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Shaghayegh Zihajehzadeh, Edward J Park
Walking speed is widely used to study human health status. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMU) are promising tools for the ambulatory measurement of walking speed. Among wearable inertial sensors, the ones worn on the wrist, such as a watch or band, have relatively higher potential to be easily incorporated into daily lifestyle. Using the arm swing motion in walking, this paper proposes a regression model-based method for longitudinal walking speed estimation using a wrist-worn IMU. A novel kinematic variable is proposed, which finds the wrist acceleration in the principal axis (i...
2016: PloS One
Christoph Baldow, Lars Thielecke, Ingmar Glauche
The availability of several methods to unambiguously mark individual cells has strongly fostered the understanding of clonal developments in hematopoiesis and other stem cell driven regenerative tissues. While cellular barcoding is the method of choice for experimental studies, patients that underwent gene therapy carry a unique insertional mark within the transplanted cells originating from the integration of the retroviral vector. Close monitoring of such patients allows accessing their clonal dynamics, however, the early detection of events that predict monoclonal conversion and potentially the onset of leukemia are beneficial for treatment...
2016: PloS One
Lijun Liu, Yongfeng Yin, Zenghu Zhang, Yashwant K Malaiya
Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system...
2016: PloS One
A J Sutton, R S Vohra, M Hollyman, P J Marriott, A Buja, D Alderson, S Pasquali, E A Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of cholecystectomy for patients admitted with acute gallbladder pathology is unclear. Some studies have shown that emergency cholecystectomy during the index admission can reduce length of hospital stay with similar rates of conversion to open surgery, complications and mortality compared with a 'delayed' operation following discharge. Others have reported that cholecystectomy during the index acute admission results in higher morbidity, extended length of stay and increased costs...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
V A Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. METHODS: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Verónica Pérez-Schuster, Anirudh Kulkarni, Morgane Nouvian, Sebastián A Romano, Konstantinos Lygdas, Adrien Jouary, Mario Dippopa, Thomas Pietri, Mathieu Haudrechy, Virginie Candat, Jonathan Boulanger-Weill, Vincent Hakim, Germán Sumbre
Following moving visual stimuli (conditioning stimuli, CS), many organisms perceive, in the absence of physical stimuli, illusory motion in the opposite direction. This phenomenon is known as the motion aftereffect (MAE). Here, we use MAE as a tool to study the neuronal basis of visual motion perception in zebrafish larvae. Using zebrafish eye movements as an indicator of visual motion perception, we find that larvae perceive MAE. Blocking eye movements using optogenetics during CS presentation did not affect MAE, but tectal ablation significantly weakened it...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Yoonsik Shim, Andrew Philippides, Kevin Staras, Phil Husbands
We propose a biologically plausible architecture for unsupervised ensemble learning in a population of spiking neural network classifiers. A mixture of experts type organisation is shown to be effective, with the individual classifier outputs combined via a gating network whose operation is driven by input timing dependent plasticity (ITDP). The ITDP gating mechanism is based on recent experimental findings. An abstract, analytically tractable model of the ITDP driven ensemble architecture is derived from a logical model based on the probabilities of neural firing events...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Leyre Marzo, Javier Luis-Barrera, Rubén Mas-Ballesté, José Luis García Ruano, José Alemán
A highly diastereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted Z- or E-enals, which are important intermediates in organic synthesis, as well as being present in natural products, is described using different alkynals and nucleophiles as starting materials. Diastereocontrol is mainly governed by the appropriate catalyst. Therefore, those reactions controlled by steric effects, such as the Jørgensen-Hayashi's catalyst, give access to E isomers, and those catalysts that facilitate hydrogen bonding, such as tetrazol-pyrrolidine Ley's catalyst, allow the synthesis of Z isomers...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fábio Azevedo Araújo, Milton Severo, Nuno Alegrete, Laura D Howe, Raquel Lucas
BACKGROUND: Sagittal postural patterns are associated with back pain in adolescents and adults. However, it is unknown if postural patterns are already observable during childhood. This would confirm childhood as a key period for posture differentiation and thus for chronic pain etiology. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and describe postural patterns in school-aged girls and boys. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eligible children were evaluated at age 7 in the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI, Portugal...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Wolfgang G Kunz, M G Myriam Hunink, Wieland H Sommer, Sebastian E Beyer, Felix G Meinel, Franziska Dorn, Stefan Wirth, Maximilian F Reiser, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Kolja M Thierfelder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endovascular therapy in addition to standard care (EVT+SC) has been demonstrated to be more effective than SC in acute ischemic large vessel occlusion stroke. Our aim was to determine the cost-effectiveness of EVT+SC depending on patients' initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, time from symptom onset, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), and occlusion location. METHODS: A decision model based on Markov simulations estimated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with both strategies applied in a US setting...
October 6, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Tristan da Câmara Santa Clara Gomes, Joaquín De La Torre Medina, Matthieu Lemaitre, Luc Piraux
Track-etched polymer membranes with crossed nanochannels have been revealed to be most suitable as templates to produce large surface area and mechanically stable 3D interconnected nanowire (NW) networks by electrodeposition. Geometrically controlled NW superstructures made of NiCo ferromagnetic alloys exhibit appealing magnetoresistive properties. The combination of exact alloy compositions with the spatial arrangement of NWs in the 3D network is decisive to obtain specific magnetic and magneto-transport behavior...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Virginie Le Rolle, Alain Beuchée, Jean-Paul Praud, Nathalie Samson, Patrick Pladys, Alfredo I Hernández
A method for the recursive identification of physiological models of the cardiovascular baroreflex is proposed and applied to the time-varying analysis of vagal and sympathetic activities. The proposed method was evaluated with data from five newborn lambs, which were acquired during injection of vasodilator and vasoconstrictors and the results show a close match between experimental and simulated signals. The model-based estimation of vagal and sympathetic contributions were consistent with physiological knowledge and the obtained estimators of vagal and sympathetic activities were compared to traditional markers associated with baroreflex sensitivity...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
Hans Lehrach
Every human is unique. We differ in our genomes, environment, behavior, disease history, and past and current medical treatment-a complex catalog of differences that often leads to variations in the way each of us responds to a particular therapy. We argue here that true personalization of drug therapies will rely on "virtual patient" models based on a detailed characterization of the individual patient by molecular, imaging, and sensor techniques. The models will be based, wherever possible, on the molecular mechanisms of disease processes and drug action but can also expand to hybrid models including statistics/machine learning/artificial intelligence-based elements trained on available data to address therapeutic areas or therapies for which insufficient information on mechanisms is available...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Constanze Ciavarella, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Merler, Ciro Cattuto, Marco Ajelli
BACKGROUND: Nearly every year Influenza affects most countries worldwide and the risk of a new pandemic is always present. Therefore, influenza is a major concern for public health. School-age individuals are often the most affected group, suggesting that the inclusion in preparedness plans of school closure policies may represent an option for influenza mitigation. However, their applicability remains uncertain and their implementation should carefully be weighed on the basis of cost-benefit considerations...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Matthew H Holden, Stephen P Ellner
Despite major advances in quantitative approaches to natural resource management, there has been resistance to using these tools in the actual practice of managing ecological populations. Given a managed system and a set of assumptions, translated into a model, optimization methods can be used to solve for the most cost-effective management actions. However, when the underlying assumptions are not met, such methods can potentially lead to decisions that harm the environment and economy. Managers who develop decisions based on past experience and judgment, without the aid of mathematical models, can potentially learn about the system and develop flexible management strategies...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Matthew E Fagan, Ruth S DeFries, Steven E Sesnie, J Pablo Arroyo-Mora, Robin L Chazdon
Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered functional connectivity over the last 25 years for four species of insectivorous understory birds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Richard L Hutto
The most popular method used to gain an understanding of population trends or of differences in bird abundance among land condition categories is to use information derived from point counts. Unfortunately, various factors can affect one's ability to detect birds, and those factors need to be controlled or accounted for so that any difference in one's index among time periods or locations is an accurate reflection of differences in bird abundance and not differences in detectability. Avian ecologists could use appropriately sized fixed-area surveys to minimize the chance that they might be deceived by distance-based detectability bias, but the current method of choice is to use a modeling approach that allows one to account for distance-based bias by modeling the effects of distance on detectability or occupancy...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Maxime Cailleret, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Jesús Julio Camarero, Katarina Cˇufar, Hendrik Davi, Ilona Mészáros, Francesco Minunno, Mikko Peltoniemi, Elisabeth M R Robert, María Laura Suarez, Roberto Tognetti, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. During the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth-mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. The results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations), the type of explanatory growth variables included (level, trend, etc...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jane J Kim, Emily A Burger, Stephen Sy, Nicole G Campos
BACKGROUND: Current US cervical cancer screening guidelines do not differentiate recommendations based on a woman's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status. Changes to cervical cancer screening policies in HPV-vaccinated women should be evaluated. METHODS: We utilized an individual-based mathematical model of HPV and cervical cancer in US women to project the health benefits, costs, and harms associated with screening strategies in women vaccinated with the bivalent, quadrivalent, or nonavalent vaccine...
February 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Anne-Segolene Cottereau, Sebastien Hapdey, Loic Chartier, Romain Modzelewski, Olivier Casasnovas, Emmanuel Itti, Herve Tilly, Pierre Vera, Michel A Meignan, Stéphanie Becker
: To compare in a large series of Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL), as a model of diffuse disease, the prognostic value of baseline Total Metabolic Tumor Volume (TMTV) measured on FDG-PET/CT with adaptive thresholding methods to TMTV measured with a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold method. METHODS: 106 patients with PTCL, staged with a PET/CT were enrolled from 5 LYSA centers. In this series TMTV computed with the 41% SUVmax threshold is a strong predictor of outcome (Ann Oncol, 2016)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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