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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107780/myb12-and-myb22-play-essential-roles-in-proanthocyanidin-and-flavonol-synthesis-in-red-fleshed-apple-malus-sieversii-f-niedzwetzkyana
#1
Nan Wang, Haifeng Xu, Shenghui Jiang, Zongying Zhang, Ninglin Lu, Huarong Qiu, Changzhi Qu, Yicheng Wang, Shujing Wu, Xuesen Chen
Flavonoids are major polyphenol compounds in plant secondary metabolism. Compared with cultivated apples, wild red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana) are excellent resources because of their high flavonoid content. In this work, R6R6, R6R1 and R1R1 genotypes were identified in an F1 segregating population of M. sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana. Significant differences in flavonoid compositions and contents were detected among the three genotypes by UPLC-ESI-TOF/MS analysis. Furthermore, two putative flavonoid-related genes encoding R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated MYB12 and MYB22, were cloned and characterized...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093854/reduced-representation-genome-sequencing-reveals-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-selection-in-apple
#2
Baiquan Ma, Liao Liao, Qian Peng, Ting Fang, Hui Zhou, Schuyler S Korban, Yuepeng Han
Identifying DNA sequence variations is a fundamental step towards deciphering the genetic basis of traits of interest. Here, a total of 20 cultivated and 10 wild apples were genotyped using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing, and 39,635 single nucleotide polymorphism with no missing genotypes and evenly distributed along the genome were selected to investigate patterns of genome-wide genetic variations between cultivated and wild apples. Overall, wild apples displayed higher levels of genetic diversity than cultivated apples...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078623/identification-of-host-fruit-volatiles-from-snowberry-symphoricarpos-albus-attractive-to-rhagoletis-zephyria-flies-from-the-western-united-states
#3
Dong H Cha, Shannon B Olsson, Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Glen R Hood, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073698/ectopic-expression-of-an-apple-cytochrome-p450-gene-mdcypm1-negatively-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#4
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069587/trehalose-6-phosphate-signal-is-closely-related-to-sorbitol-in-apple-fruit-malus-domestica-borkh-cv-gala
#5
Wen Zhang, John E Lunn, Regina Feil, Yufei Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Hongxia Tao, Yanping Guo, Zhengyang Zhao
Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple fruit (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059122/study-on-relationship-between-pollen-exine-ornamentation-pattern-and-germplasm-evolution-in-flowering-crabapple
#6
Wang-Xiang Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhao, Jun-Jun Fan, Ting Zhou, Yong-Xia Chen, Fu-Liang Cao
Pollen ornamentation patterns are important in the study of plant genetic evolution and systematic taxonomy. However, they are normally difficult to quantify. Based on observations of pollen exine ornamentation characteristics of 128 flowering crabapple germplasms (44 natural species and 84 varieties), three qualitative variables with binary properties (Xi: regularity of pollen exine ornamentation; Yi: scope of ornamentation arrangement regularity; Zi: ornamentation arrangement patterns) were extracted to establish a binary three-dimensional data matrix (Xi Yi Zi) and the matrix data were converted to decimal data through weight assignment, which facilitated the unification of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003447/sensory-specificity-and-speciation-a-potential-neuronal-pathway-for-host-fruit-odour-discrimination-in-rhagoletis-pomonella
#7
Cheyenne Tait, Srishti Batra, Sree Subha Ramaswamy, Jeffrey L Feder, Shannon B Olsson
Behavioural changes in habitat or mate choice can trigger population divergence, leading to speciation. However, little is known about the neurological bases for such changes. Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a model for ecological speciation via host plant shifts. Within the past 180 years, Rhagoletis flies infesting hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) shifted to attack domesticated apple (Malus pumila). The two populations differ in their olfactory preferences for apple versus hawthorn fruit. Here, we looked for patterns of sensory organization that may have contributed to this shift by characterizing the morphology, specificity and distribution of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) on the antennae of Rhagoletis responding to host fruit and non-host volatiles...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933989/old-apple-malus-domestica-l-borkh-varieties-with-hypoallergenic-properties-an-integrated-approach-for-studying-apple-allergenicity
#8
Mara Vegro, Giulia Eccher, Francesca Populin, Chiara Sorgato, Federica Savazzini, Giulia Pagliarani, Stefano Tartarini, Gabriella Pasini, Andrea Curioni, Andrea Antico, Alessandro Botton
Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917289/a-high-density-multi-parental-snp-genetic-map-on-apple-validates-a-new-mapping-approach-for-outcrossing-species
#9
Erica A Di Pierro, Luca Gianfranceschi, Mario Di Guardo, Herma Jj Koehorst-van Putten, Johannes W Kruisselbrink, Sara Longhi, Michela Troggio, Luca Bianco, Hélène Muranty, Giulia Pagliarani, Stefano Tartarini, Thomas Letschka, Lidia Lozano Luis, Larisa Garkava-Gustavsson, Diego Micheletti, Marco Cam Bink, Roeland E Voorrips, Ebrahimi Aziz, Riccardo Velasco, François Laurens, W Eric van de Weg
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approaches rely on the correct ordering of molecular markers along the chromosomes, which can be obtained from genetic linkage maps or a reference genome sequence. For apple (Malus domestica Borkh), the genome sequence v1 and v2 could not meet this need; therefore, a novel approach was devised to develop a dense genetic linkage map, providing the most reliable marker-loci order for the highest possible number of markers. The approach was based on four strategies: (i) the use of multiple full-sib families, (ii) the reduction of missing information through the use of HaploBlocks and alternative calling procedures for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, (iii) the construction of a single backcross-type data set including all families, and (iv) a two-step map generation procedure based on the sequential inclusion of markers...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899933/reactive-oxygen-species-function-to-mediate-the-fe-deficiency-response-in-an-fe-efficient-apple-genotype-an-early-response-mechanism-for-enhancing-reactive-oxygen-production
#10
Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Huiqin Ma, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation. This study demonstrated that ROS play a critical role in Fe deficiency-induced signaling at an early stage in Malus xiaojinensis. Once ROS production has been initiated, prolonged Fe starvation leads to activation of ROS scavenging mechanisms. Further, we demonstrated that ROS scavengers are involved in maintaining the cellular redox homeostasis during prolonged Fe deficiency treatment. Taken together, our results describe a feedback repression loop for ROS to preserve redox homeostasis and maintain a continuous Fe deficiency response in the Fe-efficient woody plant M...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896554/emission-of-volatile-compounds-from-apple-plants-infested-with-pandemis-heparana-larvae-antennal-response-of-conspecific-adults-and-preliminary-field-trial
#11
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Stefan Schütz, Marco Tasin, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the volatile emission from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) foliage that was either intact, mechanically-damaged, or exposed to larval feeding by Pandemis heparana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three time periods: after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later. Volatiles for all treatments also were monitored continuously over a 72-h period by the use of proton transfer reaction - time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)...
December 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895653/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-tubby-like-protein-family-in-the-malus-domestica-genome
#12
Jia-Ning Xu, Shan-Shan Xing, Zheng-Rong Zhang, Xue-Sen Chen, Xiao-Yun Wang
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), which have a highly conserved β barrel tubby domain, have been found to be associated with some animal-specific characteristics. In the plant kingdom, more than 10 TLP family members were identified in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, and they were found to be involved in responses to stress. The publication of the apple genome makes it feasible to systematically study the TLP family in apple. In this investigation, nine TLP encoding genes (TLPs for short) were identified. When combined with the TLPs from other plant species, the TLPs were divided into three groups (group A, B, and C)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890695/nitric-oxide-polyamines-cross-talk-during-dormancy-release-and-germination-of-apple-embryos
#13
Urszula Krasuska, Katarzyna Ciacka, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869848/low-cost-encoder-using-a-phase-shifting-algorithm-utilizing-polarization-properties-of-light
#14
Sergio Alvarez-Rodríguez, Noé Alcalá Ochoa
In this work a novel polyphase optical encoder is presented, which uses a mathematical algorithm to take advantage of the polarization properties of light. This optical encoder has excellent accuracy, precision, and resolution in measuring the angular position of a shaft. Furthermore, it is designed to work with low-cost optical components. Initially, a light beam passes through a rotating polarizer, and readings are obtained from low-cost photoresistors located under phase shifted analyzers to generate characteristic curves for each of the phases, in the plane formed by the measured angle and the intensity of light...
November 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862864/biological-relevance-of-volatile-organic-compounds-emitted-during-the-pathogenic-interactions-between-apple-plants-and-erwinia-amylovora
#15
Antonio Cellini, Giampaolo Buriani, Lorenzo Rocchi, Elena Rondelli, Stefano Savioli, Maria T Rodriguez Estrada, Simona M Cristescu, Guglielmo Costa, Francesco Spinelli
Volatile organic compounds emitted during the infection of apple (Malus pumila var. domestica) plants by Erwinia amylovora or Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and used to treat uninfected plants. Infected plants showed a disease specific emission of volatile organic compounds, including several bio-active compounds, such as hexenal isomers and 2,3-butanediol. Leaf growth promotion and a higher resistance to the pathogen, expressed as a lower bacterial growth and migration in plant tissues, were detected in plants exposed to volatile compounds from E...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835849/nitric-oxide-signaling-is-involved-in-the-response-to-iron-deficiency-in-the-woody-plant-malus-xiaojinensis
#16
Longmei Zhai, Dashuang Xiao, Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang
To cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, plants have evolved a wide range of adaptive responses from changes in morphology to altered physiological responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the Fe-deficiency response through hormonal signaling pathways. Here, we report that NO plays a significant role in Malus xiaojinensis, an Fe-efficient woody plant. Fe deficiency triggered significant accumulation of NO in the root system, predominantly in the outer cortical and epidermal cells of the elongation zone...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789635/draft-genome-sequence-of-botryosphaeria-dothidea-the-pathogen-of-apple-ring-rot
#17
Zhaotao Liu, Sen Lian, Baohua Li, Hongyun Lu, Xiangli Dong, Caixia Wang
Botryosphaeria dothidea is a destructive pathogen infecting apple (Malus domestica) on the fruit and stem. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of B. dothidea (strain LW030101) using Illumina sequencing. The draft genome sequence provides useful information and acts as a platform for further research on the pathogen.
October 27, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754576/overexpression-of-msdreb6-2-results-in-cytokinin-deficient-developmental-phenotypes-and-enhances-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-apple-plants
#18
Xiong Liao, Xiao Guo, Qi Wang, Yantao Wang, Di Zhao, Liping Yao, Shuang Wang, Guojie Liu, Tianhong Li
Dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling pathways in model plants. However, little is known about the function of DREBs in apple (Malus × domestica), a widely cultivated crop that is frequently threatened by drought. We isolated a DREB gene from Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem., MsDREB6.2, and investigated its functions using overexpression analysis and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T). We identified possible target genes of the protein encoded by MsDREB6...
October 18, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731384/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-phloretin-2-o-glycosyltransferase-favoring-phloridzin-biosynthesis
#19
Tingjing Zhang, Jianqiang Liang, Panxue Wang, Ying Xu, Yutang Wang, Xinyuan Wei, Mingtao Fan
Phloretin-2'-O-glycosyltransferase (P2'GT) catalyzes the last glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of phloridzin that contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apples and processed apple products. In this work, a novel P2'GT of Malus x domestica (MdP2'GT) with a specific activity of 46.82 μkat/Kg protein toward phloretin and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) at an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH 8.0 was purified from the engineered Pichia pastoris broth to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, His-Trap affinity chromatography and gel filtration...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695463/variation-in-host-and-pathogen-in-the-neonectria-malus-interaction-toward-an-understanding-of-the-genetic-basis-of-resistance-to-european-canker
#20
Antonio Gómez-Cortecero, Robert J Saville, Reiny W A Scheper, Joanna K Bowen, Hugo Agripino De Medeiros, Jennifer Kingsnorth, Xiangming Xu, Richard J Harrison
Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50%) in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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