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Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Huiqin Ma, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation. This study demonstrated that ROS play a critical role in Fe deficiency-induced signaling at an early stage in Malus xiaojinensis. Once ROS production has been initiated, prolonged Fe starvation leads to activation of ROS scavenging mechanisms. Further, we demonstrated that ROS scavengers are involved in maintaining the cellular redox homeostasis during prolonged Fe deficiency treatment. Taken together, our results describe a feedback repression loop for ROS to preserve redox homeostasis and maintain a continuous Fe deficiency response in the Fe-efficient woody plant M...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Stefan Schütz, Marco Tasin, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the volatile emission from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) foliage that was either intact, mechanically-damaged, or exposed to larval feeding by Pandemis heparana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three time periods: after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later. Volatiles for all treatments also were monitored continuously over a 72-h period by the use of proton transfer reaction - time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jia-Ning Xu, Shan-Shan Xing, Zheng-Rong Zhang, Xue-Sen Chen, Xiao-Yun Wang
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), which have a highly conserved β barrel tubby domain, have been found to be associated with some animal-specific characteristics. In the plant kingdom, more than 10 TLP family members were identified in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, and they were found to be involved in responses to stress. The publication of the apple genome makes it feasible to systematically study the TLP family in apple. In this investigation, nine TLP encoding genes (TLPs for short) were identified. When combined with the TLPs from other plant species, the TLPs were divided into three groups (group A, B, and C)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Urszula Krasuska, Katarzyna Ciacka, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sergio Alvarez-Rodríguez, Noé Alcalá Ochoa
In this work a novel polyphase optical encoder is presented, which uses a mathematical algorithm to take advantage of the polarization properties of light. This optical encoder has excellent accuracy, precision, and resolution in measuring the angular position of a shaft. Furthermore, it is designed to work with low-cost optical components. Initially, a light beam passes through a rotating polarizer, and readings are obtained from low-cost photoresistors located under phase shifted analyzers to generate characteristic curves for each of the phases, in the plane formed by the measured angle and the intensity of light...
November 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Antonio Cellini, Giampaolo Buriani, Lorenzo Rocchi, Elena Rondelli, Stefano Savioli, Maria T Rodriguez Estrada, Simona M Cristescu, Guglielmo Costa, Francesco Spinelli
Volatile organic compounds emitted during the infection of apple (Malus pumila var. domestica) plants by Erwinia amylovora or Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and used to treat uninfected plants. Infected plants showed a disease specific emission of volatile organic compounds, including several bio-active compounds, such as hexenal isomers and 2,3-butanediol. Leaf growth promotion and a higher resistance to the pathogen, expressed as a lower bacterial growth and migration in plant tissues, were detected in plants exposed to volatile compounds from E...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Longmei Zhai, Dashuang Xiao, Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang
To cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, plants have evolved a wide range of adaptive responses from changes in morphology to altered physiological responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the Fe-deficiency response through hormonal signaling pathways. Here, we report that NO plays a significant role in Malus xiaojinensis, an Fe-efficient woody plant. Fe deficiency triggered significant accumulation of NO in the root system, predominantly in the outer cortical and epidermal cells of the elongation zone...
November 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhaotao Liu, Sen Lian, Baohua Li, Hongyun Lu, Xiangli Dong, Caixia Wang
Botryosphaeria dothidea is a destructive pathogen infecting apple (Malus domestica) on the fruit and stem. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of B. dothidea (strain LW030101) using Illumina sequencing. The draft genome sequence provides useful information and acts as a platform for further research on the pathogen.
October 27, 2016: Genome Announcements
Xiong Liao, Xiao Guo, Qi Wang, Yantao Wang, Di Zhao, Liping Yao, Shuang Wang, Guojie Liu, Tianhong Li
Dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling pathways in model plants. However, little is known about the function of DREBs in apple (Malus × domestica), a widely cultivated crop that is frequently threatened by drought. We isolated a DREB gene from Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem., MsDREB6.2, and investigated its functions using overexpression analysis and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T). We identified possible target genes of the protein encoded by MsDREB6...
October 18, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tingjing Zhang, Jianqiang Liang, Panxue Wang, Ying Xu, Yutang Wang, Xinyuan Wei, Mingtao Fan
Phloretin-2'-O-glycosyltransferase (P2'GT) catalyzes the last glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of phloridzin that contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apples and processed apple products. In this work, a novel P2'GT of Malus x domestica (MdP2'GT) with a specific activity of 46.82 μkat/Kg protein toward phloretin and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) at an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH 8.0 was purified from the engineered Pichia pastoris broth to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, His-Trap affinity chromatography and gel filtration...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonio Gómez-Cortecero, Robert J Saville, Reiny W A Scheper, Joanna K Bowen, Hugo Agripino De Medeiros, Jennifer Kingsnorth, Xiangming Xu, Richard J Harrison
Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50%) in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rafał Nadulski, Zbigniew Kobus, Kamil Wilczyński, Kazimierz Zawiślak, Józef Grochowicz, Tomasz Guz
The paper presents the results of the research on the impact of enzymatic liquefaction, freezing and thawing on the efficiency of juice pressure extraction from apple pulp and quality of the obtained juices. The research was conducted using three types of pretreatment prior the pressing: crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 25 °C, crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 45 °C and crushing followed by freezing and thawing of the pulp. The study included three varieties of apples...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Slađana Č Alagić, Snežana B Tošić, Mile D Dimitrijević, Jelena V Petrović, Dragana V Medić
The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Kendra A McClure, Kyle M Gardner, Peter Ma Toivonen, Cheryl R Hampson, Jun Song, Charles F Forney, John DeLong, Istvan Rajcan, Sean Myles
The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world's most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders...
2016: Horticulture Research
Kazuma Okada, Masato Wada, Shigeki Moriya, Yuichi Katayose, Hiroko Fujisawa, Jianzhong Wu, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Kanako Kurita, Harumi Sasaki, Hiroshi Fujii, Shingo Terakami, Hiroshi Iwanami, Toshiya Yamamoto, Kazuyuki Abe
Determining the molecular mechanism of fruit tree architecture is important for tree management and fruit production. An apple mutant 'McIntosh Wijcik', which was discovered as a bud mutation from 'McIntosh', exhibits a columnar growth phenotype that is controlled by a single dominant gene, Co. In this study, the mutation and the Co gene were analyzed. Fine mapping narrowed the Co region to a 101 kb region. Sequence analysis of the Co region and the original wild-type co region identified an insertion mutation of an 8202 bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retroposon in the Co region...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Liangyun Zhou, Jian Yang, Guang Yang, Chuanzhi Kang, Wenjuan Xiao, Chaogeng Lv, Sheng Wang, Jinfu Tang, Lanping Guo
Biphenyls are unique phytoalexins de novo synthesized in plants in response to pathogen attack. These compounds are found in Maloideae, a subfamily of the Rosaceae. The anti-microbial activities of biphenyls have been reported in a number of studies and they appear to represent an important defense strategy against pathogens common in the Maloideae, such as species in Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus, and Chaenomeles. Here, cell suspension cultures of Sorbus pohuashanensis were established to study biphenyl phytoalexins formation after yeast extract (YE) treatment...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Leila Ebrahimi, Khalil-Berdi Fotuhifar, Mohammad Javan Nikkhah, Mohammad-Reza Naghavi, Niranjan Baisakh
The population genetic structure of 278 Venturia inaequalis isolates, collected from different apple cultivars of eighteen different provinces in Iran, was investigated using 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analysis of molecular variation, Bayesian clustering and Nei's genetic distance analyses based on 88 microsatellite alleles indicated substantial levels of gene flow among the collection sites. Ninety three percent of the variation was observed among the individuals within the populations and only 7% variation was observed among the populations...
2016: PloS One
Guiqiang Liu, Guolan Fu, Zhengqi Liu, Zhenping Huang, Jian Chen
Impressive optical properties are numerically demonstrated in the partially hollowed dielectric meta-surface (p-HDMS), which consists of an air cavity array intercalated in an ultra-thin (~λ/6) high-index dielectric film. Multispectral transmission band-stop response with near-perfect spectral modulation depth is achieved. The spectral slop is up to 80%/nm, indicating the sharp and narrowband transmission behavior. Classical Malus law is confirmed by this sub-wavelength platform. Moreover, the multispectral light propagation manipulation can be perfectly reproduced by using the actual dielectric with absorption loss...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Justin Graham Lashbrooke, Hagai Cohen, Dorit Levy-Samocha, Oren Tzfadia, Irina Panizel, Viktoria Zeisler, Hassan Massalha, Adi Stern, Livio Trainotti, Lukas Schreiber, Fabrizio Costa, Asaph Aharoni
Suberin, a polymer composed of both aliphatic and aromatic domains, is deposited as a rough matrix upon plant surface damage and during normal growth in the root endodermis, bark, specialized organs (e.g., Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers), and seed coats. To identify genes associated with the developmental control of suberin deposition, we investigated the chemical composition and transcriptomes of suberized Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and russet apple (Malus x domestica) fruit surfaces. Consequently, a gene expression signature for suberin polymer assembly was revealed that is highly conserved in angiosperms...
September 7, 2016: Plant Cell
Abdenour Bounihi, Arezki Bitam, Asma Bouazza, Lyece Yargui, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir
CONTEXT: Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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