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Minzhuo Liu, Xueqian Huang, Qi Liu, Miao Chen, Sen Liao, Fawei Zhu, Shuyun Shi, Hua Yang, Xiaoqing Chen
The leaves of Malus hupehensis have a strong antioxidant activity and are commonly consumed as a healthy tea. However, detailed information about its antioxidants is incomplete. Herein, we developed an effective strategy based on combining off-line two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry detection with a 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay to rapidly screen and identify the antioxidants from the leaves of Malus hupehensis. In the orthogonal two-dimensional liquid chromatography system, a Venusil HILIC column was used for the first dimension, while a Universil XB-C18 column was installed in the second...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Qing Yang, Dong Meng, Zhaoyu Gu, Wei Li, Qiuju Chen, Yang Li, Hui Yuan, Jie Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Tianzhong Li
In S-RNase-mediated self-incompatibility (SI), S-RNase secreted from the style destroys the actin cytoskeleton of the self-pollen tubes, eventually halting its growth, but the mechanism remains unclear. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that S-RNase does not bind or sever filamentous actin (F-actin). In apple (Malus×domestica), we identified an actin-binding protein containing myosin, villin and GRAM, MdMVG, that physically interacts with S-RNase and directly binds and severs F-actin. Immunofluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) indicated that S-RNase inhibits the F-actin-severing activity of MdMVG in vitro...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Abdelhameed Elameen, Hans Geir Eiken, Ida Fløystad, Geir Knudsen, Snorre B Hagen
The apple fruit moth Argyresthia conjugella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) is a seed predator of rowan ( Sorbus aucuparia ) and is distributed in Europe and Asia. In Fennoscandia (Finland, Norway and Sweden), rowan fruit production is low every 2-4 years, and apple ( Malus domestica ) functions as an alternative host, resulting in economic loss in apple crops in inter-mast years. We have used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to identify a set of 19 novel tetra-nucleotide short tandem repeats (STRs) in Argyresthia conjugella ...
April 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bingbing Shen, Rongrong Zhou, Yupei Yang, Jiayu Li, Xuejuan Liang, Lin Chen, Luqi Huang, Shuihan Zhang
This paper intends to identify the antimicrobial activity compounds from the deciduous leaves of Malus doumeri (Dong Li Tea) by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. The ethanol extracts of Malus doumeri were partitioned into petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction, respectively. The antimicrobial screening experiments showed that ethyl acetate fraction has a certain antibacterial activity by inhibition zone method in vitro. And then we used the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS method to verify the identities of bioactive compounds...
April 3, 2018: Natural Product Research
Linlin Huang, Mingjun Li, Kun Zhou, Tingting Sun, Lingyu Hu, Cuiying Li, Fengwang Ma
Using a hydroponics culture system, we monitored morphological, physiological, and molecular changes in Malus prunifolia seedlings when drought conditions induced by 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) were combined with a low or normal supply of N (0.05 mM or 1 mM NH4 NO3 , respectively). Under either nutrient level, drought stress negatively inhibited seedling performance, as manifested by reduced photosynthesis and biomass production, decreased accumulations of total N, and inhibited root growth. Concentrations of NO3 - and NH4 + and the activities of enzymes involved in N metabolism (nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) were also significantly decreased under drought stress...
March 28, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhe Zhou, Yi Tian, Peihua Cong, Yanmin Zhu
Apple gene, MD09G1111800, was identified as a chitin binding receptor-like kinase based on sequence similarity to AtCERK1 (chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1) from Arabidopsis. Sequence analysis on genomic structure, domain composition and transcriptional response to exogenous chitin treatment indicated that MD09G1111800 is an ortholog to AtCERK1 and was therefore named as MdCERK1. Tissue specific expression patterns indicated that MdCERK1 is primarily functional in vegetative tissues of leaf and root, rather than flower, fruit and seed of apple plant...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Niek Hias, Jan Van den Bulcke, Wannes Keulemans, Kathy Steppe
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent research has highlighted the importance of living tissue in wood. Polyploidization can impact amounts and arrangements of living cells in wood, potentially leading to increased drought tolerance. Tetraploid variants were created from the apple cultivar Malus ×domestica 'Gala' (Gala-4x), and their vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation and their hydraulic capacitance were compared to those of their diploid predecessors (Gala-2x). Assuming a positive correlation between polyploidy and drought tolerance, we hypothesized lower vulnerability and higher capacitance for the tetraploid...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Ina Schlathölter, Melanie Jänsch, Henryk Flachowsky, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico Broggini, Magda-Viola Hanke, Andrea Patocchi
The approach presented here can be applied to reduce the time needed to introduce traits from wild apples into null segregant advanced selections by one-fourth. Interesting traits like resistances to pathogens are often found within the wild apple gene pool. However, the long juvenile phase of apple seedlings hampers the rapid introduction of these traits into new cultivars. The rapid crop cycle breeding approach used in this paper is based on the overexpression of the birch (Betula pendula) MADS4 transcription factor in apple...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Lili Cui, Meimei Xing, Lanting Xu, Junya Wang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Changyang Ma, Wenyi Kang
Flowers of Malus halliana (M. halliana) Koehne have been used as a Chinese traditional medicine to treat metrorrhagia and in our study, its chemical composition and anticoagulant effect were investigated. Five compounds were isolated and identified from M. halliana flowers, including limocitrin-3-O-glucoside (1), baohuoside Ⅱ (2), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-furan arabinoside (3), phloretin-4'-O-glycosidase (4) and afzeloside (5). Compound 1-3 were isolated for the first time from this genus. The anticoagulant effect of the compounds and extracts of M...
February 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bart Kahr
The special relationship between France and the polarization of light from the beginning of the 19th century until the present day is reviewed in the lives and works of Étienne Louis Malus, François Arago, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Augustin Fresnel, Louis Pasteur, Frédéric Wallerant, Aimé Cotton, Francis Perrin, and Alain Aspect. To avoid a redundant presentation of information that can be found with an Internet search engine, the author emphasizes how the aforementioned individuals have influenced the studies of stereochemistry, molecular chirality, and the polarization of light in his research group...
February 16, 2018: Chirality
Ke Xu, LiMin Wang, Na Liu, Xuan Xie, YuanDi Zhu
Arabidopsis SUPERMAN and its family members of its family play important roles in plant growth and floral organ development; yet much less is known about their functions expanding in apple tree development. Previous work has identified 12 SUP-like genes in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, and the MdSUP11 which is expressed in both vegetative and reproductive organs of apple. However, the function of MdSUP11 remains obscure. In this study, the β-glucuronidase expression driven by the MdSUP11 native promoter was detected in roots, young leaves, and floral organs of transgenic Arabidopsis...
December 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Patrick Janassek, Sébastien Blumenstein, Wolfgang Elsäßer
By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mei-Hong Sun, Qi-Jun Ma, Da-Gang Hu, Xiao-Ping Zhu, Chun-Xiang You, Huai-Rui Shu, Yu-Jin Hao
Glucose regulates many vital processes, including plant growth, development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, the molecular mechanism by which glucose acts as a signal to regulate salinity tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we found that the apple (Malus domestica Borkh) glucose sensor hexokinase1 (MdHXK1) contributes to glucose-mediated salinity tolerance. A combination of split ubiquitin system, pull-down, Co-IP and BiFC assays demonstrated that MdHXK1 interacts with and phosphorylates the Na+/H+ exchanger MdNHX1 at its Ser275 residue...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ming Tan, Guofang Li, Siyan Qi, Xiaojie Liu, Xilong Chen, Juanjuan Ma, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
Cytokinins (CKs) play a crucial role in promoting axillary bud outgrowth and targeting the control of CK metabolism can be used to enhance branching in plants. CK levels are maintained mainly by CK biosynthesis (isopentenyl transferase, IPT) and degradation (dehydrogenase, CKX) genes in plants. A systematic study of the IPT and CKX gene families in apple, however, has not been conducted. In the present study, 12 MdIPTs and 12 MdCKXs were identified in the apple genome. Systematic phylogenetic, structural, and synteny analyses were performed...
January 31, 2018: Gene
Jean Carlos Bettoni, Murilo Dalla Costa, Juliana Aparecida Souza, Gayle M Volk, Osmar Nickel, Fabio Nascimento da Silva, Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar
Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) are several major viral pathogens of apple trees, responsible for substantial damage to the world's apple industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation technique to eradicate these viral pathogens from in vitro shoot tips excised from 'Marubakaido' apple rootstock cultures. Axillary shoot tips were excised from in vitro cultures, encapsulated in alginate beads, precultured in MS salts, dehydrated in a laminar flow hood, immersed in liquid nitrogen, then warmed and recovered on medium...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Thomas F Boudreau, Gregory M Peck, Sean F O'Keefe, Amanda C Stewart
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L-1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L-1 ammonium...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Bipin Balan, Francesco Paolo Marra, Tiziano Caruso, Federico Martinelli
RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an integrated approach of pathway- and gene- set enrichment analysis, Mapman visualization tool, gene ontology analysis and inferred protein-protein interaction network...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mirtha Navarro, Ileana Moreira, Elizabeth Arnaez, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, Felipe Vargas, Diego Alvarado, Pei Chen
The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives)...
January 30, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Maria I Pratas, Bruno Aguiar, Jorge Vieira, Vanessa Nunes, Vanessa Teixeira, Nuno A Fonseca, Amy Iezzoni, Steve van Nocker, Cristina P Vieira
In Malus × domestica (Rosaceae) the product of each SFBB gene (the pollen component of the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system) of a S-haplotype (the combination of pistil and pollen genes that are linked) interacts with a sub-set of non-self S-RNases (the pistil component), but not with the self S-RNase. To understand how the Malus GSI system works, we identified 24 SFBB genes expressed in anthers, and determined their gene sequence in nine M. domestica cultivars. Expression of these SFBBs was not detected in the petal, sepal, filament, receptacle, style, stigma, ovary or young leaf...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Diogo Denardi Porto, Yohanna Evelyn Miotto, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo Dias de Oliveira, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro, Giancarlo Pasquali, Luís Fernando Revers
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which play roles in carbon storage, signal transduction, and osmoprotection. The present work assessed the evolutionary history of GolS genes across the Rosaceae using several bioinformatic tools. Apple (Malus × domestica) GolS genes were transcriptionally characterized during bud dormancy, in parallel with galactinol and raffinose measurements. Additionally, MdGolS2, a candidate to regulate seasonal galactinol and RFO content during apple bud dormancy, was functionally characterized in Arabidopsis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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