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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775996/interplay-between-adenylate-metabolizing-enzymes-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#1
REVIEW
Marcella Camici, Simone Allegrini, Maria Grazia Tozzi
Purine nucleotides are involved in a variety of cellular functions, such as energy storage and transfer, and signalling, in addition to being the precursors of nucleic acids and cofactors of many biochemical reactions. They can be generated through two separate pathways, the de novo biosynthesis pathway and the salvage pathway. De novo purine biosynthesis leads to the formation of IMP, from which the adenylate and guanylate pools are generated by two additional steps. The salvage pathways utilize hypoxanthine, guanine and adenine to generate the corresponding mononucleotides...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775983/classification-and-microvascular-flap-selection-for-anterior-cranial-fossa-reconstruction
#2
James D Vargo, Wojciech Przylecki, Paul J Camarata, Brian T Andrews
BACKGROUND:  Microvascular reconstruction of the anterior cranial fossa (ACF) creates difficult challenges. Reconstructive goals and flap selection vary based on the defect location within the ACF. This study evaluates the feasibility and reliability of free tissue transfer for salvage reconstruction of low, middle, and high ACF defects. METHODS:  A retrospective review was performed. Reconstructions were anatomically classified as low (anterior skull base), middle (frontal bar/sinus), and high (frontal bone/soft tissue)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775951/retinal-blood-vessel-segmentation-using-fully-convolutional-network-with-transfer-learning
#3
Zhexin Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yi Wang, Seok-Bum Ko
Since the retinal blood vessel has been acknowledged as an indispensable element in both ophthalmological and cardiovascular disease diagnosis, the accurate segmentation of the retinal vessel tree has become the prerequisite step for automated or computer-aided diagnosis systems. In this paper, a supervised method is presented based on a pre-trained fully convolutional network through transfer learning. This proposed method has simplified the typical retinal vessel segmentation problem from full-size image segmentation to regional vessel element recognition and result merging...
April 26, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775930/synthesis-photophysical-and-electrochemical-properties-of-a-blue-emitter-with-binaphthalene-and-carbazole-units
#4
Lixia Guo, Xiaoju Wang, Liheng Feng
A blue emitter, 3,3'-(2,2'-dimethoxy-[1,1'-binaphthalene]-6,6'-diyl)bis(9-benzyl-9H-carbazole), was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction. The photophysical properties of the emitter in solution were firstly investigated by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission techniques. The results indicate that the emitter has excellent optical and electron transfer properties. The maximum absorption and emission peaks of the emitter are 302 nm and 406 nm with 67.4% fluorescence quantum yield in chloroform, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775922/acid-phosphatase-test-on-phadebas-%C3%A2-sheets-an-optimized-method-for-presumptive-saliva-and-semen-detection
#5
Yael Herman, Ilan Feine, Ron Gafny
The precise and efficient detection of semen and saliva in sexual assault case-work items is a critical step in the forensic pipeline. The outcome of this stage may have a profound impact on identifying perpetrators as well as on the investigation process and the final outcome in court. Semen detection is usually based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP), an enzyme found in high concentration in the seminal plasma. Amylase, an enzyme catalyzing starch hydrolysis is found in high concentrations in saliva and therefore is a useful target for its detection...
April 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775856/a-simple-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-sensor-for-simultaneous-determination-of-gallic-acid-and-uric-acid-in-human-urine-and-fruit-juices-based-on-zirconia-choline-chloride-gold-nanoparticles-modified-carbon-paste-electrode
#6
Seyed Alireza Shahamirifard, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Zahra Razmi, Shaaker Hajati
The determination of gallic acid (GA) and uric acid (UA) is essential due to their biological properties. Numerous methods have been reported for the analysis of GA and UA in various real samples. However, the development of a simple, rapid and practical sensor still remains a great challenge. Here, a carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by nanocomposite containing zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), Choline chloride (ChCl) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct ZrO2 -ChCl-AuNPs/CPE as electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous electro-oxidation of GA and UA...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#7
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775756/pkm2-a-potential-target-for-regulating-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Yu-Huan Li, Xiao-Feng Li, Jia-Tao Liu, Hua Wang, Lu-Lu Fan, Jun Li, Guo-Ping Sun
Aberrated glucose metabolism is a key future of cancer cells. Unlike normal cells, tumor cells favor glycolysis even in the presence of sufficient oxygen. Pyruvate kinase (PK), a key glucose metabolic enzyme, converts phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate by transferring the high-energy phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), one of the four isozyme of PK, which universally expressed in rapidly proliferating cells such as embryonic cells and cancer cells...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775710/dual-ph-sensitive-supramolecular-micelles-from-star-shaped-pdmaema-based-on-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-for-drug-release
#9
Zaishuai Zhou, Feng Guo, Nairong Wang, Meng Meng, Guiying Li
Star-shaped poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD-(PDMAEMA)7 ) was synthesized by means of atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Dual pH-sensitive supramolecular micelles were formed from β-CD-(PDMAEMA)7 and benzimidazole modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (BM-PCL) through the host-guest interactions between β-CD and benzimidazole. The supramolecular micelles have regular spherical structure with hydrophobic β-CD/BM-PCL as the core and pH-sensitive PDMAEMA as the shell...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#10
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775686/the-comparative-efficacy-of-antiseptics-against-candida-auris-biofilms
#11
Ryan Kean, Emily McKloud, Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Christopher Delaney, Brian L Jones, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Candida auris has emerged as a significant clinical entity due to its ability to cause outbreaks within the healthcare setting. A key feature of its nosocomial lifestyle is its ability to transfer between patients, yet little is known about the mechanisms behind this. A panel of C. auris clinical isolates was screened for their planktonic and sessile susceptibilities to skin disinfection challenge using povidone iodine, chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide. C. auris biofilms displayed increased tolerance to these strategies compared to planktonic cells...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775685/phenotypic-and-genetic-resistance-traits-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-infecting-cystic-fibrosis-patients-a-french-cohort-study
#12
Nathalie Courtois, Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for chronic respiratory tract colonisation and acute exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This Gram-negative bacterium often develops multidrug resistance, which represents a therapeutic challenge. Our objective was to characterize the phenotypic and genetic β-lactam resistance traits of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from CF patients followed at Grenoble Alpes university hospital. The susceptibility to β-lactam compounds of 123 P. aeruginosa strains collected from the lower respiratory tract of 45 CF patients, between 2010 and 2014, was evaluated...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775683/viscoelastic-modeling-of-the-fusion-of-multicellular-tumor-spheroids-in-growth-phase
#13
Guillaume Dechristé, Jérôme Fehrenbach, Elena Griseti, Valérie Lobjois, Clair Poignard
BACKGROUND: Since several decades, the experiments have highlighted the analogy of fusing cell aggregates with liquid droplets. The physical macroscopic models have been derived under incompressible assumptions. The aim of this paper is to provide a 3D model of growing spheroids, which is more relevant regarding embryo cell aggregates or tumor cell spheroids. METHODS: We extend the past approach to a compressible 3D framework in order to account for the tumor spheroid growth...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775636/epithelial-proliferation-in-inflammatory-skin-disease-is-regulated-by-ttc7-in-fibroblasts-and-lymphocytes
#14
Ursina Nüesch, Andrea A Mauracher, Lennart Opitz, Benjamin Volkmer, Katarzyna Michalak-Mićka, Jivko Kamarachev, Tom Hartwig, Ernst Reichmann, Burkhard Becher, Stefano Vavassori, Jana Pachlopnik Schmid
BACKGROUND: Mutations in tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A (TTC7A) and its mouse orthologue Ttc7 result in a multisystemic disease, mostly affecting epithelial barriers and the immune system. Despite successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, ongoing progression of gastrointestinal manifestations can be life-threatening in TTC7A-deficient patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether TTC7A mutations dysregulate epithelial cells only, or whether a cell-intrinsic defect in lymphocytes or other cells contributes to disease manifestations...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775623/unsupervised-visual-discrimination-learning-of-complex-stimuli-accuracy-bias-and-generalization
#15
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Mauricio Toro, Pedro E Maldonado, María de la L Aylwin
Through same-different judgements, we can discriminate an immense variety of stimuli and consequently, they are critical in our everyday interaction with the environment. The quality of the judgements depends on familiarity with stimuli. A way to improve the discrimination is through learning, but to this day, we lack direct evidence of how learning shapes the same-different judgments with complex stimuli. We studied unsupervised visual discrimination learning in 42 participants, as they performed same-different judgments with two types of unfamiliar complex stimuli in the absence of labeling or individuation...
May 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775602/shining-a-light-on-alport-syndrome
#16
Lorna J Hale, Melissa H Little
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Omachi et al. (2018) present a split Nanoluciferase system to identify successful protein trimerization in Alport syndrome. This elegant proof of concept suggests opportunities for drug screening for Alport syndrome and may be transferable to the study of other diseases affecting protein-protein interactions.
May 17, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775584/conformational-activation-of-argonaute-by-distinct-yet-coordinated-actions-of-the-hsp70-and-hsp90-chaperone-systems
#17
Kotaro Tsuboyama, Hisashi Tadakuma, Yukihide Tomari
Loading of small RNAs into Argonaute, the core protein in RNA silencing, requires the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. This machinery also activates many other clients, including steroid hormone receptors and kinases, but how their structures change during chaperone-dependent activation remains unclear. Here, we utilized single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe the conformational changes of Drosophila Ago2 mediated by the chaperone machinery. We found that empty Ago2 exists in various closed conformations...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775583/correlating-transcription-initiation-and-conformational-changes-by-a-single-subunit-rna-polymerase-with-near-base-pair-resolution
#18
Hye Ran Koh, Rahul Roy, Maria Sorokina, Guo-Qing Tang, Divya Nandakumar, Smita S Patel, Taekjip Ha
We provide a comprehensive analysis of transcription in real time by T7 RNA Polymerase (RNAP) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer by monitoring the entire life history of transcription initiation, including stepwise RNA synthesis with near base-pair resolution, abortive cycling, and transition into elongation. Kinetically branching pathways were observed for abortive initiation with an RNAP either recycling on the same promoter or exchanging with another RNAP from solution. We detected fast and slow populations of RNAP in their transition into elongation, consistent with the efficient and delayed promoter release, respectively, observed in ensemble studies...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775537/amplification-of-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-at-200-ghz-by-arbitrary-pulse-shaping-of-the-electron-spin-saturation-profile
#19
Ilia Kaminker, Songi Han
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) takes center stage in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a tool to amplify its signal by orders of magnitude through the transfer of polarization from electron to nuclear spins. In contrast to modern NMR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) that extensively rely on pulses for spin manipulation in the time domain, the current mainstream DNP technology exclusively relies on monochromatic continuous wave (CW) irradiation. This study introduces arbitrary phase shaped pulses that constitute a train of coherent chirp pulses in the time domain at 200 GHz (7 Tesla) to dramatically enhance the saturation bandwidth and DNP performance compared to CW DNP, yielding up to 500-fold in NMR signal enhancements...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775490/monolithic-flexible-vertical-gan-light-emitting-diodes-for-a-transparent-wireless-brain-optical-stimulator
#20
Han Eol Lee, JeHyuk Choi, Seung Hyun Lee, Minju Jeong, Jung Ho Shin, Daniel J Joe, DoHyun Kim, Chang Wan Kim, Jung Hwan Park, Jae Hee Lee, Daesoo Kim, Chan-Soo Shin, Keon Jae Lee
Flexible inorganic-based micro light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) are emerging as a significant technology for flexible displays, which is an important area for bilateral visual communication in the upcoming Internet of Things era. Conventional flexible lateral µLEDs have been investigated by several researchers, but still have significant issues of power consumption, thermal stability, lifetime, and light-extraction efficiency on plastics. Here, high-performance flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated by silver nanowire networks and monolithic fabrication...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
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