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Biennial bearing

Benoît Pallas, Sylvie Bluy, Jérôme Ngao, Sébastien Martinez, Anne Clément-Vidal, Jean-Jacques Kelner, Evelyne Costes
In plants, carbon source-sink relationships are assumed to affect their reproductive effort. In fruit trees, carbon source-sink relationships are likely to be involved in their fruiting behavior. In apple, a large variability in fruiting behaviors exists, from regular to biennial, which has been related to the within-tree synchronization vs desynchronization of floral induction in buds. In this study, we analyzed if carbon assimilation, availability and fluxes as well as shoot growth differ in apple genotypes with contrasted behaviors...
January 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Amy Spring
Background and Objectives: Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. Research Design and Methods: The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013...
January 18, 2018: Gerontologist
Jean-Baptiste Durand, Alix Allard, Baptiste Guitton, Eric van de Weg, Marco C A M Bink, Evelyne Costes
Irregular flowering over years is commonly observed in fruit trees. The early prediction of tree behavior is highly desirable in breeding programmes. This study aims at performing such predictions, combining simplified phenotyping and statistics methods. Sequences of vegetative vs. floral annual shoots (AS) were observed along axes in trees belonging to five apple related full-sib families. Sequences were analyzed using Markovian and linear mixed models including year and site effects. Indices of flowering irregularity, periodicity and synchronicity were estimated, at tree and axis scales...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rongmei Wu, Sumathi Tomes, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Stuart D Tustin, Roger P Hellens, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
The annual growth cycle of trees is the result of seasonal cues. The onset of winter triggers an endodormant state preventing bud growth and, once a chilling requirement is satisfied, these buds enter an ecodormant state and resume growing. MADS-box genes with similarity to Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) [the SVP-like and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes] have been implicated in regulating flowering and growth-dormancy cycles in perennials. Here, we identified and characterized three DAM-like (MdDAMs) and two SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE-like (MdSVPs) genes from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala')...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Weiwei Yang, Benoît Pallas, Jean-Baptiste Durand, Sébastien Martinez, Mingyu Han, Evelyne Costes
Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
Amnon Haberman, Michal Ackerman, Omer Crane, Jean-Jacques Kelner, Evelyne Costes, Alon Samach
In many perennial fruit trees, flowering in the year following a year with heavy fruit load can be quite limited. This biennial cycle of fruiting, termed alternate bearing, was described 170 years ago in apple (Malus domestica). Apple inflorescences are mainly found on short branches (spurs). Bourse shoots (BS) develop from the leaf axils of the spur. BS apices may terminate ~100 days after flowering, with formation of next year's inflorescences. We sought to determine how developing fruit on the spur prevents the adjacent BS apex from forming an inflorescence...
July 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
B Guitton, J J Kelner, J M Celton, X Sabau, J P Renou, D Chagné, E Costes
BACKGROUND: The transition from vegetative to floral state in shoot apical meristems (SAM) is a key event in plant development and is of crucial importance for reproductive success. In perennial plants, this event is recurrent during tree life and subject to both within-tree and between-years heterogeneity. In the present study, our goal was to identify candidate processes involved in the repression or induction of flowering in apical buds of adult apple trees. RESULTS: Genes differentially expressed (GDE) were examined between trees artificially set in either 'ON' or 'OFF' situation, and in which floral induction (FI) was shown to be inhibited or induced in most buds, respectively, using qRT-PCR and microarray analysis...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Diane Leforestier, Elisa Ravon, Hélène Muranty, Amandine Cornille, Christophe Lemaire, Tatiana Giraud, Charles-Eric Durel, Antoine Branca
Unraveling the genomic processes at play during variety diversification is of fundamental interest for understanding evolution, but also of applied interest in crop science. It can indeed provide knowledge on the genetic bases of traits for crop improvement and germplasm diversity management. Apple is one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions, having both great economic and cultural values. Sweet dessert apples are used for direct consumption, while bitter cider apples are used to produce cider...
August 2015: Evolutionary Applications
C Picard
Oenothera biennis L. is a typical biennial plant with an absolute cold requirement for subsequent floral initiation under long-day conditions. Flowering of vernalized Oe. biennis is associated with transition from a rosette habit to the formation of a long flower-bearing stem. Vernalization in Oe. biennis consists of two consecutive stages: (1) preparation for flowering; (2) preparation of stem elongation. At the end of the second stage, the level of endogenous gibberellin-like substances is sufficient to allow the stem elongation which is requisite for subsequent floral development...
September 1967: Planta
Jean-Baptiste Durand, Baptiste Guitton, Jean Peyhardi, Yan Holtz, Yann Guédon, Catherine Trottier, Evelyne Costes
Because irregular bearing generates major agronomic issues in fruit-tree species, particularly in apple, the selection of regular cultivars is desirable. Here, we aimed to define methods and descriptors allowing a diagnostic for bearing behaviour during the first years of tree maturity, when tree production is increasing. Flowering occurrences were collected at whole-tree and (annual) shoot scales on a segregating apple population. At both scales, the number of inflorescences over the years was modelled. Two descriptors were derived from model residuals: a new biennial bearing index, based on deviation around yield trend over years and an autoregressive coefficient, which represents dependency between consecutive yields...
November 2013: Journal of Experimental Botany
Anne-Lena Krasniqi, Lutz Damerow, Achim Kunz, Michael M Blanke
The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 2013: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Baptiste Guitton, Jean-Jacques Kelner, Riccardo Velasco, Susan E Gardiner, David Chagné, Evelyne Costes
Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F(1) population of 122 genotypes, from a 'Starkrimson' (strong biennial bearer)×'Granny Smith' (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing...
January 2012: Journal of Experimental Botany
Anne Wennick, Inger Hallström, Björn Lindgren, Kristian Bolin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported conflicting findings on academic achievement in children with type 1 diabetes, and generally lower self-assessed health status among respondents with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Thus, in this study, using the theoretical framework of the human-capital model, a population-based survey data set for Sweden, and explanatory variables following predictions from theory and previous empirical human-capital studies, individuals diagnosed with diabetes before the age of 19 were examined whether they differ from the general population at the same age concerning (i) educational level attained and (ii) self-assessed health later in life...
November 2011: Pediatric Diabetes
S Kontogianni, A Xirogiannopoulou, A Karagiannidis
In the municipality of Thessaloniki in 2006 mercury-bearing dental wastes were not managed properly by 80% of dentists and metal-bearing waste was handled in accordance with internationally established best management practices by less than 50% of dentists. Those results were documented through a biennial field-based research study that took place in private dental units within the Thessaloniki Urban Area. For quantifying the waste produced, structured questionnaires were used and interviews with dentists were performed...
2008: Waste Management
Theodora S Pritsa, Demetrios G Voyiatzis
In order to investigate the possible role of the polyamines spermidine and spermine, in the alternate bearing habit of the olive, a comparative analysis of their content in vegetative and reproductive organs during the flowering period of the 'on' and 'off' years, was conducted. Samples of flowers, ovaries and leaves from two cultivars, the biennial bearer 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' and the regular cropping 'Koroneiki' were used and the free and conjugated forms of polyamines were detected. In addition, the concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+) were determined in all samples...
November 2005: Journal of Plant Physiology
Y Zhang, M T Hannan, C E Chaisson, T E McAlindon, S R Evans, P Aliabadi, D Levy, D T Felson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relations of bone mineral density (BMD) and change in BMD to risk of incident and progressive radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Female participants aged 63 to 91 years (mean age 71) in the Framingham Study received anteroposterior weight bearing knee radiographs at biennial examinations 18 (1983-85) and 22 (1992-93). Knee radiographs were given scores for global severity of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence scale: range 0 to 4) and for the presence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (range 0 to 3)...
April 2000: Journal of Rheumatology
Y Zhang, T E McAlindon, M T Hannan, C E Chaisson, R Klein, P W Wilson, D T Felson
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) prevents worsening of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in elderly women. METHODS: A total of 551 women ages 63-91 years (mean age 71) in the Framingham Study were followed up from biennial examination 18 (1983-1985) to examination 22 (1992-1993). Data on postmenopausal ERT were obtained every 2 years. Subjects were classified into 3 groups according to their estrogen use at biennial examination 18: never users (n = 349), past users (n = 162), and current users (n = 40)...
October 1998: Arthritis and Rheumatism
D T Felson, Y Zhang, M T Hannan, J J Anderson
We evaluated the association of weight and bone mass in elderly male and female subjects of the Framingham osteoporosis study, a subset of the Framingham study cohort. By examining the differences in the correlations of weight with bone mass among men and women in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing sites and weight change since early adulthood, we attempted to understand different ways in which weight or body mass index affects bone mass. During biennial examination 20 of the Framingham cohort (1988-1989), 693 women and 439 men (mean age 76 years) had proximal femur bone mineral density assessed by dualphoton absorptiometry (DPA) and radius bone mass assessed by single-photon absorptiometry...
May 1993: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
M T Hannan, D T Felson, J J Anderson, A Naimark
We evaluated the potential risk factor by examining levels of habitual physical activity during middle age, and knee osteoarthritis (OA) in later years in the Framingham Cohort. Weight-bearing knee radiographs were obtained during the 18th biennial examination (1983-85), when the 1,415 subjects had a mean age of 73 years. Cohort members had been asked at 1954-57 and 1971-73 about the number of hours spent daily at various levels of physical activity, ranging from sedentary to heavy activity. Physical capacity measures, such as forced expiratory volume in one second and resting pulse rate, were also examined for association with OA...
April 1993: Journal of Rheumatology
M T Hannan, J J Anderson, Y Zhang, D Levy, D T Felson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible inverse relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA) by evaluating the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and knee OA in the Framingham Study cohort. METHODS: Of the 1,154 Framingham Study cohort subjects in whom BMD measurements were obtained at biennial examination 20, 932 (81%) had had knee OA assessed during the Framingham Knee OA Study 4 years earlier. BMD of the proximal femur and radius was measured by densitometry...
December 1993: Arthritis and Rheumatism
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