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Xiong Liao, Xiao Guo, Qi Wang, Yantao Wang, Di Zhao, Liping Yao, Shuang Wang, Guojie Liu, Tianhong Li
Dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling pathways in model plants. However, little is known about the function of DREBs in apple (Malus × domestica), a widely cultivated crop that is frequently threatened by drought. We isolated a DREB gene from Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem., MsDREB6.2, and investigated its functions using overexpression analysis and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T). We identified possible target genes of the protein encoded by MsDREB6...
October 18, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tingjing Zhang, Jianqiang Liang, Panxue Wang, Ying Xu, Yutang Wang, Xinyuan Wei, Mingtao Fan
Phloretin-2'-O-glycosyltransferase (P2'GT) catalyzes the last glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of phloridzin that contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apples and processed apple products. In this work, a novel P2'GT of Malus x domestica (MdP2'GT) with a specific activity of 46.82 μkat/Kg protein toward phloretin and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) at an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH 8.0 was purified from the engineered Pichia pastoris broth to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, His-Trap affinity chromatography and gel filtration...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonio Gómez-Cortecero, Robert J Saville, Reiny W A Scheper, Joanna K Bowen, Hugo Agripino De Medeiros, Jennifer Kingsnorth, Xiangming Xu, Richard J Harrison
Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50%) in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rafał Nadulski, Zbigniew Kobus, Kamil Wilczyński, Kazimierz Zawiślak, Józef Grochowicz, Tomasz Guz
The paper presents the results of the research on the impact of enzymatic liquefaction, freezing and thawing on the efficiency of juice pressure extraction from apple pulp and quality of the obtained juices. The research was conducted using three types of pretreatment prior the pressing: crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 25 °C, crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 45 °C and crushing followed by freezing and thawing of the pulp. The study included three varieties of apples...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Slađana Č Alagić, Snežana B Tošić, Mile D Dimitrijević, Jelena V Petrović, Dragana V Medić
The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Kendra A McClure, Kyle M Gardner, Peter Ma Toivonen, Cheryl R Hampson, Jun Song, Charles F Forney, John DeLong, Istvan Rajcan, Sean Myles
The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world's most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders...
2016: Horticulture Research
Kazuma Okada, Masato Wada, Shigeki Moriya, Yuichi Katayose, Hiroko Fujisawa, Jianzhong Wu, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Kanako Kurita, Harumi Sasaki, Hiroshi Fujii, Shingo Terakami, Hiroshi Iwanami, Toshiya Yamamoto, Kazuyuki Abe
Determining the molecular mechanism of fruit tree architecture is important for tree management and fruit production. An apple mutant 'McIntosh Wijcik', which was discovered as a bud mutation from 'McIntosh', exhibits a columnar growth phenotype that is controlled by a single dominant gene, Co. In this study, the mutation and the Co gene were analyzed. Fine mapping narrowed the Co region to a 101 kb region. Sequence analysis of the Co region and the original wild-type co region identified an insertion mutation of an 8202 bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retroposon in the Co region...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Liangyun Zhou, Jian Yang, Guang Yang, Chuanzhi Kang, Wenjuan Xiao, Chaogeng Lv, Sheng Wang, Jinfu Tang, Lanping Guo
Biphenyls are unique phytoalexins de novo synthesized in plants in response to pathogen attack. These compounds are found in Maloideae, a subfamily of the Rosaceae. The anti-microbial activities of biphenyls have been reported in a number of studies and they appear to represent an important defense strategy against pathogens common in the Maloideae, such as species in Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus, and Chaenomeles. Here, cell suspension cultures of Sorbus pohuashanensis were established to study biphenyl phytoalexins formation after yeast extract (YE) treatment...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Leila Ebrahimi, Khalil-Berdi Fotuhifar, Mohammad Javan Nikkhah, Mohammad-Reza Naghavi, Niranjan Baisakh
The population genetic structure of 278 Venturia inaequalis isolates, collected from different apple cultivars of eighteen different provinces in Iran, was investigated using 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analysis of molecular variation, Bayesian clustering and Nei's genetic distance analyses based on 88 microsatellite alleles indicated substantial levels of gene flow among the collection sites. Ninety three percent of the variation was observed among the individuals within the populations and only 7% variation was observed among the populations...
2016: PloS One
Guiqiang Liu, Guolan Fu, Zhengqi Liu, Zhenping Huang, Jian Chen
Impressive optical properties are numerically demonstrated in the partially hollowed dielectric meta-surface (p-HDMS), which consists of an air cavity array intercalated in an ultra-thin (~λ/6) high-index dielectric film. Multispectral transmission band-stop response with near-perfect spectral modulation depth is achieved. The spectral slop is up to 80%/nm, indicating the sharp and narrowband transmission behavior. Classical Malus law is confirmed by this sub-wavelength platform. Moreover, the multispectral light propagation manipulation can be perfectly reproduced by using the actual dielectric with absorption loss...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Justin Graham Lashbrooke, Hagai Cohen, Dorit Levy-Samocha, Oren Tzfadia, Irina Panizel, Viktoria Zeisler, Hassan Massalha, Adi Stern, Livio Trainotti, Lukas Schreiber, Fabrizio Costa, Asaph Aharoni
Suberin, a polymer composed of both aliphatic and aromatic domains, is deposited as a rough matrix upon plant surface damage and during normal growth in the root endodermis, bark, specialized organs (e.g., Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers), and seed coats. To identify genes associated with the developmental control of suberin deposition, we investigated the chemical composition and transcriptomes of suberized Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and russet apple (Malus x domestica) fruit surfaces. Consequently, a gene expression signature for suberin polymer assembly was revealed that is highly conserved in angiosperms...
September 7, 2016: Plant Cell
Abdenour Bounihi, Arezki Bitam, Asma Bouazza, Lyece Yargui, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir
CONTEXT: Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chenjing Shang, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Chao Lei, Hongfei Chen, Libo Xing, Juanjuan Ma, Caiping Zhao, Mingyu Han
Alternate bearing (AB) trees, including Malus prunifolia, are characterized by alternating cycles of heavy (ON tree) and low (OFF tree) fruit loads. The mechanisms regulating the AB phenomenon have not been fully characterized. We completed an iTRAQ-based investigation of M. prunifolia to identify the proteome and metabolic differences between the leaves of ON and OFF trees. We identified 667 differentially expressed proteins, and they influenced multiple biochemical pathways, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, protein processing, redox activities, and secondary metabolism...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Jihyun Lee, Bronte Lee Shan Chan, Alyson E Mitchell
Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Alice Tadiello, Sara Longhi, Marco Moretto, Alberto Ferrarini, Paola Tononi, Brian Farneti, Nicola Busatto, Urska Vrhovsek, Alessandra Dal Molin, Carla Avanzato, Franco Biasioli, Luca Cappellin, Matthias Scholz, Riccardo Velasco, Livio Trainotti, Massimo Delledonne, Fabrizio Costa
Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a model species for studying the metabolic changes that occur at the onset of ripening in fruit crops, and the physiological mechanisms that are governed by the hormone ethylene. In this study, to dissect the climacteric interplay in apple, a multidisciplinary approach was employed. To this end, a comprehensive analysis of gene expression together with the investigation of several physiological entities (texture, volatilome and content of polyphenolic compounds) was performed throughout fruit development and ripening...
October 5, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
H S Lee, G H Kim, S I Kwon, J H Kim, Y S Kwon, C Choi
The domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a major fruit crop of temperate regions of the world. 'Fuji' apple (Ralls Genet x Delicious), a famous apple cultivar in Korea, has been very popular since its promotion in Japan in 1958. 'Fuji' and its bud mutant cultivars possess variable levels of genetic diversity. Nonetheless, the phenotypes of each group, which are classified into the bud mutation groups: early season, fruiting spur, and coloring, are similar. Despite attempts to identify these bud mutation cultivars, molecular markers, which were developed before the emergence of next-generation sequencing technology, have not been able to distinguish each cultivar easily...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xuewei Li, Ling Kui, Jing Zhang, Yinpeng Xie, Liping Wang, Yan Yan, Na Wang, Jidi Xu, Cuiying Li, Wen Wang, Steve van Nocker, Yang Dong, Fengwang Ma, Qingmei Guan
BACKGROUND: Domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh) is a popular temperate fruit with high nutrient levels and diverse flavors. In 2012, global apple production accounted for at least one tenth of all harvested fruits. A high-quality apple genome assembly is crucial for the selection and breeding of new cultivars. Currently, a single reference genome is available for apple, assembled from 16.9 × genome coverage short reads via Sanger and 454 sequencing technologies. Although a useful resource, this assembly covers only ~89 % of the non-repetitive portion of the genome, and has a relatively short (16...
2016: GigaScience
Amy L Klocko, Ewa Borejsza-Wysocka, Amy M Brunner, Olga Shevchenko, Herb Aldwinckle, Steven H Strauss
We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi) directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG) to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These "double-flowers" had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes...
2016: PloS One
Tong Li, Zhongyu Jiang, Lichao Zhang, Dongmei Tan, Yun Wei, Hui Yuan, Tianlai Li, Aide Wang
Fruit ripening in climacteric fruit requires the gaseous phytohormone ethylene. Although ethylene signaling has been well studied, knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is still limited. Here we show that an apple (Malus domestica) ethylene response factor, MdERF2, negative affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1, a gene that is critical for ripening-related ethylene biosynthesis. MdERF2 expression was suppressed by ethylene during apple fruit ripening, and we observed that MdERF2 bound to the promoter of MdACS1 and directly suppressed its transcription...
August 1, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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