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Geoffrey S Meltzner, James T Heaton, Yunbin Deng, Gianluca De Luca, Serge H Roy, Joshua C Kline
Each year thousands of individuals require surgical removal of their larynx (voice box) due to trauma or disease, and thereby require an alternative voice source or assistive device to verbally communicate. Although natural voice is lost after laryngectomy, most muscles controlling speech articulation remain intact. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of speech musculature can be recorded from the neck and face, and used for automatic speech recognition to provide speech-to-text or synthesized speech as an alternative means of communication...
December 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
Huidong Li, Pei Zhang, Shuaifang Yuan, Huiyuan Tian, Dandan Tian, Min Liu
Objective: To establish early diagnosis model of inflammatory factors for atherosclerosis (AS), providing theoretical evidence for early detection of AS and development of plaques. Methods: Serum samples were collected to detect the inflammatory factors including CysC, Hcy, hs-CRP, UA, FIB, D-D, LP (a), IL-6, SAA, sCD40L and MDA. Using Logistic regression analysis, the inflammatory factors used for modeling were screened out, and then the AS early diagnosis models were established based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, support vector machine and BP neural network respectively...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Sam C Berens, Jessica S Horst, Chris M Bird
When we encounter a new word, there are often multiple objects that the word might refer to [1]. Nonetheless, because names for concrete nouns are constant, we are able to learn them across successive encounters [2, 3]. This form of "cross-situational" learning may result from either associative mechanisms that gradually accumulate evidence for each word-object association [4, 5] or rapid propose-but-verify (PbV) mechanisms where only one hypothesized referent is stored for each word, which is either subsequently verified or rejected [6, 7]...
March 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Luis M Castro, Wan-Lun Wang, Victor H Lachos, Vanda Inácio de Carvalho, Cristian L Bayes
In biomedical studies, the analysis of longitudinal data based on Gaussian assumptions is common practice. Nevertheless, more often than not, the observed responses are naturally skewed, rendering the use of symmetric mixed effects models inadequate. In addition, it is also common in clinical assays that the patient's responses are subject to some upper and/or lower quantification limit, depending on the diagnostic assays used for their detection. Furthermore, responses may also often present a nonlinear relation with some covariates, such as time...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Lovjeet Singh, Pawan Rekha, Shri Chand
In order to find a better alternative of conventional aqueous ion-exchange method, several Cu/zeolite Y samples were synthesized by different routes and examined for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of quinoline aqueous solution in continuous fixed-bed reactor. The characterization of catalysts using ICPMS, XRD, N2 sorption, UV-vis DRS, FESEM and XPS techniques reveals the profound influence of preparation methods on synergy between copper-support interfaces. Aqueous ion-exchange (CuYAIE ) and wet-impregnation (CuYIMP ) methods promoted isolated Cu1+/2+ species; however, large crystallites of CuO were present on the external surface of precipitation-impregnation (CuYPI ) catalyst...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yao Li, Zhiqiang Yue, Hua Yu, Xiaojian Liu, Li Tao, Zhijie Zhu, Fangtian Fan, Cunsi Shen, Aiyun Wang, Wenxing Chen, Yin Lu
PURPOSE: A computational model based on clinical data from pancreatic cancer patients has been successfully created and used for predicting tumor sizes in primary and metastasis sites and survival time from kinetics of tumor cells, such as growth rate, metastasis rate and mutation rate, etc. Whether this computational model could be fitted or necessary modification of some parameters for fitting in mice is unknown. Here, we developed a computational model in mice for spontaneous metastasis to simulate the process of tumor metastasis based on the mathematical frameworks...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Yawei Gu, Yunlang She, Chenyang Dai, Yijiu Ren, Ziwen Fan, Huiyuan Zhu, Xiwen Sun, Huikang Xie, Gening Jiang, Dong Xie, Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Some clinical N0 lung adenocarcinoma have been pathologically diagnosed as N1 or N2. To improve the preoperative diagnostic accuracy of lymph node (LN) disease, we developed a prediction model for LN metastasis in cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma based on computed tomography (CT) texture analysis and clinical characteristics to estimate the probability of LN metastasis. METHODS: The records of 501 consecutive patients with cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma who underwent CT scan and pulmonary resection with systematic lymph nodes dissection or lymph nodes sampling were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
M M McCarthy, M W Overton
The objective of this research was to determine the effect of disease misclassification on the estimated effect of metritis on milk production. Misclassification introduces bias that usually results in an underestimation of the association between exposure (disease) and the outcome of interest (milk production). This distorted measure of association results from the comparison of an affected population (some of which may not truly be affected) to a nonaffected population (which often includes affected subjects that are unidentified)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Giovanni Viciconte, Benoît-Joseph Gréa, Fabien S Godeferd
Turbulence in weakly coupled plasmas under compression can experience a sudden dissipation of kinetic energy due to the abrupt growth of the viscosity coefficient governed by the temperature increase. We investigate in detail this phenomenon by considering a turbulent velocity field obeying the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a source term resulting from the mean velocity. The system can be simplified by a nonlinear change of variable, and then solved using both highly resolved direct numerical simulations and a spectral model based on the eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
R Kieffer, M Bergamaschi, E Bravin, W Farabolini, P Karataev, T Lefevre, S Mazzoni
We report the observation of shadowing between two optical transition radiation (OTR) sources from a 205 MeV electron beam. The total optical intensity is measured as a function of the distance d between the sources, covering the range 0<d<4L_{v}, where L_{v} is the formation length of the particles. Data show that the total optical intensity starts decreasing due to shadowing when d approaches L_{v} until it becomes undetectable for very short distances d/L_{v}→0. A model based solely on interference between the two OTR sources is in good agreement with experimental data...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Siwapon Srisonphan
Advanced surface engineering aims to produce surfaces with well-controlled wettabilities; however, precise control over water imbibition and liquid spreading on patterned surfaces remains a challenge. Nonthermal atmospheric plasma (NAP) treatment can dramatically change wettability; however, for coated biological objects, such as seeds, plasma interaction is not entirely understood. Herein, we employed atmospheric hybrid cold plasma (HCP) to elucidate how NAP fundamentally interacts with seed surfaces. We show that nonthermal atmospheric plasma can control water imbibition (WI) and liquid spreading on seeds...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Catherine Delves-Yates, Andrea Stockl, Jenny Moore
BACKGROUND: Concept analysis is frequently the first step novice nurse researchers take when beginning their work. However, the value of concept analysis in generating theory is debated, and although there are many models researchers can use, few provide guidance for applying them or overviews of their philosophical underpinnings. AIM: To share learning about challenges encountered when undertaking concept analysis and to present an adaptation of Rodgers ( 1989 ) model created to overcome these...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Thomas Tängdén, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Jason A Roberts, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir is used as oral prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. However, limited pharmacokinetic data exist to guide dosing in this patient group. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients and predict optimal dosing based on Monte Carlo simulations. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from adult kidney transplant recipients who received valganciclovir prophylaxis during a 10-year study period were collected retrospectively...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Sarah Freitas Magalhães, Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Gerardo Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Jamal Shamsara
Rescoring is a simple approach that theoretically could improve the original docking results. In this study AutoDock Vina was used as a docked engine and three other scoring functions besides the original scoring function, Vina, as well as their combinations as consensus scoring functions were employed to explore the effect of rescoring on virtual screenings that had been done on diverse targets. Rescoring by DrugScore produces the most number of cases with significant changes in screening power. Thus, the DrugScore results were used to build a simple model based on two binding site descriptors that could predict possible improvement by DrugScore rescoring...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Simone Franceschini, Emanuele Gandola, Marco Martinoli, Lorenzo Tancioni, Michele Scardi
Species distribution is the result of complex interactions that involve environmental parameters as well as biotic factors. However, methodological approaches that consider the use of biotic variables during the prediction process are still largely lacking. Here, a cascaded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach is proposed in order to increase the accuracy of fish species occurrence estimates and a case study for Leucos aula in NE Italy is presented as a demonstration case. Potentially useful biotic information (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Berthoumieux
This work is concerned with a simple model for a polar fluid, a Gaussian field model based on the excess density and on the polarization. It is a convenient framework to implement the dielectric properties of correlated liquids that stem from nanometric correlations between molecules. It allows us to study the effects of coupling terms between density and polarization on the structure of the fluid. Despite the simplicity of such a model, it can capture some interesting features of the response functions of water such as the quasi-resonant longitudinal dielectric susceptibility or the presence of two maxima in the structure factor...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yannick J Franzke, Nils Middendorf, Florian Weigend
We present an efficient algorithm for one- and two-component analytical energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements in the exact two-component decoupling approach to the one-electron Dirac equation (X2C). Our approach is a generalization of the spin-free ansatz by Cheng and Gauss [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084114 (2011)], where the perturbed one-electron Hamiltonian is calculated by solving a first-order response equation. Computational costs are drastically reduced by applying the diagonal local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU) [D...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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