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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821733/three-recombinantly-expressed-apple-tyrosinases-suggest-the-amino-acids-responsible-for-mono-versus-diphenolase-activity-in-plant-polyphenol-oxidases
#1
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme family, which is mainly responsible for the browning of fruits. Three cDNAs encoding PPO pro-enzymes have been cloned from leaves of Malus domestica (apple, MdPPO). The three pro-enzymes MdPPO1-3 were heterologously expressed in E. coli yielding substantial amounts of protein and have been characterized with regard to their optimum of activity resulting from SDS, acidic and proteolytic activation. Significant differences were found in the kinetic characterization of MdPPO1-3 when applying different mono- and diphenolic substrates...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811498/genome-re-sequencing-reveals-the-history-of-apple-and-supports-a-two-stage-model-for-fruit-enlargement
#2
Naibin Duan, Yang Bai, Honghe Sun, Nan Wang, Yumin Ma, Mingjun Li, Xin Wang, Chen Jiao, Noah Legall, Linyong Mao, Sibao Wan, Kun Wang, Tianming He, Shouqian Feng, Zongying Zhang, Zhiquan Mao, Xiang Shen, Xiaoliu Chen, Yuanmao Jiang, Shujing Wu, Chengmiao Yin, Shunfeng Ge, Long Yang, Shenghui Jiang, Haifeng Xu, Jingxuan Liu, Deyun Wang, Changzhi Qu, Yicheng Wang, Weifang Zuo, Li Xiang, Chang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang, Yuan Gao, Yimin Xu, Kenong Xu, Thomas Chao, Gennaro Fazio, Huairui Shu, Gan-Yuan Zhong, Lailiang Cheng, Zhangjun Fei, Xuesen Chen
Human selection has reshaped crop genomes. Here we report an apple genome variation map generated through genome sequencing of 117 diverse accessions. A comprehensive model of apple speciation and domestication along the Silk Road is proposed based on evidence from diverse genomic analyses. Cultivated apples likely originate from Malus sieversii in Kazakhstan, followed by intensive introgressions from M. sylvestris. M. sieversii in Xinjiang of China turns out to be an "ancient" isolated ecotype not directly contributing to apple domestication...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800123/differential-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-effect-of-calcium-on-malus-baccata-borkh-leaves-under-temperature-stress
#3
Lijie Li, Hong Su, Huaiyu Ma, Deguo Lyu
In the cool apple-producing areas of northern China, air temperature during early spring changes in a rapid and dramatic manner, which affects the growth and development of apple trees at the early stage of the growing season. Previous studies have shown that the treatment of calcium can increase the cold tolerance of Malus baccata Borkh., a widely-used rootstock apple tree in northern China. To better understand the physiological function of calcium in the response of M. baccata to temperature stress, we analyzed the effect of calcium treatment (2% CaCl₂) on M...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796917/single-base-methylome-analysis-reveals-dynamic-epigenomic-differences-associated-with-water-deficit-in-apple
#4
Jidi Xu, Shasha Zhou, Xiaoqing Gong, Yi Song, Steve van Nocker, Fengwang Ma, Qingmei Guan
Cytosine methylation is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation and is involved in various biological processes. Although cytosine methylation has been analyzed at the genomic scale for several plant species, there is a general lack of understanding of the dynamics of global and genic DNA methylation in plants growing in environments challenged with biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we mapped cytosine methylation at single-base resolution in the genome of commercial apple (Malus x domestica), and analyzed changes in methylation patterns associated with water deficit in representative drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant cultivars...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777094/in-crystallo-activity-tests-with-latent-apple-tyrosinase-and-two-mutants-reveal-the-importance-of-the-mutated-sites-for-polyphenol-oxidase-activity
#5
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases are type 3 copper enzymes that belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) family and are able to catalyze both the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols and their subsequent oxidation to o-quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of colouring substances such as melanin. The first plant pro-tyrosinase from Malus domestica (MdPPO1) was recombinantly expressed in its latent form (56.4 kDa) and mutated at four positions around the catalytic pocket which are believed to influence the activity of the enzyme...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771353/contrasting-transcriptional-programs-control-post-harvest-development-of-apples-malus-x-domestica-borkh-submitted-to-cold-storage-and-ethylene-blockage
#6
Tatiane Timm Storch, Taciane Finatto, Maryline Bruneau, Mathilde Orsel-Baldwin, Jean-Pierre Renou, Cesar V Rombaldi, Vera Quecini, François Laurens, César L Girardi
Apple is commercially important worldwide. Favorable genomic contexts and postharvest technologies allow year round availability. Although ripening is considered a unidirectional developmental process towards senescence, storage at low temperatures, alone or in combination with ethylene blockage, is effective in preserving apple properties. Quality traits and genome wide expression were integrated to investigate the mechanisms underlying postharvest changes. Development and conservation techniques were responsible for transcriptional reprogramming and distinct programs associated with quality traits...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769974/flavonoid-accumulation-plays-an-important-role-in-the-rust-resistance-of-malus-plant-leaves
#7
Yanfen Lu, Qi Chen, Yufen Bu, Rui Luo, Suxiao Hao, Jie Zhang, Ji Tian, Yuncong Yao
Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe) is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698906/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fruit-plastids-in-three-genetically-diverse-genotypes-of-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica-borkh-during-development
#8
Scott M Schaeffer, Ryan Christian, Nohely Castro-Velasquez, Brennan Hyden, Valerie Lynch-Holm, Amit Dhingra
Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs...
July 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674551/high-mir156-expression-is-required-for-auxin-induced-adventitious-root-formation-via-mxspl26-independent-of-pins-and-arfs-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#9
Xiaozhao Xu, Xu Li, Xingwang Hu, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156), the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J) and rejuvenated (Mx-R) Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like) genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A) trees...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669931/genome-wide-identification-evolution-and-expression-analysis-of-gata-transcription-factors-in-apple-malus%C3%A3-domestica-borkh
#10
Hongfei Chen, Hongxia Shao, Ke Li, Dong Zhang, Sheng Fan, Youmei Li, Mingyu Han
Plant GATA transcription factors are type-IV zinc-finger proteins that play important regulatory roles in plant growth and development. In this study, we identified 35 GATA genes classified into four groups in the whole genome sequence of Malus domestica. A physiochemical property analysis indicated that GATA proteins are largely unstable hydrophilic proteins. An analysis of conserved protein motifs uncovered three highly conserved motifs, in addition to the GATA motif, in all MdGATA proteins. These three motifs, CCT, TIFY, and ASXH, were found to occur in specific GATA groups and may be related to GATA gene function...
June 29, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635965/identification-genealogical-structure-and-population-genetics-of-s-alleles-in-malus-sieversii-the-wild-ancestor-of-domesticated-apple
#11
X Ma, Z Cai, W Liu, S Ge, L Tang
The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633325/malus-hupehensis-mir168-targets-to-argonaute1-and-contributes-to-the-resistance-against-botryosphaeria-dothidea-infection-by-altering-defense-responses
#12
Xinyi Yu, Yingjun Hou, Weiping Chen, Sanhong Wang, Peihong Wang, Shenchun Qu
MicroRNA-mediated post transcriptional regulation plays a fundamental role in various plant physiological processes, including responses to pathogens. MicroRNA168 has been implicated as an essential factor of miRNA pathways by targeting ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A fluctuation in AGO1 expression influences various plant-pathogen interactions, and the homeostasis of AGO1 and miR168 accumulation is maintained by a complicated feedback regulatory loop. In this study, the connection between miR168 and the resistance of M...
June 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581499/high-quality-de-novo-assembly-of-the-apple-genome-and-methylome-dynamics-of-early-fruit-development
#13
Nicolas Daccord, Jean-Marc Celton, Gareth Linsmith, Claude Becker, Nathalie Choisne, Elio Schijlen, Henri van de Geest, Luca Bianco, Diego Micheletti, Riccardo Velasco, Erica Adele Di Pierro, Jérôme Gouzy, D Jasper G Rees, Philippe Guérif, Hélène Muranty, Charles-Eric Durel, François Laurens, Yves Lespinasse, Sylvain Gaillard, Sébastien Aubourg, Hadi Quesneville, Detlef Weigel, Eric van de Weg, Michela Troggio, Etienne Bucher
Using the latest sequencing and optical mapping technologies, we have produced a high-quality de novo assembly of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome. Repeat sequences, which represented over half of the assembly, provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the uncharacterized regions of a tree genome; we identified a new hyper-repetitive retrotransposon sequence that was over-represented in heterochromatic regions and estimated that a major burst of different transposable elements (TEs) occurred 21 million years ago...
July 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577237/insertion-of-a-solo-ltr-retrotransposon-associates-with-spur-mutations-in-red-delicious-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica
#14
Mengxue Han, Qibao Sun, Junyong Zhou, Huarong Qiu, Jing Guo, Lijuan Lu, Wenlei Mu, Jun Sun
Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length...
June 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554690/functions-of-two-malus-hupehensis-pamp-rehd-ytps-mhytp1-and-mhytp2-in-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#15
Na Wang, Tianli Guo, Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Ping Wang, Yun Shao, Bowen Liang, Xiaoqing Gong, Fengwang Ma
RNA binding proteins play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The YT521-B homology (YTH) domain-containing RNA binding protein (YTP) was first found in Rattus norvegicus and is related to oxygen-deficient stress. The Malus YTP gene family has 15 members. Results from their functional analysis will help researchers improve stress tolerance and fruit quality in apple. We cloned two homologous YTP family members in M. hupehensis - MhYTP1 and MhYTP2 - and identified their promoter regions that contain many cis-elements related to biotic and abiotic stresses...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550149/the-jasmonate-activated-transcription-factor-mdmyc2-regulates-ethylene-response-factor-and-ethylene-biosynthetic-genes-to-promote-ethylene-biosynthesis-during-apple-fruit-ripening
#16
Tong Li, Yaxiu Xu, Lichao Zhang, Yinglin Ji, Dongmei Tan, Hui Yuan, Aide Wang
The plant hormone ethylene is critical for ripening in climacteric fruits, including apple (Malus domestica). Jasmonate (JA) promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that JA-induced ethylene production in apple fruit is dependent on the expression of MdACS1, an ACC synthase gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis. The expression of MdMYC2, encoding a transcription factor involved in the JA signaling pathway, was enhanced by MeJA treatment in apple fruits, and MdMYC2 directly bound to the promoters of both MdACS1 and the ACC oxidase gene MdACO1 and enhanced their transcription...
June 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531147/oriented-growth-of-%C3%AE-mno%C3%A2-nanorods-using-natural-extracts-from-grape-stems-and-apple-peels
#17
Lina Sanchez-Botero, Adriana P Herrera, Juan P Hinestroza
We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO₂) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica 'Cortland' apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO₂ nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO₄ in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503152/identification-classification-and-expression-analysis-of-gras-gene-family-in-malus-domestica
#18
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Cai Gao, Ming Zhao, Haiqin Wu, Youmei Li, Yawen Shen, Mingyu Han
GRAS genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development. However, little is known about the GRAS gene family in apple. In this study, 127 GRAS genes were identified in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome and named MdGRAS1 to MdGRAS127 according to their chromosomal locations. The chemical characteristics, gene structures and evolutionary relationships of the MdGRAS genes were investigated. The 127 MdGRAS genes could be grouped into eight subfamilies based on their structural features and phylogenetic relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484477/ancient-plant-glyoxylate-succinic-semialdehyde-reductases-glyr1s-are-cytosolic-whereas-glyr2s-are-localized-to-both-mitochondria-and-plastids
#19
Carolyne J Brikis, Adel Zarei, Christopher P Trobacher, Jennifer R DeEll, Kazuhito Akama, Robert T Mullen, Gale G Bozzo, Barry J Shelp
Plant NADPH-dependent glyoxylate/succinic semialdehyde reductases 1 and 2 (GLYR1 and GLYR2) are considered to be involved in detoxifying harmful aldehydes, thereby preserving plant health during exposure to various abiotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two GLYR isoforms appeared in the plant lineage prior to the divergence of the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta, which occurred approximately 750 million years ago. Green fluorescent protein fusions of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.), rice (Oryza sativa L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482241/characterization-of-three-chalcone-synthase-like-genes-from-apple-malus-x-domestica-borkh
#20
Mosaab Yahyaa, Samah Ali, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Muhammad Ibdah, Alona Shachtier, Yoram Eyal, Efraim Lewinsohn, Mwafaq Ibdah
Apple (Malus x domestica Brokh.) is a widely cultivated deciduous tree species of significant economic importance. Apple leaves accumulate high levels of flavonoids and dihydrochalcones, and their formation is dependent on enzymes of the chalcone synthase family. Three CHS genes were cloned from apple leaves and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded recombinant enzymes were purified and functionally characterized. In-vitro activity assays indicated that MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 code for proteins exhibiting polyketide synthase activity that accepted either p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, or cinnamoyl-CoA as starter CoA substrates in the presence of malonyl-CoA, leading to production of phloretin, naringenin chalcone, and pinocembrin chalcone...
August 2017: Phytochemistry
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