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Bart Kahr
The special relationship between France and the polarization of light from the beginning of the 19th century until the present day is reviewed in the lives and works of Étienne Louis Malus, François Arago, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Augustin Fresnel, Louis Pasteur, Frédéric Wallerant, Aimé Cotton, Francis Perrin, and Alain Aspect. To avoid a redundant presentation of information that can be found with an Internet search engine, the author emphasizes how the aforementioned individuals have influenced the studies of stereochemistry, molecular chirality, and the polarization of light in his research group...
February 16, 2018: Chirality
Ke Xu, LiMin Wang, Na Liu, Xuan Xie, YuanDi Zhu
Arabidopsis SUPERMAN and its family members of its family play important roles in plant growth and floral organ development; yet much less is known about their functions expanding in apple tree development. Previous work has identified 12 SUP-like genes in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, and the MdSUP11 which is expressed in both vegetative and reproductive organs of apple. However, the function of MdSUP11 remains obscure. In this study, the β-glucuronidase expression driven by the MdSUP11 native promoter was detected in roots, young leaves, and floral organs of transgenic Arabidopsis...
December 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Patrick Janassek, Sébastien Blumenstein, Wolfgang Elsäßer
By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mei-Hong Sun, Qi-Jun Ma, Da-Gang Hu, Xiao-Ping Zhu, Chun-Xiang You, Huai-Rui Shu, Yu-Jin Hao
Glucose regulates many vital processes, including plant growth, development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, the molecular mechanism by which glucose acts as a signal to regulate salinity tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we found that the apple (Malus domestica Borkh) glucose sensor hexokinase1 (MdHXK1) contributes to glucose-mediated salinity tolerance. A combination of split ubiquitin system, pull-down, Co-IP and BiFC assays demonstrated that MdHXK1 interacts with and phosphorylates the Na+/H+ exchanger MdNHX1 at its Ser275 residue...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ming Tan, Guofang Li, Siyan Qi, Xiaojie Liu, Xilong Chen, Juanjuan Ma, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
Cytokinins (CKs) play a crucial role in promoting axillary bud outgrowth and targeting the control of CK metabolism can be used to enhance branching in plants. CK levels are maintained mainly by CK biosynthesis (isopentenyl transferase, IPT) and degradation (dehydrogenase, CKX) genes in plants. A systematic study of the IPT and CKX gene families in apple, however, has not been conducted. In the present study, 12 MdIPTs and 12 MdCKXs were identified in the apple genome. Systematic phylogenetic, structural, and synteny analyses were performed...
January 31, 2018: Gene
Jean Carlos Bettoni, Murilo Dalla Costa, Juliana Aparecida Souza, Gayle M Volk, Osmar Nickel, Fabio Nascimento da Silva, Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar
Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) are several major viral pathogens of apple trees, responsible for substantial damage to the world's apple industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation technique to eradicate these viral pathogens from in vitro shoot tips excised from 'Marubakaido' apple rootstock cultures. Axillary shoot tips were excised from in vitro cultures, encapsulated in alginate beads, precultured in MS salts, dehydrated in a laminar flow hood, immersed in liquid nitrogen, then warmed and recovered on medium...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Thomas F Boudreau, Gregory M Peck, Sean F O'Keefe, Amanda C Stewart
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L-1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L-1 ammonium...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Bipin Balan, Francesco Paolo Marra, Tiziano Caruso, Federico Martinelli
RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an integrated approach of pathway- and gene- set enrichment analysis, Mapman visualization tool, gene ontology analysis and inferred protein-protein interaction network...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mirtha Navarro, Ileana Moreira, Elizabeth Arnaez, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, Felipe Vargas, Diego Alvarado, Pei Chen
The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives)...
January 30, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Maria I Pratas, Bruno Aguiar, Jorge Vieira, Vanessa Nunes, Vanessa Teixeira, Nuno A Fonseca, Amy Iezzoni, Steve van Nocker, Cristina P Vieira
In Malus × domestica (Rosaceae) the product of each SFBB gene (the pollen component of the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system) of a S-haplotype (the combination of pistil and pollen genes that are linked) interacts with a sub-set of non-self S-RNases (the pistil component), but not with the self S-RNase. To understand how the Malus GSI system works, we identified 24 SFBB genes expressed in anthers, and determined their gene sequence in nine M. domestica cultivars. Expression of these SFBBs was not detected in the petal, sepal, filament, receptacle, style, stigma, ovary or young leaf...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Diogo Denardi Porto, Yohanna Evelyn Miotto, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo Dias de Oliveira, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro, Giancarlo Pasquali, Luís Fernando Revers
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which play roles in carbon storage, signal transduction, and osmoprotection. The present work assessed the evolutionary history of GolS genes across the Rosaceae using several bioinformatic tools. Apple (Malus × domestica) GolS genes were transcriptionally characterized during bud dormancy, in parallel with galactinol and raffinose measurements. Additionally, MdGolS2, a candidate to regulate seasonal galactinol and RFO content during apple bud dormancy, was functionally characterized in Arabidopsis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Laura Foix, Laura Montesinos, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
BACKGROUND: Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are endogenous molecules that induce and amplify the first line of inducible plant defense, known as pattern-triggered immunity, contributing to protect plants against attack by bacteria, fungi and herbivores. Pep topic application and transgenic expression have been found to enhance disease resistance in a small number of model plant-pathogen systems. The action of Peps relies on perception by specific receptors, so displaying a family-specific activity...
January 23, 2018: BMC Genetics
Zhiwei Wei, Tengteng Gao, Bowen Liang, Qi Zhao, Fengwang Ma, Chao Li
Oxidative stress is a major source of damage of plants exposed to adverse environments. We examined the effect of exogenous melatonin (MT) in limiting of oxidative stress caused by methyl viologen (MV; paraquatin) in apple leaves (Malus domestica Borkh.). When detached leaves were pre-treated with melatonin, their level of stress tolerance increased. Under MV treatment, melatonin effectively alleviated the decrease in chlorophyll concentrations and maximum potential Photosystem II efficiency while also mitigating membrane damage and lipid peroxidation when compared with control leaves that were sprayed only with water prior to the stress experiment...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Dougherty, Raksha Singh, Susan Brown, Chris Dardick, Kenong Xu
To unlock the power of next generation sequencing-based bulked segregant analysis in allele discovery in out-crossing woody species, and to understand the genetic control of weeping trait, an F1 population from cross 'Cheal's Weeping' × 'Evereste' was used to create two genomic DNA pools 'weeping (17 progeny)' and 'standard (16 progeny)'. Illumina pair-end (2x151bp) sequencing of the pools to a 27.1x (weeping) and a 30.4x (standard) genome (742.3Mb) coverage allowed detection of 84,562 DNA variants specific to 'weeping', 92,148 specific to 'standard' and 173,169 common to both pools...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Monika Michalecka, Sylwester Masny, Thibault Leroy, Joanna Puławska
BACKGROUND: Tracking newly emergent virulent populations in agroecosystems provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of the co-evolution dynamics of pathogens and their hosts. On the one hand host plants exert selective pressure on pathogen populations, thus dividing them into subpopulations of different virulence, while on the other hand they create an opportunity for secondary contact between the two divergent populations on one tree. The main objectives of the study were to explore whether the previously reported structure between two Venturia inaequalis population types, virulent or avirulent towards Malus x domestica cultivars carrying Rvi6 gene, is maintained or broken several years after the first emergence of new virulent strains in Poland, and to investigate the relationship between 'new' and 'native' populations derived from the same commercial orchards...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Wei Liu, Ting Wu, Qiwei Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Tianhong Li, Zhenhai Han, Yi Wang
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants; however, its availability is limited as it forms insoluble complexes in the soil. Consequently, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to low Fe conditions. We demonstrate that ethylene is involved in Fe deficiency-induced physiological responses in Malus xiaojinensis, and describe the identification of MxERF4 as a protein-protein interaction partner with the MxFIT transcription factor, which is involved in the iron deficiency response. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MxERF4 acts as an MxFIT interaction partner to suppresses the expression of the Fe transporter MxIRT1, by binding directly to its promoter, requiring the EAR motif of the MxERF4 protein...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rehman Ullah Khan, Sultan Mehmood, Saad Ullah Khan
The present paper was a part of Ph.D research work, conducted during the year 2014, in which 87 poisonous plants belonging to 54 genera, were collected, documented and preserved in the herbarium of Bannu, Department of Botany UST, Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkwa Pakistan. The plants were identified botanically, arranged alphabetically along with their Latin name, family name, common name, poisonous parts, toxicity, affects, toxin and their effects. Aim of the study was to induce awareness in the local people of district Bannu about the poisonous effects of the commonly used plants...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zengyu Gan, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Lower promoter activity is closely associated with lower MdPIN1b expression in the M9 interstem, which might contribute to the dwarfing effect in apple trees. Apple trees grafted onto dwarfing rootstock Malling 9 (M9) produce dwarfing tree architecture with high yield and widely applying in production. Previously, we have reported that in Malus 'Red Fuji' (RF) trees growing on M9 interstem and Baleng Crab (BC) rootstock, IAA content was relatively higher in bark tissue of M9 interstem than that in scion or rootstock...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Min-Rui Wang, Long Chen, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Gayle M Volk, Qiao-Chun Wang
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids...
January 11, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Rebecca A Henry-Kirk, Blue Plunkett, Miriam Hall, Tony McGhie, Andrew C Allan, Jason J Wargent, Richard V Espley
Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) is one environmental signal perceived by plants that affects the flavonoid pathway and influences the levels of anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins. To understand the mechanisms underlying UV exposure, apple trees were grown under spectral filters that altered transmission of solar UV light. Fruit analysis showed that UV induced changes in physiology, metabolism and gene expression levels during development over a season. These changes were sustained after storage. Under low UV ripening was delayed, fruit size decreased, and anthocyanin and flavonols were reduced...
January 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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