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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698906/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fruit-plastids-in-three-genetically-diverse-genotypes-of-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica-borkh-during-development
#1
Scott M Schaeffer, Ryan Christian, Nohely Castro-Velasquez, Brennan Hyden, Valerie Lynch-Holm, Amit Dhingra
Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs...
July 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674551/high-mir156-expression-is-required-for-auxin-induced-adventitious-root-formation-via-mxspl26-independent-of-pins-and-arfs-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#2
Xiaozhao Xu, Xu Li, Xingwang Hu, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156), the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J) and rejuvenated (Mx-R) Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like) genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A) trees...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635965/identification-genealogical-structure-and-population-genetics-of-s-alleles-in-malus-sieversii-the-wild-ancestor-of-domesticated-apple
#3
X Ma, Z Cai, W Liu, S Ge, L Tang
The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633325/malus-hupehensis-mir168-targets-to-argonaute1-and-contributes-to-the-resistance-against-botryosphaeria-dothidea-infection-by-altering-defense-responses
#4
Xinyi Yu, Yingjun Hou, Weiping Chen, Sanhong Wang, Peihong Wang, Shenchun Qu
MicroRNA-mediated post transcriptional regulation plays a fundamental role in various plant physiological processes, including responses to pathogens. MicroRNA168 has been implicated as an essential factor of miRNA pathways by targeting ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A fluctuation in AGO1 expression influences various plant-pathogen interactions, and the homeostasis of AGO1 and miR168 accumulation is maintained by a complicated feedback regulatory loop. In this study, the connection between miR168 and the resistance of M...
June 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581499/high-quality-de-novo-assembly-of-the-apple-genome-and-methylome-dynamics-of-early-fruit-development
#5
Nicolas Daccord, Jean-Marc Celton, Gareth Linsmith, Claude Becker, Nathalie Choisne, Elio Schijlen, Henri van de Geest, Luca Bianco, Diego Micheletti, Riccardo Velasco, Erica Adele Di Pierro, Jérôme Gouzy, D Jasper G Rees, Philippe Guérif, Hélène Muranty, Charles-Eric Durel, François Laurens, Yves Lespinasse, Sylvain Gaillard, Sébastien Aubourg, Hadi Quesneville, Detlef Weigel, Eric van de Weg, Michela Troggio, Etienne Bucher
Using the latest sequencing and optical mapping technologies, we have produced a high-quality de novo assembly of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome. Repeat sequences, which represented over half of the assembly, provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the uncharacterized regions of a tree genome; we identified a new hyper-repetitive retrotransposon sequence that was over-represented in heterochromatic regions and estimated that a major burst of different transposable elements (TEs) occurred 21 million years ago...
July 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577237/insertion-of-a-solo-ltr-retrotransposon-associates-with-spur-mutations-in-red-delicious-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica
#6
Mengxue Han, Qibao Sun, Junyong Zhou, Huarong Qiu, Jing Guo, Lijuan Lu, Wenlei Mu, Jun Sun
Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length...
June 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554690/functions-of-two-malus-hupehensis-pamp-rehd-ytps-mhytp1-and-mhytp2-in-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#7
Na Wang, Tianli Guo, Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Ping Wang, Yun Shao, Bowen Liang, Xiaoqing Gong, Fengwang Ma
RNA binding proteins play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The YT521-B homology (YTH) domain-containing RNA binding protein (YTP) was first found in Rattus norvegicus and is related to oxygen-deficient stress. The Malus YTP gene family has 15 members. Results from their functional analysis will help researchers improve stress tolerance and fruit quality in apple. We cloned two homologous YTP family members in M. hupehensis - MhYTP1 and MhYTP2 - and identified their promoter regions that contain many cis-elements related to biotic and abiotic stresses...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550149/the-jasmonate-activated-transcription-factor-mdmyc2-regulates-ethylene-response-factor-and-ethylene-biosynthetic-genes-to-promote-ethylene-biosynthesis-during-apple-fruit-ripening
#8
Tong Li, Yaxiu Xu, Lichao Zhang, Yinglin Ji, Dongmei Tan, Hui Yuan, Aide Wang
The plant hormone ethylene is critical for ripening in climacteric fruits, including apple (Malus domestica). Jasmonate (JA) promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that JA-induced ethylene production in apple fruit is dependent on the expression of MdACS1, an ACC synthase gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis. The expression of MdMYC2, encoding a transcription factor involved in the JA signaling pathway, was enhanced by MeJA treatment in apple fruits, and MdMYC2 directly bound to the promoters of both MdACS1 and the ACC oxidase gene MdACO1 and enhanced their transcription...
June 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531147/oriented-growth-of-%C3%AE-mno%C3%A2-nanorods-using-natural-extracts-from-grape-stems-and-apple-peels
#9
Lina Sanchez-Botero, Adriana P Herrera, Juan P Hinestroza
We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO₂) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica 'Cortland' apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO₂ nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO₄ in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503152/identification-classification-and-expression-analysis-of-gras-gene-family-in-malus-domestica
#10
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Cai Gao, Ming Zhao, Haiqin Wu, Youmei Li, Yawen Shen, Mingyu Han
GRAS genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development. However, little is known about the GRAS gene family in apple. In this study, 127 GRAS genes were identified in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome and named MdGRAS1 to MdGRAS127 according to their chromosomal locations. The chemical characteristics, gene structures and evolutionary relationships of the MdGRAS genes were investigated. The 127 MdGRAS genes could be grouped into eight subfamilies based on their structural features and phylogenetic relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484477/ancient-plant-glyoxylate-succinic-semialdehyde-reductases-glyr1s-are-cytosolic-whereas-glyr2s-are-localized-to-both-mitochondria-and-plastids
#11
Carolyne J Brikis, Adel Zarei, Christopher P Trobacher, Jennifer R DeEll, Kazuhito Akama, Robert T Mullen, Gale G Bozzo, Barry J Shelp
Plant NADPH-dependent glyoxylate/succinic semialdehyde reductases 1 and 2 (GLYR1 and GLYR2) are considered to be involved in detoxifying harmful aldehydes, thereby preserving plant health during exposure to various abiotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two GLYR isoforms appeared in the plant lineage prior to the divergence of the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta, which occurred approximately 750 million years ago. Green fluorescent protein fusions of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.), rice (Oryza sativa L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482241/characterization-of-three-chalcone-synthase-like-genes-from-apple-malus-x-domestica-borkh
#12
Mosaab Yahyaa, Samah Ali, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Muhammad Ibdah, Alona Shachtier, Yoram Eyal, Efraim Lewinsohn, Mwafaq Ibdah
Apple (Malus x domestica Brokh.) is a widely cultivated deciduous tree species of significant economic importance. Apple leaves accumulate high levels of flavonoids and dihydrochalcones, and their formation is dependent on enzymes of the chalcone synthase family. Three CHS genes were cloned from apple leaves and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded recombinant enzymes were purified and functionally characterized. In-vitro activity assays indicated that MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 code for proteins exhibiting polyketide synthase activity that accepted either p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, or cinnamoyl-CoA as starter CoA substrates in the presence of malonyl-CoA, leading to production of phloretin, naringenin chalcone, and pinocembrin chalcone...
August 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469624/md-mir156ab-and-md-mir395-target-wrky-transcription-factors-to-influence-apple-resistance-to-leaf-spot-disease
#13
Qiulei Zhang, Yang Li, Yi Zhang, Chuanbao Wu, Shengnan Wang, Li Hao, Shengyuan Wang, Tianzhong Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple (Malus×domestica). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a 2-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450013/extraction-identification-and-antioxidant-and-anticancer-tests-of-seven-dihydrochalcones-from-malus-red-splendor-fruit
#14
Zhengcao Xiao, Yunyuan Zhang, Xian Chen, Yule Wang, Weifeng Chen, Qipeng Xu, Pengmin Li, Fengwang Ma
Five dihydrochalcone compounds, including phlorizin, trilobatin, 3-hydroxyphlorizin, sieboldin and phloretin 2'-xyloglucoside, were isolated from ornamental Malus 'Red Splendor' fruit. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated by LC-ESI-MS and NMR. Phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin were produced by hydrolysis. The antioxidant capacities of these seven compounds were examined by DPPH and ABTS assays, while their cytotoxicity to five cancer cell lines were evaluated by the MTT assay. The results showed that the DPPH assay mainly reflected the antioxidant capacity of the B ring, whereas the ABTS assay was mostly related to the A ring of the dihydrochalcone molecule...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443104/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-apple-bhlh-transcription-factors-and-expression-analysis-in-response-to-drought-and-salt-stress
#15
Ke Mao, Qinglong Dong, Chao Li, Changhai Liu, Fengwang Ma
The bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor family is the second largest in plants. It occurs in all three eukaryotic kingdoms, and plays important roles in regulating growth and development. However, family members have not previously been studied in apple. Here, we identified 188 MdbHLH proteins in apple "Golden Delicious" (Malus × domestica Borkh.), which could be classified into 18 groups. We also investigated the gene structures and 12 conserved motifs in these MdbHLHs. Coupled with expression analysis and protein interaction network prediction, we identified several genes that might be responsible for abiotic stress responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440563/the-sumo-e3-ligase-mdsiz1-promotes-anthocyanin-accumulation-by-sumoylating-mdmyb1-under-low-temperature-conditions-in-apple
#16
Li-Jie Zhou, Yuan-Yuan Li, Rui-Fen Zhang, Chun-Ling Zhang, Xing-Bin Xie, Cheng Zhao, Yu-Jin Hao
MdMYB1 acts as a crucial component of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-skinned apples (Malus domestica), but little is known about its posttranslational regulation. Here, a SUMO E3 ligase MdSIZ1 was screened out as an MdMYB1-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybridization approach. The interaction between MdSIZ1 and MdMYB1 was further verified with pull-down and CoIP assays. Furthermore, it was found that MdSIZ1 directly sumoylated MdMYB1 proteins in vivo and in vitro, especially under moderately low temperature (17 °C) conditions, and that this sumoylation was required for MdMYB1 protein stability...
April 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424966/transcriptomic-analysis-of-molecular-responses-in-malus-domestica-m26-roots-affected-by-apple-replant-disease
#17
Stefan Weiß, Melanie Bartsch, Traud Winkelmann
Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet...
June 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424730/melatonin-improves-waterlogging-tolerance-of-malus-baccata-linn-borkh-seedlings-by-maintaining-aerobic-respiration-photosynthesis-and-ros-migration
#18
Xiaodong Zheng, Jingzhe Zhou, Dun-Xian Tan, Na Wang, Lin Wang, Dongqian Shan, Jin Kong
Waterlogging, one of the notorious abiotic stressors, retards the growth of apple plants and reduces their production. Thus, it is an urgent agenda for scientists to identify the suitable remedies for this problem. In the current study, we found that melatonin significantly improved the tolerance of apple seedlings against waterlogging stress. This was indicated by the reduced chlorosis and wilting of the seedlings after melatonin applications either by leaf spray or root irrigation. The mechanisms involve in that melatonin functions to maintain aerobic respiration, preserves photosynthesis and reduces oxidative damage of the plants which are under waterlogging stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424713/comprehensive-genomic-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-phosphate-transporter-pht-gene-family-in-apple
#19
Tingting Sun, Mingjun Li, Yun Shao, Lingyan Yu, Fengwang Ma
Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple (Malus domestica), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421103/svp-like-mads-box-genes-control-dormancy-and-budbreak-in-apple
#20
Rongmei Wu, Sumathi Tomes, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Stuart D Tustin, Roger P Hellens, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
The annual growth cycle of trees is the result of seasonal cues. The onset of winter triggers an endodormant state preventing bud growth and, once a chilling requirement is satisfied, these buds enter an ecodormant state and resume growing. MADS-box genes with similarity to Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) [the SVP-like and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes] have been implicated in regulating flowering and growth-dormancy cycles in perennials. Here, we identified and characterized three DAM-like (MdDAMs) and two SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE-like (MdSVPs) genes from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala')...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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