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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231330/the-effects-of-exogenous-hormones-on-rooting-process-and-the-activities-of-key-enzymes-of-malus-hupehensis-stem-cuttings
#1
Wangxiang Zhang, Junjun Fan, Qianqian Tan, Mingming Zhao, Ting Zhou, Fuliang Cao
Malus hupehensis is an excellent Malus rootstock species, known for its strong adverse-resistance and apomixes. In the present study, stem cuttings of M. hupehensis were treated with three types of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), or green growth regulator (GGR). The effects and mechanisms of exogenous hormone treatment and antioxidant enzyme activity on adventitious root formation were investigated. The results showed that the apparent morphology of the adventitious root had four stages, including root pre-emergence stage (S0), early stage of root formation (S1), massive root formation stage (S2), and later stage of root formation (S3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198417/chilling-affects-phytohormone-and-post-embryonic-development-pathways-during-bud-break-and-fruit-set-in-apple-malus-domestica-borkh
#2
Gulshan Kumar, Khushboo Gupta, Shivalika Pathania, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Usha Kumari Rattan, Gagandeep Singh, Ram Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Singh
The availability of sufficient chilling during bud dormancy plays an important role in the subsequent yield and quality of apple fruit, whereas, insufficient chilling availability negatively impacts the apple production. The transcriptome profiling during bud dormancy release and initial fruit set under low and high chill conditions was performed using RNA-seq. The comparative high number of differentially expressed genes during bud break and fruit set under high chill condition indicates that chilling availability was associated with transcriptional reorganization...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191817/polarisers-in-the-focal-domain-theoretical-model-and-experimental-validation
#3
Rosario Martínez-Herrero, David Maluenda, Ignasi Juvells, Artur Carnicer
Polarisers are one of the most widely used devices in optical set-ups. They are commonly used with paraxial beams that propagate in the normal direction of the polariser plane. Nevertheless, the conventional projection character of these devices may change when the beam impinges a polariser with a certain angle of incidence. This effect is more noticeable if polarisers are used in optical systems with a high numerical aperture, because multiple angles of incidence have to be taken into account. Moreover, the non-transverse character of highly focused beams makes the problem more complex and strictly speaking, the Malus' law does not apply...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188424/fine-tuning-of-the-flavonoid-and-monolignol-pathways-during-apple-early-fruit-development
#4
Paolo Baldi, Mirko Moser, Matteo Brilli, Urska Vrhovsek, Massimo Pindo, Azeddine Si-Ammour
A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing...
February 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174579/overexpression-of-mpcys4-a-phytocystatin-gene-from-malus-prunifolia-willd-borkh-enhances-stomatal-closure-to-confer-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-and-apple
#5
Yanxiao Tan, Mingjun Li, Yingli Yang, Xun Sun, Na Wang, Bowen Liang, Fengwang Ma
Phytocystatins (PhyCys) comprise a group of inhibitors for cysteine proteinases in plants. They play a wide range of important roles in regulating endogenous processes and protecting plants against various environmental stresses, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we detailed the biological functions of MpCYS4, a member of cystatin genes isolated from Malus prunifolia. This gene was activated under water deficit, heat (40°C), exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl viologen (MV) (Tan et al...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174429/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-apple-malus-%C3%A3-domestica-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factor-family
#6
Jinhua Yang, Min Gao, Li Huang, Yaqiong Wang, Steve van Nocker, Ran Wan, Chunlei Guo, Xiping Wang, Hua Gao
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, which are characterized by a conserved bHLH domain, comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in both plants and animals, and have been shown to have a wide range of biological functions. However, there have been very few studies of bHLH proteins from perennial tree species. We describe here the identification and characterization of 175 bHLH transcription factors from apple (Malus × domestica). Phylogenetic analysis of apple bHLH (MdbHLH) genes and their Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) orthologs indicated that they can be classified into 23 subgroups...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167273/mybs-affect-the-variation-in-the-ratio-of-anthocyanin-and-flavanol-in-fruit-peel-and-flesh-in-response-to-shade
#7
Yanfen Lu, Yufen Bu, Suxiao Hao, Yaru Wang, Jie Zhang, Ji Tian, Yuncong Yao
Fruit pigment accumulation, which represents an important indicator of nutrient quality and appearance value, is often affected by low light under rain, cloud, fog and haze conditions during the veraison period. It is not known whether continuous low light interferes with the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites in veraison fruit. In this paper, we measured pigments and the transcriptional level of genes related to secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoid biosynthesis in the peel and flesh of Malus crabapple 'Radiant' fruit in response to normal light and shade from 10th July to 30th August...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167039/apple-autophagy-related-protein-mdatg3s-afford-tolerance-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#8
Ping Wang, Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Fengwang Ma
The efficient degradation system of autophagy in plant cells has important roles in removing and recycling intracellular components during normal development or under environmental stresses. Formation of autophagosomes requires the conjugation of ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We isolated two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-like ATG3 homologues from Malus domestica - MdATG3a and MdATG3b - that are crucial for ATG8-PE conjugation. Both share a conserved N-terminal, as well as the catalytic and C-terminal domains of ATG3 with HPC and FLKF motifs...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163714/transcriptomics-analysis-of-apple-leaves-in-response-to-alternaria-alternata-apple-pathotype-infection
#9
Longming Zhu, Weichen Ni, Shuai Liu, Binhua Cai, Han Xing, Sanhong Wang
Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between "Starking Delicious" apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161953/structure-of-the-major-apple-allergen-mal%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-1
#10
Linda Ahammer, Sarina Grutsch, Anna S Kamenik, Klaus R Liedl, Martin Tollinger
More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic patients develop allergic cross-reactions to the major allergen found in apple fruits (Malus domestica), the 17.5 kDa protein Mal d 1. Allergic reactions against this protein result from initial sensitization to the major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies with Mal d 1 after apple consumption can subsequently provoke severe oral allergic syndromes. This study presents the three-dimensional NMR solution structure of Mal d 1 (isoform Mal d 1...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145449/chloroplastic-biosynthesis-of-melatonin-and-its-involvement-in-protection-of-plants-from-salt-stress
#11
Xiaodong Zheng, Dun X Tan, Andrew C Allan, Bixiao Zuo, Yu Zhao, Russel J Reiter, Lin Wang, Zhi Wang, Yan Guo, Jingzhe Zhou, Dongqian Shan, Qingtian Li, Zhenhai Han, Jin Kong
Within the chloroplasts reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during photosynthesis and stressful conditions. Excessive ROS damages chloroplasts and reduces photosynthesis if not properly detoxified. In this current study, we document that chloroplasts produce melatonin, a recently-discovered plant antioxidant molecule. When N-acetylserotonin, a substrate for melatonin synthesis, was fed to purified chloroplasts, they produced melatonin in a dose-response manner. To further confirm this function of chloroplasts, the terminal enzyme for melatonin synthesis, N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (ASMT), was cloned from apple rootstock, Malus zumi...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137704/pollen-tube-access-to-the-ovule-is-mediated-by-glycoprotein-secretion-on-the-obturator-of-apple-malus-%C3%A3-domestica-borkh
#12
Juan M Losada, Maria Herrero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Within the ovary, the obturator bridges the pathway of the pollen tube from the style to the ovule. Despite its widespread presence among flowering plants, its function has only been studied in a handful of species, and the molecules involved in pollen tube-obturator cross-talk have not been explored hitherto. This work evaluates the involvement of glucans and glycoproteins on pollen tube growth in the obturator of apple flowers (Malus × domestica) METHODS: Pollen tube kinetics were sequentially examined in the pistil and related to changes occurring on the obturator using histochemistry and inmunocytochemistry...
January 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130382/integrated-high-density-consensus-genetic-map-of-pyrus-and-anchoring-of-the-bartlett-v1-0-pyrus-communis-genome
#13
Leiting Li, Cecilia H Deng, Mareike Knäbel, David Chagné, Satish Kumar, Jiangmei Sun, Shaoling Zhang, Jun Wu
Genetic maps are essential tools for pear genetics and genomics research. In this study, we first constructed an integrated simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based consensus genetic map for pear based on common SSR markers between nine published maps. A total of 5,085 markers, including 1,232 SSRs and 3,853 SNPs, were localized on a consensus map spanning 3,266.0 cM in total, with an average marker interval of 0.64 cM, which represents the highest density consensus map of pear to date...
January 27, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127394/crop-to-wild-gene-flow-and-its-fitness-consequences-for-a-wild-fruit-tree-towards-a-comprehensive-conservation-strategy-of-the-wild-apple-in-europe
#14
Alice Feurtey, Amandine Cornille, Jacqui A Shykoff, Alodie Snirc, Tatiana Giraud
Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris, the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative, Malus domestica. With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M...
February 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127253/frequency-of-a-natural-truncated-allele-of-mdmlo19-in-the-germplasm-of-malus-domestica
#15
Stefano Pessina, Luisa Palmieri, Luca Bianco, Jennifer Gassmann, Eric van de Weg, Richard G F Visser, Pierluigi Magnago, Henk J Schouten, Yuling Bai, R Riccardo Velasco, Mickael Malnoy
Podosphaera leucotricha is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM) in apple. To reduce the amount of fungicides required to control this pathogen, the development of resistant apple cultivars should become a priority. Resistance to PM was achieved in various crops by knocking out specific members of the MLO gene family that are responsible for PM susceptibility (S-genes). In apple, the knockdown of MdMLO19 resulted in PM resistance. However, since gene silencing technologies such as RNAi are perceived unfavorably in Europe, a different approach that exploits this type of resistance is needed...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118713/production-of-rare-phyto-ceramides-from-abundant-food-plant-residues
#16
Mathias Reisberg, Norbert Arnold, Andrea Porzel, Reinhard H H Neubert, Birgit Dräger
Ceramides (Cers) are major components of the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, and play a crucial role in permeability barrier functions. Alterations in Cer composition causing skin diseases are compensated with semisynthetic skin-identical Cers. Plants constitute new resources for Cer production as they contain glucosylceramides (GluCers) as major components. GluCers were purified from industrial waste plant materials, apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat germs (Triticum sp.), and coffee grounds (Coffea sp...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107780/myb12-and-myb22-play-essential-roles-in-proanthocyanidin-and-flavonol-synthesis-in-red-fleshed-apple-malus-sieversii-f-niedzwetzkyana
#17
Nan Wang, Haifeng Xu, Shenghui Jiang, Zongying Zhang, Ninglin Lu, Huarong Qiu, Changzhi Qu, Yicheng Wang, Shujing Wu, Xuesen Chen
Flavonoids are major polyphenol compounds in plant secondary metabolism. Compared with cultivated apples, wild red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana) are excellent resources because of their high flavonoid content. In this work, R6R6, R6R1 and R1R1 genotypes were identified in an F1 segregating population of M. sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana. Significant differences in flavonoid compositions and contents were detected among the three genotypes by UPLC-ESI-TOF/MS analysis. Furthermore, two putative flavonoid-related genes encoding R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated MYB12 and MYB22, were cloned and characterized...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093854/reduced-representation-genome-sequencing-reveals-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-selection-in-apple
#18
Baiquan Ma, Liao Liao, Qian Peng, Ting Fang, Hui Zhou, Schuyler S Korban, Yuepeng Han
Identifying DNA sequence variations is a fundamental step towards deciphering the genetic basis of traits of interest. Here, a total of 20 cultivated and 10 wild apples were genotyped using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing, and 39,635 single nucleotide polymorphism with no missing genotypes and evenly distributed along the genome were selected to investigate patterns of genome-wide genetic variations between cultivated and wild apples. Overall, wild apples displayed higher levels of genetic diversity than cultivated apples...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078623/identification-of-host-fruit-volatiles-from-snowberry-symphoricarpos-albus-attractive-to-rhagoletis-zephyria-flies-from-the-western-united-states
#19
Dong H Cha, Shannon B Olsson, Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Glen R Hood, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073698/ectopic-expression-of-an-apple-cytochrome-p450-gene-mdcypm1-negatively-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#20
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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