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Stefan Weiß, Benye Liu, Dennis Reckwell, Ludger Beerhues, Traud Winkelmann
A soil- and site-dependent complex of diverse microbial populations causes apple replant disease (ARD), which leads to economic losses for tree nurseries and apple producers due to reduced plant growth and diminished fruit yields. Soil fumigation has been widely used to mitigate ARD, but the application of these chemicals is restricted in the European Union. Hence, other counteractions have to be developed. Genomics-based breeding may be used to select ARD-tolerant genotypes; however, molecular responses of ARD are not well understood...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn, Dong H Cha
Rhagoletis zephyria Snow and Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are morphologically similar flies that attack white-colored snowberry fruit (Symphoricarpos spp.) and yellow/red or dark-colored apple/hawthorn fruit (Malus/Crataegus spp.), respectively. The two flies are caught together on traps in R. pomonella surveys in the western United States, increasing labor needed to process catches. Comparing responses of the two species with different traps could help identify best practices for reducing R...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Dong Meng, Mingyang He, Yang Bai, Hongxia Xu, Abhaya M Dandekar, Zhangjun Fei, Lailiang Cheng
Sugars produced by photosynthesis not only fuel plant growth and development, but may also act as signals to regulate plant growth and development. This work focuses on the role of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, in flower development and pollen tube growth of apple (Malus domestica). Transgenic 'Greensleeves' apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis had abnormal stamen development, a decreased pollen germination rate and reduced pollen tube growth, which were all closely related to lower sorbitol concentrations in stamens...
October 13, 2017: New Phytologist
Rumiyati, Sismindari, Endang Semiarti, Asri Fajar Milasari, Dheatika Karina Sari, Nia Fitriana, Sekar Galuh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are high potential sources of antioxidant compounds such as phenolics. The compounds have the capability of protecting cells and tissues against free radicals. Secondary metabolite produced by callus cell culture from plant organs also acts as a source of antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of sucrose and 2,4-D in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus induction from different plant organ explants...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Takanori Saito, Shanshan Wang, Katsuya Ohkawa, Hitoshi Ohara, Hiromi Ikeura, Yukiharu Ogawa, Satoru Kondo
We found that lipid accumulation in the meristem region and the expression of MdLIP2A, which appears to be regulated by chromatin remodeling, coincided with endodormancy induction in the 'Fuji' apple. In deciduous trees, including apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), lipid accumulation in the meristem region towards endodormancy induction has been thought to be an important process for the acquisition of cold tolerance. In this study, we conducted histological staining of crude lipids in the meristem region of 'Fuji' apples and found that lipid accumulation coincided with endodormancy induction...
October 10, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Jiangmei Sun, Leiting Li, Peng Wang, Shaoling Zhang, Juyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) is the largest gene family of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and actively participates in regulating the growth, development, signal transduction, immunity, and stress responses of plants. However, the patterns of LRR-RLK gene family evolution in the five main Rosaceae species for which genome sequences are available have not yet been reported. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK genes for five Rosaceae species: Fragaria vesca (strawberry), Malus domestica (apple), Pyrus bretschneideri (Chinese white pear), Prunus mume (mei), and Prunus persica (peach), which contained 201, 244, 427, 267, and 258 LRR-RLK genes, respectively...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
Jian-Ping An, Xin Liu, Hao-Hao Li, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MdMYB1 is an important regulator for anthocyanin accumulation in apple (Malus × domestica). Here, an apple RING E3 ligase MdMIEL1 was screened out as a partner of MdMYB1 with a yeast two-hybrid approach. Pull-down, BiFC and coimmunoprecipitation assays further verified the interaction between MdMIEL1 and MdMYB1 proteins. Subsequently, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdMIEL1 functioned as an ubiquitin E3 ligase to ubiquitinate MdMYB1 protein, followed by degradation through a 26S proteasome pathway...
September 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhengrong Zhang, Li Yuan, Xin Liu, Xuesen Chen, Xiaoyun Wang
As a family of transcription factors, DNA binding with one figure (Dof) proteins play important roles in various biological processes in plants. Here, a total of 60 putative apple (Malus domestica) Dof genes (MdDof) were identified and mapped to different chromosomes. Chromosomal distribution and synteny analysis indicated that the expansion of the MdDof genes came primarily from segmental and duplication events, and from whole genome duplication, which lead to more Dof members in apples than in other plants...
October 3, 2017: Gene
Dimitri Daudu, Elsa Allion, Franziska Liesecke, Nicolas Papon, Vincent Courdavault, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Céline Mélin, Audrey Oudin, Marc Clastre, Arnaud Lanoue, Martine Courtois, Olivier Pichon, David Giron, Sabine Carpin, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Joël Crèche, Sébastien Besseau, Gaëlle Glévarec
Cytokinin signaling is a key regulatory pathway of many aspects in plant development and environmental stresses. Herein, we initiated the identification and functional characterization of the five CHASE-containing histidine kinases (CHK) in the economically important Malus domestica species. These cytokinin receptors named MdCHK2, MdCHK3a/MdCHK3b, and MdCHK4a/MdCHK4b by homology with Arabidopsis AHK clearly displayed three distinct profiles. The three groups exhibited architectural variations, especially in the N-terminal part including the cytokinin sensing domain...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lisha Du, Siyan Qi, Juanjuan Ma, Libo Xing, Sheng Fan, Songwen Zhang, Youmei Li, Yawen Shen, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing disaccharide that serves as a carbon source and stress protectant in apple trees. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is the biosynthetic precursor of trehalose. It functions as a crucial signaling molecule involved in the regulation of floral induction, and is closely related to sucrose. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) family members are pivotal components of the T6P biosynthetic pathway. The present study identified 13 apple TPS family members and characterized their expression patterns in different tissues and in response to exogenous application of sucrose during floral induction...
September 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Bipin Balan, Tiziano Caruso, Federico Martinelli
Identifying key information in transcriptomic data is very important, especially when the "omic" study deals with plant responses to stresses in field conditions where a high number of variables and disturbing factors may affect the analysis. In this meta-analysis we collected 12 transcriptomic works in Malus in order to identify which key genes, proteins, gene categories are involved in general plant pathological conditions and those features linked with exclusive biotic stress responses. Those genes that are only related with molecular responses to pathogen attacks and those linked with other plant physiological processes were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tânia C S P Pires, Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Maria José Alves, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Malus domestica Borkh apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the world, due to their sweetness and flavour. Herein, 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple fruits were characterized regarding their nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties. Besides nutrients, flavan-3-ols (i.e., epicatechin and B-type procyanidins) as also hydroxycinnamoyl-quinic acids and phloretin derivatives were identified in the samples. Extracts prepared from 'Bravo de Esmolfe' also proved to have antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, namely methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, and against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli (ESBL) (producing extended spectrum β-lactamases) and Morganella morganii...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Bowen Liang, Cuiying Li, Changqing Ma, Zhiwei Wei, Qian Wang, Dong Huang, Qi Chen, Chao Li, Fengwang Ma
Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, root system architecture, nutrient uptake, and responses to nutrient deficiencies in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Under a nutrient deficiency, plants showed significant reductions in growth, chlorophyll concentrations, and net photosynthesis, along with disruptions in nutrient uptake, transport, and distribution. However, pretreatment with 100 μM dopamine markedly alleviated such inhibitions. Supplementation with that compound enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity and development of the root system while promoting the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, altering the way in which those nutrients were partitioned throughout the plant...
September 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yanzhen Lu, Nan Wu, Yingtong Fang, Nusrat Shaheen, Yun Wei
Many natural products are rich in antioxidants which play an important role in preventing or postponing a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular and inflammatory disease, diabetes as well as breast cancer. In this paper, an automatic on-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC) method was established for antioxidants screening with nine standards including organic acids (4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and benzoic acid), alkaloids (coptisine and berberine), and flavonoids (quercitrin, astragalin, and quercetin)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mathias Reisberg, Norbert Arnold, Andrea Porzel, Reinhard H H Neubert, Birgit Dräger
Three new glucosylceramides (GluCers) named malusides I-III (1-3) were isolated from apple (cultivars of Malus domestica) pomace (fruit material remaining after juice extraction). An unusual oxo/hydroxy group pattern within the sphingadienine (d18:2) type sphingoid base was observed. All compounds contained the same α-hydroxylated fatty acid (h16:0) and a β-D-glucose moiety. Their structures were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) measurements...
September 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Chaohua Sun, Mudan Yuan, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q-PCR to determine the level of expression of MxNas1 and western blot to measure protein levels...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
Xiaoqing Gong, Shuting Shi, Fangfang Dou, Yi Song, Fengwang Ma
Since melatonin was identified in plants decades ago, much attention has been devoted to discovering its role in plant science. There is still a great deal to learn about the functional importance of melatonin, as well as its functional mode. In this paper, we examine the role of melatonin treatment in the response of Malus hupehensis Rehd. to alkaline conditions. Stressed seedlings showed chlorosis and suppressed growth. However, this phenotype was ameliorated when 5 µM melatonin was added to the irrigation solution...
September 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alexander Gutmann, Margaretha Schiller, Mandana Gruber-Khadjawi, Bernd Nidetzky
Various bioactive natural products, like the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin and coumermycin, exhibit an aromatic C-methyl group adjacent to a glycosylated phenolic hydroxyl group. Therefore, tailoring of basic phenolic scaffolds to contain the intricate C-methyl/O-glycosyl motif is of high interest for structural and functional diversification of natural products. We demonstrate site-selective 8-C-methylation and 7-O-β-d-glucosylation of 4,5,7-trihydroxy-3-phenyl-coumarin (1) by S-adenosyl-l-methionine dependent C-methyltransferase (from Streptomyces niveus) and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose dependent glycosyltransferase from apple (Malus × domestica)...
September 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Qingwen Hu, Ying-Ying Chen, Qi-Yang Jiao, Afsar Khan, Jimiao Shan, Gui-Dong Cao, Feng Li, Chao Zhang, Hong-Xiang Lou
One new 4-chromanone glycoside, 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-4-chromanone (1), together with 21 known polyphenols, was isolated from the leaves of Malus hupehensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR (1D and 2D), mass (ESIMS and HRESIMS), IR, and by comparison with the data reported in the literature. Some of the isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity. Compounds 18 and 14 exhibited significant antioxidant activities with SC50 values 2...
September 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Jean Peyhardi, Yves Caraglio, Evelyne Costes, Pierre-Éric Lauri, Catherine Trottier, Yann Guédon
Plants exhibit dependences between shoot growth and branching that generate highly structured patterns. The characterization of the patterning mechanism is still an open issue because of the developmental processes involved with both succession of events (e.g. internode elongation, axillary shoot initiation and elongation) and complex dependences among neighbouring positions along the parent shoot. Statistical models called semi-Markov switching partitioned conditional generalized linear models were built on the basis of apple and pear tree datasets...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
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