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Jessica Cohen, Katherine Lofgren, Margaret McConnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Economic Review
Riti Sharan, Hee-Jeong Yang, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) utilizes substrates that are specific for enzymes present in target organisms of interest for imaging or detection by fluorescence or bioluminescence. We utilize BlaC, an enzyme expressed constitutively by all M. tuberculosis strains. REF allows rapid quantification of bacteria in lungs of infected mice. The same group of mice can be imaged at many time points, greatly reducing costs, enumerating bacteria more quickly, allowing novel observations in host-pathogen interactions, and increasing statistical power, since more animals per group are readily maintained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Şifa Turan, Özhan M Turan
The ductus venosus is a fetal vessel that functions importantly in the transfer of oxygen-and nutrient-rich blood from the umbilical vein to vital organs. Its control under active regulation and its anatomy result in a flow-velocity profile that is typically forward throughout the cardiac cycle. This forward cardiac function reflects afterload, cardiac contractility, compliance, and vascular volume changes. Ductus venosus assessment gives valuable information under different fetal conditions. For example, during first trimester screening, an abnormal ductus venosus measurement changes the screening result...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Adham Abu Taha, Ayman Daoud, Sawsan Zaid, Sajida Sammour, Maram Belleh, Refqa Daifi
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ana Belkin, Zeala Gazit, Nathan Keller, Ronen Ben-Ami, Anat Wieder-Finesod, Ana Novikov, Galia Rahav, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
A patient transferred from South Africa to Israel acquired a Candida auris infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed resemblance of C. auris to isolates from South Africa but not Israel, suggesting travel-associated infection. C. auris infection occurred weeks later in another patient at the same hospital, suggesting prolonged environmental persistence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Amit A Vernekar, Gilles Berger, Anna E Czapar, Frank A Veliz, David I Wang, Nicole F Steinmetz, Stephen J Lippard
Efficient loading of drugs in novel delivery agents has the potential to substantially improve therapy by targeting the diseased tissue while avoiding unwanted side effects. Here we report the first systematic study of the loading mechanism of phenanthriplatin and its analogs into tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), previously used by our group as an efficient carrier for anticancer drug delivery. A detailed investigation of the preferential uptake of phenanthriplatin in its aquated form (∼2000 molecules per TMV particle versus ∼1000 for the chlorido form) is provided...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gembu Maryu, Haruko Miura, Yoichi Uda, Akira T Komatsubara, Michiyuki Matsuda, Kazuhiro Aoki
Protein kinases play pivotal roles in intracellular signal transduction, and dysregulation of kinases leads to pathological results such as malignant tumors. Kinase activity has hitherto been measured by biochemical methods such as in vitro phosphorylation assay and western blotting. However, these methods are less useful to explore spatial and temporal changes in kinase activity and its cell-to-cell variation. Recent advances in fluorescent proteins and live-cell imaging techniques enable us to visualize kinase activity in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolutions...
March 17, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Yu Nakajima, Takashi Tsukamoto, Yohei Kumagai, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Jaeho Song, Takashi Kikukawa, Makoto Demura, Kazuhiro Kogure, Yuki Sudo, Susumu Yoshizawa
Light-driven ion-pumping rhodopsins are widely distributed among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes in the euphotic zone of the aquatic environment. H+ -pumping rhodopsin (proteorhodopsin: PR), Na+ -pumping rhodopsin (NaR), and Cl- -pumping rhodopsin (ClR) have been found in marine bacteria, which suggests that these genes evolved independently in the ocean. Putative microbial rhodopsin genes were identified in the genome sequences of marine Cytophagia. In the present study, one of these genes was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli cells and the rhodopsin protein named Rubricoccus marinus halorhodopsin (RmHR) was identified as a light-driven inward Cl- pump...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Sarah M Bartsch, Susan S Huang, James A McKinnell, Kim F Wong, Leslie E Mueller, Loren G Miller, Bruce Y Lee
OBJECTIVE While previous work showed that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toolkit for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can reduce spread regionally, these interventions are costly, and decisions makers want to know whether and when economic benefits occur. DESIGN Economic analysis SETTING Orange County, California METHODS Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA)-generated agent-based model of all inpatient healthcare facilities, we simulated the implementation of the CRE toolkit (active screening of interfacility transfers) in different ways and estimated their economic impacts under various circumstances...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Bo J A Haglund, Per Tillgren
Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Hayley B Gershengorn, Carri W Chan, Yunchao Xu, Hanxi Sun, Ronni Levy, Mor Armony, Michelle N Gong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of adding a medical step-down unit (SDU) on patient outcomes and throughput in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic tertiary care hospitals within the same health-care system. PATIENTS: Adults admitted to the medical ICU at either the control or intervention hospital from October 2013 to March 2014 (preintervention) and October 2014 to March 2015 (postintervention)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Ling Yang, Wei-Wei Ji, E Lin, Ji-Lin Li, Wen-Xin Fan, Qingjiang Li, Honggen Wang
A reductive cross-coupling of gem-difluoroalkenes with diverse unactivated and heteroatom substituted olefins through a Fe-catalyzed hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) strategy is reported. Different from the previous HAT-type olefin cross-coupling reactions, the presence of a fluorine atom in the molecule results in a stereoselective β-F cleavage, leading to a C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) bond formation. A wide variety of alkylated monofluoroalkenes were obtained in good efficiency with excellent Z selectivity under air- and water-tolerant reaction conditions...
March 19, 2018: Organic Letters
E Savi, S Peveri, C Cavaliere, S Masieri, M Montagni
The introduction of highly purified natural and recombinant single allergenic molecules represented an important improvement in the diagnosis of IgE sensitization. The identification of specific IgE against cross-reacting molecules such as profilin, lipid transfer proteins, calcium binding proteins or against “genuine molecules”, represents an added value and allows to distinguish between true and false polysensitization. In vitro tests add information to recognize patients with sensitization to genuine molecules that cause allergic diseases and to evaluate in childhood the spreading of sensitization for each molecule in order to choose the best treatment and to identify the ideal patient for allergen immunotherapy...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Canan Koksal, Ugur Akbas, Nazmiye Donmez Kesen, Murat Okutan, Hatice Bilge, Gonul Kemikler
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to perform pretreatment patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for intracranial irradiation using CyberKnife with an ion chamber. METHODS: Twenty-five intracranial plans created using the ray-tracing algorithm were used for this study. Computed tomography (CT) images of the water-equivalent RW3 slab phantom with PinPoint ionization chamber were acquired with 1-mm slice thickness and transferred to the MultiPlan treatment planning system (TPS)...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Marta Sánchez-Soto, Verònica Casadó-Anguera, Hideaki Yano, Brian Joseph Bender, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Enric I Canela, Antoni Cortés, Jens Meiler, Vicent Casadó, Sergi Ferré
The poor norepinephrine innervation and high density of Gi/o-coupled α2A - and α2C -adrenoceptors in the striatum and the dense striatal dopamine innervation have prompted the possibility that dopamine could be an effective adrenoceptor ligand. Nevertheless, the reported adrenoceptor agonistic properties of dopamine are still inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the binding of norepinephrine, dopamine, and several compounds reported as selective dopamine D2 -like receptor ligands, such as the D3 receptor agonist 7-OH-PIPAT and the D4 receptor agonist RO-105824, to α2 -adrenoceptors in cortical and striatal tissue, which express α2A -adrenoceptors and both α2A - and α2C -adrenoceptors, respectively...
March 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Arup Tarai, Jubaraj B Baruah
A series of mononuclear complexes of divalent nickel and zinc with N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazine carbothioamide (H2Lmethoxy) as well as with N-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazine carbothioamide (H2Lnitro) have been structurally characterised. Among these two ligands, H2Lnitro formed an analogous copper(ii) complex to that of nickel and zinc, whereas H2Lmethoxy undergoes a catalytic cyclisation reaction in the presence of copper(ii) nitrate trihydrate. Control experiments based on ESR have revealed that copper(ii) is reduced to copper(i) and reverts back to copper(ii) as the cyclisation reaction proceeds, generating a catalytic reaction...
March 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Andreas Domröse, Robin Weihmann, Stephan Thies, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Thomas Drepper, Anita Loeschcke
Microbial secondary metabolites represent a rich source of valuable compounds with a variety of applications in medicine or agriculture. Effective exploitation of this wealth of chemicals requires the functional expression of the respective biosynthetic genes in amenable heterologous hosts. We have previously established the TREX system which facilitates the transfer, integration and expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in various bacterial hosts. Here, we describe the yTREX system, a new tool adapted for one-step yeast recombinational cloning of gene clusters...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Laura J Lambert, Larry W Johnson, Daniel Kennedy, Joan Cadillac, Robert A Kesterson
Rat embryo transfer surgeries are becoming more common with targeted nucleases increasing the demand for rat models. This protocol details pre-surgical preparation, improved surgical techniques for placing embryos into the oviduct, and post-surgical care of rats to parturition. Direct application of mouse oviduct transfer protocols results in limited success in the rat. By combining techniques from several widely used protocols in the field, increased yield of live pups born to healthy dams is possible. This protocol is distinct from previously published protocols by the use of a modified anesthesia protocol (Smith et al ...
August 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
Suman Lahiry, Christopher Levi, Joosup Kim, Dominique A Cadilhac, Andrew Searles
Background: In regional and rural Australia, patients experiencing ischemic stroke do not have equitable access to an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Although thrombolysis with tPA is a clinically proven and cost-effective treatment for eligible stroke patients, there are few economic evaluations on pre-hospital triage interventions to improve access to tPA. Aim: To describe the potential cost-effectiveness of the pre-hospital acute stroke triage (PAST) protocol implemented to provide priority transfer of appropriate patients from smaller hospitals to a primary stroke center (PSC) in regional New South Wales, Australia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
John E Mullinax, MacLean Hall, Sangeetha Prabhakaran, Jeffrey Weber, Nikhil Khushalani, Zeynep Eroglu, Andrew S Brohl, Joseph Markowitz, Erica Royster, Allison Richards, Valerie Stark, Jonathan S Zager, Linda Kelley, Cheryl Cox, Vernon K Sondak, James J Mulé, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Amod A Sarnaik
Purpose: Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for metastatic melanoma can be highly effective, but attrition due to progression before TIL administration (32% in prior institutional experience) remains a limitation. We hypothesized that combining ACT with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade would decrease attrition and allow more patients to receive TIL. Experimental design: Thirteen patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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