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Matthew Sykes, Natalie A Matheson, Philip W Brownjohn, Alexander D Tang, Jennifer Rodger, Jonathan B H Shemmell, John N J Reynolds
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lei Cao, Wei Fu, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
Functional connectivity changes in the attention network are viewed as a physiological signature of visual spatial neglect (VSN). The left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) is known to initiate and monitor top-down attentional control and dynamically adjust behavioral performance. This study aimed to investigate whether increasing the activity of the LDLPFC through intermittent θ burst stimulation (iTBS) could modulate the resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and facilitate recovery from VSN...
September 29, 2016: Neuroreport
Roberto Seijas, Andrea Sallent, María Galán, Pedro Alvarez-Diaz, Oscar Ares, Ramón Cugat
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopy is considered a safe procedure, considering the relatively low rate of complications. Despite several complications have been described following this surgical procedure, the present event has not yet been described. The purpose of the present study is to report an unpublished complication following hip arthroscopy, after reviewing 162 hip arthroscopies and finding iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) in the knee during followup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 162 hip arthroscopies performed between September 2007 and June 2011 was carried out, evaluating patients who presented ITBS during followup...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Stefanie Desmyter, Romain Duprat, Chris Baeken, Sara Van Autreve, Kurt Audenaert, Kees van Heeringen
Objectives: We aimed to examine the effects and safety of accelerated intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) on suicide risk in a group of treatment-resistant unipolar depressed patients, using an extensive suicide assessment scale. Methods: In 50 therapy-resistant, antidepressant-free depressed patients, an intensive protocol of accelerated iTBS was applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a randomized, sham-controlled crossover design. Patients received 20 iTBS sessions over 4 days...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tuo Lin, Lisheng Jiang, Zulin Dou, Cheng Wu, Feng Liu, Guangqing Xu, Yue Lan
BACKGROUND: Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) are powerful patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), with substantial potential for motor function rehabilitation post-stroke. However, TBS of suprahyoid motor cortex excitability has not been investigated. This study investigated TBS effects on suprahyoid motor cortex excitability and its potential mechanisms in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy subjects (23 females; mean age = 21...
August 24, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Christoph Reiners, Rita Schneider, Makoshi Akashi, Eli A Akl, Jean-René Jourdain, Chunsheng Li, Christoph Murith, Lodewijk Van Bladel, Shunichi Yamashita, Hajo Zeeb, Paolo Vitti, Zhanat Carr
The meeting held in May 2014 in Würzburg, Germany, discussed the scope of the revision of the 1999 WHO guidelines for iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) by following the WHO handbook for guideline development. This article describes the process and methods of developing the revised, evidence-based WHO guidelines for ITB following nuclear and radiological accidents, the results of the kick-off meeting as well as further steps taken to complete the revision.
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Dyan V Flores, Edward Smitaman, Brady K Huang, Donald L Resnick
OBJECTIVE: To re-evaluate the Segond fragment emphasizing those structures that attach to the fragment in patients with reported acute/subacute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and to clarify the nomenclature used to describe these structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of databases of knee MR examinations over 4.5 years with reported ACL tears yielded 19,726 studies. Using strict exclusion criteria, a total of 146 MR studies with acute/subacute ACL tears were re-assessed with respect to the Segond fragment's size, shape, orientation, location, displacement, attaching soft tissue structures, and associated osseous and/or soft tissue injuries...
September 24, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Sarina J Iwabuchi, Felix Raschke, Dorothee P Auer, Peter F Liddle, Sudheer T Lankappa, Lena Palaniyappan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used worldwide to treat depression. However, the exact physiological effects are not well understood. Pathophysiology of depression involves crucial limbic structures (e.g. insula), and it is still not clear if these structures can be modulated through neurostimulation of surface regions (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), and whether rTMS-induced excitatory/inhibitory transmission alterations relate to fronto-limbic connectivity changes...
September 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Peter J Fried, Lukas Schilberg, Anna-Katharine Brem, Sadhvi Saxena, Bonnie Wong, Aaron M Cypess, Edward S Horton, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accelerates cognitive aging and increases risk of Alzheimer's disease. Rodent models of T2DM show altered synaptic plasticity associated with reduced learning and memory. Humans with T2DM also show cognitive deficits, including reduced learning and memory, but the relationship of these impairments to the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms has never been assessed. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to compare mechanisms of cortical plasticity in humans with and without T2DM...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bojana Mancic, Ivana Stevanovic, Tihomir V Ilic, Ana Djuric, Ivana Stojanovic, Sladjan Milanovic, Milica Ninkovic
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces changes in expression of proteins engaged in activity of excitatory and inhibitory systems as well as redox homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the effect of single (SS) and repeated session (RS) of intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS; cTBS) on the expression of vesicular and plasmatic glutamate transporters 1 (vGluT1 and GLT-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and influence on oxidative status in rats cerebellar tissue and plasma...
September 10, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Tim Vanbellingen, Manuela Wapp, Katharina Stegmayer, Manuel Bertschi, Eugenio Abela, Stefanie Kübel, Thomas Nyffeler, René Müri, Sebastian Walther, Tobias Nef, Mark Hallett, Stephan Bohlhalter
Dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) is thought to play a role in fine motor control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitory or excitatory stimulation of PMd would have an impact on manual dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen patients with PD participated in this study. High resolution structural MRI was used for neuro-navigated TBS. Participants were targeted with one train of TBS in three experimental sessions: sham stimulation over vertex, continuous TBS (cTBS) over PMd and intermittent TBS (iTBS) over PMd, respectively...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Hussam Abou Al-Shaar, Ahmed Alkhani
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy using a programmable battery-based pump is a well-recognized option in the treatment of patients with refractory spasticity. Improvements in clinical scale scores for muscle spasticity among this heterogeneous group of patients may not reflect the functional benefits of this therapeutic option. The aim of our study is to report the efficacy of ITB therapy by setting the patient's compliance at the 2-year follow-up after pump implantation as an indicator of treatment efficacy, as appreciated by the patients or their caregivers...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Alexander D Tang, Ivan Hong, Laura J Boddington, Andrew R Garrett, Sarah Etherington, John N J Reynolds, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Dawesh Prakash Yadav, Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan, Saurabh Kedia, Raju Sharma, Venigalla Pratap Mouli, Sawan Bopanna, Rajan Dhingra, Rajesh Pradhan, Sandeep Goyal, Vishnubatla Sreenivas, Naval K Vikram, Govind Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) have close phenotypic resemblance. Mesenteric fat (a component of visceral fat) hypertrophy and fat wrapping, which is visible radiologically as fibrofatty proliferation, is seen more commonly in CD than ITB. AIM: Present study was conducted to study the role of visceral fat in differentiating CD and ITB. METHODS: Visceral fat (VF) area and subcutaneous (SC) fat area was measured on CT in 2 cohorts (development and validation)...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Xinmei Huo, Bin Wu, Mao Feng, Bin Han, Yu Fang, Yue Hao, Lifeng Meng, Abebe Jenberie Wubie, Pei Fan, Han Hu, Yuping Qi, Jianke Li
The mandibular glands (MGs) of honeybee workers are vital for the secretion of lipids, for both larval nutrition and pheromones. However, knowledge of how the proteome controls MG development and functionality at the different physiological stages of worker bees is still lacking. We characterized and compared the proteome across different ages of MGs in Italian bees (ITBs) and Royal Jelly (RJ) bees (RJBs), the latter being a line bred for increasing RJ yield, originating from the ITB. All 2000 proteins that were shared by differently aged MGs in both bee lines (>4000 proteins identified in all) were strongly enriched in metabolizing protein, nucleic acid, small molecule, and lipid functional groups...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Amir Reza Rokn, Abbas Seyed Shakeri, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Mojgan Alaeddini, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Rebecca Manasheof, Hamidreza Barikani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to histologically compare the regenerative properties of two allografts manufactured by two Iranian companies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, four 8-mm defects were produced in the calvaria of 12 rabbits. In three defects, three types of allografts namely ITB, CenoBone and Grafton were placed and one defect served as control. Samples were prepared and histomorphometric evaluations were carried out after healing periods of four weeks (interval 1) and eight weeks (interval 2)...
November 2015: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Louis-Solal Giboin, Patrick Thumm, Raphael Bertschinger, Markus Gruber
Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ji Min Lee, Kang-Moon Lee
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have significantly increased in recent decades in Korea. Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and intestinal Behcet's disease (BD), which should be differentiated from Crohn's disease (CD), are more frequent in Korea than in the West. Thus, the accurate diagnosis of these inflammatory diseases is problematic in Korea and clinicians should fully understand their clinical and endoscopic characteristics. Ulcerative colitis mostly presents with rectal inflammation and continuous lesions, while CD presents with discontinuous inflammatory lesions and frequently involves the ileocecal area...
July 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
Michael Saulino, Michael Turner, Keith Miesel, Felicia R Cochran, Katherine Stromberg, Elizabeth Fehrmann, Mary Markert, Robert Spencer
OBJECTIVE: The catheter status of patients who presented with loss of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy effectiveness was investigated using measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure transmitted through the catheter fluid path to the pump. The aim of the study was to estimate the appropriate threshold separating catheter complications from "normal" catheter function, and to compare catheter status based on CSF pressure with the clinical diagnosis. METHODS: This was a prospective, masked nonsignificant risk, research study...
August 1, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Rohan Puri, Mark R Hinder, Alison J Canty, Jeffery J Summers
Despite holding significant promise for counteracting the deleterious effects of ageing on cognitive and motor function, little is known of the effects of facilitatory non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) techniques on corticospinal excitability (CSE) in older adults. Thirty-three older adults (≥60 years) participated in four NBS sessions on separate days, receiving 10- and 20-min anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), and 300 and 600 pulses of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) over the left M1...
July 23, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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