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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742711/readiness-of-us-general-surgery-residents-for-independent-practice
#1
Brian C George, Jordan D Bohnen, Reed G Williams, Shari L Meyerson, Mary C Schuller, Michael J Clark, Andreas H Meier, Laura Torbeck, Samuel P Mandell, John T Mullen, Douglas S Smink, Rebecca E Scully, Jeffrey G Chipman, Edward D Auyang, Kyla P Terhune, Paul E Wise, Jennifer N Choi, Eugene F Foley, Justin B Dimick, Michael A Choti, Nathaniel J Soper, Keith D Lillemoe, Joseph B Zwischenberger, Gary L Dunnington, Debra A DaRosa, Jonathan P Fryer
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the current state of the General Surgery (GS) residency training model by investigating resident operative performance and autonomy. BACKGROUND: The American Board of Surgery has designated 132 procedures as being "Core" to the practice of GS. GS residents are expected to be able to safely and independently perform those procedures by the time they graduate. There is growing concern that not all residents achieve that standard. Lack of operative autonomy may play a role...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742352/stereocontrolled-nucleophilic-addition-to-five-membered-oxocarbenium-ions-directed-by-the-protecting-groups-application-to-the-total-synthesis-of-varitriol-and-of-two-diastereoisomers-thereof
#2
Alma Sánchez-Eleuterio, William Hernán García-Santos, Howard Díaz-Salazar, Marcos Hernández-Rodríguez, Alejandro Cordero-Vargas
A stereodivergent C-glycosidation of carbohydrate-derived lactones can be mediated by the protecting groups, and applied to the total synthesis of (+)-varitriol and of two diastereoisomers thereof, which represent an unprecedent use of the protecting groups in the synthesis of a naturally occurring compound. In particular, the stereoselective nucleophile attack for 2,3-trans substituted five-membered ring oxocarbenium ions is strongly influenced by the presence of aromatic rings in the protecting groups. According to quantum chemical calculations, the stereoselectvity depends on the π-π interactions between the aromatic ring of the C-2 protecting group with the exocyclic triple bond and the oxocarbenium ion...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742100/a-multifactor-approach-to-forecasting-romanian-gross-domestic-product-gdp-in-the-short-run
#3
Daniel Armeanu, Jean Vasile Andrei, Leonard Lache, Mirela Panait
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of a generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM) based on dynamic principal components analysis to forecasting short-term economic growth in Romania. We have used a generalized principal components approach to estimate a dynamic model based on a dataset comprising 86 economic and non-economic variables that are linked to economic output. The model exploits the dynamic correlations between these variables and uses three common components that account for roughly 72% of the information contained in the original space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742033/the-impact-of-model-based-clutter-suppression-on-cluttered-aberrated-wavefronts
#4
Kazuyuki Dei, Brett Byram
Recent studies reveal that both phase aberration and reverberation play a major role in degrading ultrasound image quality. We previously developed an algorithm for suppressing clutter, but we have not yet tested it in the context of aberrated wavefronts. In this study, we evaluate our previously reported algorithm, called aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE), in the presence of phase aberration and in the presence of multipath scattering and phase aberration. We use simulations to investigate phase aberration corruption and correction in the presence of reverberation...
July 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742031/patient-specific-left-ventricular-flow-simulations-from-transthoracic-echocardiography-robustness-evaluation-and-validation-against-ultrasound-doppler-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
David Larsson, Jeannette H Spuhler, Sven Petersson, Tim Nordenfur, Massimiliano Colarieti-Tosti, Johan Hoffman, Reidar Winter, Matilda Larsson
The combination of medical imaging with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has enabled the study of 3D blood flow on a patient-specific level. However, with models based on gated high-resolution data, the study of transient flows, and any model implementation into routine cardiac care, is challenging. The present paper presents a novel pathway for patient-specific CFD modelling of the left ventricle (LV), using 4D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as input modality. To evaluate the clinical usability, two sub-studies were performed...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739365/designing-predictive-models-for-beta-lactam-allergy-using-the-drug-allergy-and-hypersensitivity-database
#6
Anca Mirela Chiriac, Youna Wang, Rik Schrijvers, Philippe Jean Bousquet, Thibault Mura, Nicolas Molinari, Pascal Demoly
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam antibiotics represent the main cause of allergic reactions to drugs, inducing both immediate and nonimmediate allergies. The diagnosis is well established, usually based on skin tests and drug provocation tests, but cumbersome. OBJECTIVES: To design predictive models for the diagnosis of beta-lactam allergy, based on the clinical history of patients with suspicions of allergic reactions to beta-lactams. METHODS: The study included a retrospective phase, in which records of patients explored for a suspicion of beta-lactam allergy (in the Allergy Unit of the University Hospital of Montpellier between September 1996 and September 2012) were used to construct predictive models based on a logistic regression and decision tree method; a prospective phase, in which we performed an external validation of the chosen models in patients with suspicion of beta-lactam allergy recruited from 3 allergy centers (Montpellier, Nîmes, Narbonne) between March and November 2013...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738510/degradation-kinetics-and-mechanism-of-sulfadiazine-and-sulfamethoxazole-in-an-agricultural-soil-system-with-manure-application
#7
Yu Zhang, Shuangqing Hu, Hongchang Zhang, Genxiang Shen, Zhejun Yuan, Wei Zhang
Recently, under the application of waste-water, manure and biosolids, antibiotics have been used massively in agriculture resulted in antibiotic resistance and potential environmental risks. In the present study, the removal of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in an agricultural soil system was explored. All the experiments were conducted under different incubation conditions for 49days. The experimental results indicated that all the degradation processes could effectively follow a first-order kinetic model...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737713/quality-assessment-of-gentiana-rigescens-from-different-geographical-origins-using-ft-ir-spectroscopy-combined-with-hplc
#8
Zhe Wu, Yanli Zhao, Ji Zhang, Yuanzhong Wang
Gentiana rigescens is a precious herbal medicine in China because of its liver-protective and choleretic effects. A method for the qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of G. rigescens from Yunnan Province, China, has been developed employing Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the aid of chemometrics such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machines (SVM) regression. Our results indicated that PLS-DA model could efficiently discriminate G...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737693/a-context-driven-model-for-the-flat-roofs-construction-process-through-sensing-systems-internet-of-things-and-last-planner-system
#9
María Dolores Andújar-Montoya, Diego Marcos-Jorquera, Francisco Manuel García-Botella, Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias
The main causes of building defects are errors in the design and the construction phases. These causes related to construction are mainly due to the general lack of control of construction work and represent approximately 75% of the anomalies. In particular, one of the main causes of such anomalies, which end in building defects, is the lack of control over the physical variables of the work environment during the execution of tasks. Therefore, the high percentage of defects detected in buildings that have the root cause in the construction phase could be avoidable with a more accurate and efficient control of the process...
July 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737347/-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-as-a-model-of-disease-management-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Yapo Antoine Gbocho
<ce:para>The inefficacy of health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa has now been clearly established. Analysis of the relative success of the management of HIV/AIDS can constitute an example of efficacy that could be extended to other fields. Based on a social and community approach, the example of HIV/AIDS can be used as a model of disease management, as it is distinguished by a fairly extensive management dimension, especially integrating socio-economic support. It is also characterized by the large place attributed to the patient and the family, and the community, as the main stakeholders...
April 27, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737244/hypoxia-animal-experiments-and-clinical-implications
#11
Yasuyuki Kawagoe, Hiroshi Sameshima
The developing fetus has some unique physiological properties that differ from properties in extra-uterine life. The fetus exists in a hypoxemic condition as a result of the presence of the placenta, which serves as a limiting interface between maternal and fetal circulation. In addition, the fetus is prone to be exposed to uterine contractions, which place it under a further hypoxic burden. Thus, the fetal response to hypoxic insults is important. There has been marked progression in the understanding of fetal physiology since the introduction of the 'chronic preparation model'...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736536/mind-reading-and-behavior-reading-against-agents-with-and-without-anthropomorphic-features-in-a-competitive-situation
#12
Kazunori Terada, Seiji Yamada
Humans use two distinct cognitive strategies separately to understand and predict other humans' behavior. One is mind-reading, in which an internal state such as an intention or an emotional state is assumed to be a source of a variety of behaviors. The other is behavior-reading, in which an actor's behavior is modeled based on stimulus-response associations without assuming internal states behind the behavior. We hypothesize that anthropomorphic features are key for an observer switching between these two cognitive strategies in a competitive situation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736473/theoretical-and-empirical-comparison-of-big-data-image-processing-with-apache-hadoop-and-sun-grid-engine
#13
Shunxing Bao, Frederick D Weitendorf, Andrew J Plassard, Yuankai Huo, Aniruddha Gokhale, Bennett A Landman
The field of big data is generally concerned with the scale of processing at which traditional computational paradigms break down. In medical imaging, traditional large scale processing uses a cluster computer that combines a group of workstation nodes into a functional unit that is controlled by a job scheduler. Typically, a shared-storage network file system (NFS) is used to host imaging data. However, data transfer from storage to processing nodes can saturate network bandwidth when data is frequently uploaded/retrieved from the NFS, e...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736221/scaffold-curvature-mediated-novel-biomineralization-process-originates-a-continuous-soft-tissue-to-bone-interface
#14
Michael Paris, Andreas Götz, Inga Hettrich, Cécile M Bidan, John W C Dunlop, Hajar Razi, Ivo Zizak, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Peter Fratzl, Georg N Duda, Wolfgang Wagermaier, Amaia Cipitria
A myriad of shapes are found in biological tissues, often naturally evolved to fulfill a particular function. In the field of tissue engineering, substrate geometry influences cell behavior and tissue formation in-vitro, yet little is known how this translates to an in-vivo scenario. Here we investigate scaffold curvature-induced tissue growth, without additional growth factors or cells, in an ovine animal model. We show that soft tissue formation follows a curvature-driven tissue growth model. The highly organized endogenous soft matrix, potentially under mechanical strain, leads to a non-standard form of biomineralization, whereby the pre-existing organic matrix is mineralized without collagen remodeling and without an intermediate cartilage ossification phase...
July 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736164/idiothetic-path-integration-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Irene S Kim, Michael H Dickinson
After discovering a small drop of food, hungry flies exhibit a peculiar behavior in which they repeatedly stray from, but then return to, the newly discovered resource. To study this behavior in more detail, we tracked hungry Drosophila as they explored a large arena, focusing on the question of how flies remain near the food. To determine whether flies use external stimuli, we individually eliminated visual, olfactory, and pheromonal cues. In all cases, flies still exhibited a centralized search behavior, suggesting that none of these cues are absolutely required for navigation back to the food...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736079/model-based-cap-thickness-and-peak-cap-stress-prediction-for-carotid-mri
#16
Annette M Kok, Aad van der Lugt, Hence J M Verhagen, Antonius F W van der Steen, Jolanda J Wentzel, Frank J H Gijsen
A rupture-prone carotid plaque can potentially be identified by calculating the peak cap stress (PCS). For these calculations, plaque geometry from MRI is often used. Unfortunately, MRI is hampered by a low resolution, leading to an overestimation of cap thickness and an underestimation of PCS. We developed a model to reconstruct the cap based on plaque geometry to better predict cap thickness and PCS. We used histological stained plaques from 34 patients. These plaques were segmented and served as the ground truth...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735628/novel-algorithm-including-ca-125-he4-and-body-mass-index-in-the-diagnosis-of-endometrial-cancer
#17
Tamara Knific, Joško Osredkar, Špela Smrkolj, Irena Tonin, Katja Vouk, Andrej Blejec, Snježana Frković Grazio, Tea Lanišnik Rižner
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of preoperative serum CA-125 and HE4 levels in patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS: Prospective case-control study of 133 women who underwent surgical treatment at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana (64 patients with endometrial cancer, 69 control patients with prolapsed uterus or myoma). Serum CA-125 and HE4 levels were determined using electrochemiluminescent assays. RESULTS: Serum CA-125 and HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with endometrial cancer, compared to the controls (p=2...
July 20, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734872/modeling-the-cleavage-of-von-willebrand-factor-by-adamts13-protease-in-shear-flow
#18
Brooke Huisman, Masoud Hoore, Gerhard Gompper, Dmitry A Fedosov
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a key protein in hemostasis as it mediates adhesion of blood platelets to a site of vascular injury. A proper distribution of VWF lengths is important for normal functioning of hemostatic processes, because a diminished number of long VWF chains may significantly limit blood clotting and lead to bleeding, while an abundant number of long VWFs may result in undesired thrombotic events. VWF size distribution is controlled by ADAMTS13 protease, which can cleave VWF chains beyond a critical shear rate when the chains are stretched enough such that cleavage sites become accessible...
July 19, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734305/exploring-the-free-energy-gain-of-phase-separation-via-markov-state-modeling
#19
Myra Biedermann, Andreas Heuer
The gain of free energy upon unmixing is determined via application of Markov state modeling (MSM), using an Ising model with a fixed number of up- and down-spins. MSM yields reasonable estimates of the free energies. However, a closer look reveals significant differences that point to residual non-Markovian effects. These non-Markovian effects are rather unexpected since the typical criteria to study the quality of Markovianity indicate complete Markovian behavior. We identify the sparse connectivity between different Markov states as a likely reason for the observed bias...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734282/cluster-expansion-of-the-solvation-free-energy-difference-systematic-improvements-in-the-solvation-of-single-ions
#20
Josefredo R Pliego
The cluster expansion method has been used in the imperfect gas theory for several decades. This paper proposes a cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference. This difference, which results from a change in the solute-solvent potential energy, can be written as the logarithm of a finite series. Similar to the Mayer function, the terms in the series are related to configurational integrals, which makes the integrand relevant only for configurations of the solvent molecules close to the solute. In addition, the terms involve interaction of solute with one, two, and so on solvent molecules...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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