phase III trials in oncology is high; quantitative predictive approaches are needed. We developed a model-based meta-analysis (MBMA) framework to predict progression-free survival (PFS) from overall response rates (ORR) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), using data from seven phase III trials. A Bayesian analysis was used to predict the probability of technical success (PTS) for achieving desired phase III PFS targets based on phase II ORR data. The model demonstrated a strongly correlated (R(2) = 0...
November 23, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168586/regional-oligodendrocytopathy-and-astrocytopathy-precede-myelin-loss-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-a-murine-model-of-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome
#2
Joanna Bouchat, Bruno Couturier, Catherine Marneffe, Fabrice Gankam-Kengne, Benoît Balau, Kathleen De Swert, Jean-Pierre Brion, Luc Poncelet, Jacques Gilloteaux, Charles Nicaise
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a non-primary inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system myelin that is often associated with a precipitous rise of serum sodium concentration. To investigate the physiopathology of ODS in vivo, we generated a novel murine model based on the abrupt correction of chronic hyponatremia. Accordingly, ODS mice developed impairments in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and in grip strength. At 24 hr post-correction, oligodendrocyte markers (APC and Cx47) were downregulated, prior to any detectable demyelination...
November 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168554/relation-between-denaturation-time-measured-by-optical-coherence-reflectometry-and-thermal-lesion-depth-during-radiofrequency-cardiac-ablation-feasibility-numerical-study
#3
Ana González-Suárez, David Herranz, Enrique Berjano, Jose L Rubio-Guivernau, Eduardo Margallo-Balbás
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to thermally destroy the focus of cardiac arrhythmias. Novel optical techniques are now being integrated into RF catheters in order to detect the changes in tissue properties. Loss of birefringence due to fiber denaturation at around 70°C is related to changes in accumulated phase retardation and can be measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence reflectometry (PS-OCR)...
November 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168526/how-the-toxicity-of-nanomaterials-towards-different-species-could-be-simultaneously-evaluated-a-novel-multi-nano-read-across-approach
#4
Natalia Sizochenko, Alicja Mikolajczyk, Karolina Jagiello, Tomasz Puzyn, Jerzy Leszczynski, Bakhtiyor Rasulev
Application of predictive modeling approaches can solve the problem of missing data. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of missing values on qualitative or quantitative modeling, but only a few studies have discussed it for the case of applications in nanotechnology-related data. The present study is aimed at the development of a multi-nano-read-across modeling technique that helps in predicting the toxicity of different species such as bacteria, algae, protozoa, and mammalian cell lines. Herein, the experimental toxicity of 184 metal and silica oxide (30 unique chemical types) nanoparticles from 15 datasets is analyzed...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168345/nonlinear-micro-ct-based-fe-modeling-of-trabecular-bone-sensitivity-of-apparent-response-to-tissue-constitutive-law-and-bone-volume-fraction
#5
F A Sabet, O Jin, S Koric, I Jasiuk
In this study, the sensitivity of the apparent response of trabecular bone to different constitutive models at the tissue-level was investigated using finite element modeling based on micro-computed tomography. Trabecular bone specimens from porcine femurs were loaded under a uniaxial compression experimentally and computationally. The apparent behaviors computed using von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and Cast Iron plasticity models were compared. Secondly, the effect of bone volume fraction was studied by changing the bone volume fraction of a trabecular bone sample and while keeping the same basic architecture...
November 22, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168076/model-based-methods-in-the-biopharmaceutical-process-lifecycle
#6
Paul Kroll, Alexandra Hofer, Sophia Ulonska, Julian Kager, Christoph Herwig
Model-based methods are increasingly used in all areas of biopharmaceutical process technology. They can be applied in the field of experimental design, process characterization, process design, monitoring and control. Benefits of these methods are lower experimental effort, process transparency, clear rationality behind decisions and increased process robustness. The possibility of applying methods adopted from different scientific domains accelerates this trend further. In addition, model-based methods can help to implement regulatory requirements as suggested by recent Quality by Design and validation initiatives...
November 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167982/successional-changes-in-trophic-interactions-support-a-mechanistic-model-of-post-fire-population-dynamics
#7
Annabel L Smith
Models based on functional traits have limited power in predicting how animal populations respond to disturbance because they do not capture the range of demographic and biological factors that drive population dynamics, including variation in trophic interactions. I tested the hypothesis that successional changes in vegetation structure, which affected invertebrate abundance, would influence growth rates and body condition in the early-successional, insectivorous gecko Nephrurus stellatus. I captured geckos at 17 woodland sites spanning a succession gradient from 2 to 48 years post-fire...
November 22, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167534/declining-pre-monsoon-dust-loading-over-south-asia-signature-of-a-changing-regional-climate
#8
Satyendra K Pandey, V Vinoj, K Landu, S Suresh Babu
Desert dust over the Indian region during pre-monsoon season is known to strengthen monsoon circulation, by modulating rainfall through the elevated heat pump (EHP) mechanism. In this context, an insight into long term trends of dust loading over this region is of significant importance in understanding monsoon variability. In this study, using long term (2000 to 2015) aerosol measurements from multiple satellites, ground stations and model based reanalysis, we show that dust loading in the atmosphere has decreased by 10 to 20% during the pre-monsoon season with respect to start of this century...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167478/an-evolutionary-game-theory-model-of-spontaneous-brain-functioning
#9
Dario Madeo, Agostino Talarico, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Chiara Mocenni, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Our brain is a complex system of interconnected regions spontaneously organized into distinct networks. The integration of information between and within these networks is a continuous process that can be observed even when the brain is at rest, i.e. not engaged in any particular task. Moreover, such spontaneous dynamics show predictive value over individual cognitive profile and constitute a potential marker in neurological and psychiatric conditions, making its understanding of fundamental importance in modern neuroscience...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167422/full-wave-modeling-of-broadband-near-field-scanning-microwave-microscopy
#10
Bi-Yi Wu, Xin-Qing Sheng, Rene Fabregas, Yang Hao
A three-dimensional finite element numerical modeling for the scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) setup is applied to study the full-wave quantification of the local material properties of samples. The modeling takes into account the radiation and scattering losses of the nano-sized probe neglected in previous models based on low-frequency assumptions. The scanning techniques of approach curves and constant height are implemented. In addition, we conclude that the SMM has the potential for use as a broadband dielectric spectroscopy operating at higher frequencies up to THz...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167365/correlated-individual-differences-suggest-a-common-mechanism-underlying-metacognition-in-visual-perception-and-visual-short-term-memory
#11
Jason Samaha, Bradley R Postle
Adaptive behaviour depends on the ability to introspect accurately about one's own performance. Whether this metacognitive ability is supported by the same mechanisms across different tasks is unclear. We investigated the relationship between metacognition of visual perception and metacognition of visual short-term memory (VSTM). Experiments 1 and 2 required subjects to estimate the perceived or remembered orientation of a grating stimulus and rate their confidence. We observed strong positive correlations between individual differences in metacognitive accuracy between the two tasks...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166908/mathematical-models-for-predicting-human-mobility-in-the-context-of-infectious-disease-spread-introducing-the-impedance-model
#12
Kankoé Sallah, Roch Giorgi, Linus Bengtsson, Xin Lu, Erik Wetter, Paul Adrien, Stanislas Rebaudet, Renaud Piarroux, Jean Gaudart
BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of human mobility have demonstrated a great potential for infectious disease epidemiology in contexts of data scarcity. While the commonly used gravity model involves parameter tuning and is thus difficult to implement without reference data, the more recent radiation model based on population densities is parameter-free, but biased. In this study we introduce the new impedance model, by analogy with electricity. Previous research has compared models on the basis of a few specific available spatial patterns...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166653/testing-the-applicability-of-a-benthic-foraminiferal-based-transfer-function-for-the-reconstruction-of-paleowater-depth-changes-in-rhodes-greece-during-the-early-pleistocene
#13
Yvonne Milker, Manuel F G Weinkauf, Jürgen Titschack, Andre Freiwald, Stefan Krüger, Frans J Jorissen, Gerhard Schmiedl
We present paleo-water depth reconstructions for the Pefka E section deposited on the island of Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene. For these reconstructions, a transfer function (TF) using modern benthic foraminifera surface samples from the Adriatic and Western Mediterranean Seas has been developed. The TF model gives an overall predictive accuracy of ~50 m over a water depth range of ~1200 m. Two separate TF models for shallower and deeper water depth ranges indicate a good predictive accuracy of 9 m for shallower water depths (0-200 m) but far less accuracy of 130 m for deeper water depths (200-1200 m) due to uneven sampling along the water depth gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166565/hospital-based-physicians-intubation-decisions-and-associated-mental-models-when-managing-a-critically-and-terminally-ill-older-patient
#14
Shannon Haliko, Julie Downs, Deepika Mohan, Robert Arnold, Amber E Barnato
BACKGROUND: Variation in the intensity of acute care treatment at the end of life is influenced more strongly by hospital and provider characteristics than patient preferences. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe physicians' mental models (i.e., thought processes) when encountering a simulated critically and terminally ill older patient, and to compare those models based on whether their treatment plan was patient preference-concordant or preference-discordant. METHODS: Seventy-three hospital-based physicians from 3 academic medical centers engaged in a simulated patient encounter and completed a mental model interview while watching the video recording of their encounter...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166183/the-development-of-an-interactive-health-education-model-based-on-the-djuwita-application-for-adolescent-girls
#15
Sri Djuwitaningsih, Setyowati
Alarming incidents of maternal deaths in Indonesia are due to three major causes: bleeding, sepsis, and hypertension, in addition to other non-obstetric causes and unsafe abortions. Adolescent girls contributed to maternal mortality based on early marriage, unwanted pregnancy, and childbirth. Prevention efforts have been taken through government programs and non-governmental organizations, but in practice those were considered ineffective. Thus, a preventative effort in the form of health education should be made, preferably embedded in a popular mobile application that most teenagers would be apt to use...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166119/two-phase-thermodynamic-model-for-computing-entropies-of-liquids-reanalyzed
#16
Tao Sun, Jiawei Xian, Huai Zhang, Zhigang Zhang, Yigang Zhang
The two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model [S.-T. Lin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792-11805 (2003)] provides a promising paradigm to efficiently determine the ionic entropies of liquids from molecular dynamics. In this model, the vibrational density of states (VDoS) of a liquid is decomposed into a diffusive gas-like component and a vibrational solid-like component. By treating the diffusive component as hard sphere (HS) gas and the vibrational component as harmonic oscillators, the ionic entropy of the liquid is determined...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166070/effect-of-the-diradical-character-on-static-polarizabilities-and-two-photon-absorption-cross-sections-a-closer-look-with-spin-flip-equation-of-motion-coupled-cluster-singles-and-doubles-method
#17
Kaushik D Nanda, Anna I Krylov
We present static polarizabilities and two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of prototypical diradicals such as benzynes and analogues of m-xylylene and p-quinodimethane computed with the spin-flip equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-SF-CCSD) method. The static polarizabilities were calculated as analytic second derivatives of the EOM energies, and the 2PA cross sections were calculated using the expectation-value approach. We explain the trends in the nonlinear responses of the SF target states by constructing few-states models based on truncated sum-over-states expressions for these nonlinear properties...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166036/solid-like-features-in-dense-vapors-near-the-fluid-critical-point
#18
George Ruppeiner, Nathan Dyjack, Abigail McAloon, Jerry Stoops
The phase diagram (pressure versus temperature) of the pure fluid is typically envisioned as being featureless apart from the presence of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve terminating at the critical point. However, a number of recent authors have proposed that this simple picture misses important features, such as the Widom line, the Fisher-Widom line, and the Frenkel line. In our paper, we discuss another way of augmenting the pure fluid phase diagram, lines of zero thermodynamic curvature R = 0 separating regimes of fluid solid-like behavior (R > 0) from gas-like or liquid-like behavior (R < 0)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165776/model-driven-gas-exchange-monitoring-in-the-critically-ill
#19
Cosmin Ion Balan, Adrian View-Kim Wong
Understanding pulmonary gas exchange performance is a dynamic process which, depending on clinical context, exhibits different levels of complexity. Global tools such as tension-based indexes yield clinically crucial information under very specific conditions. Yet, accurate mechanistic insight can only originate in model-based tools. One-parameter models such as shunt or dead space are well established in clinical practice whilst two or three-parameter models have just been advanced and their role is yet to be delineated...
November 22, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165235/synthesis-of-n-acetyl-d-quinovosamine-in-rhizobium-etli-ce3-is-completed-after-its-4-keto-precursor-is-linked-to-a-carrier-lipid
#20
Tiezheng Li, K Dale Noel
Bacterial O-antigens are synthesized on lipid carriers before being transferred to lipopolysaccharide core structures. Rhizobium etli CE3 lipopolysaccharide is a model for understanding O-antigen biological function. CE3 O-antigen structure and genetics are known. However, proposed enzymology for CE3 O-antigen synthesis has been examined very little in vitro, and even the sugar added to begin the synthesis is uncertain. A model based on mutagenesis studies predicts that 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (QuiNAc) is the first O-antigen sugar and that genes wreV, wreQ and wreU direct QuiNAc synthesis and O-antigen initiation...
November 22, 2017: Microbiology
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