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Hongfei Chen, Xiya Zuo, Hongxia Shao, Sheng Fan, Juanjuan Ma, Dong Zhang, Caiping Zhao, Xiangyan Yan, Xiaojie Liu, Mingyu Han
Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are able to cleave carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids and their derivatives, which are important for plant growth and development. In this study, 21 apple CCO genes were identified and divided into six groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We further characterized the apple CCO genes in terms of chromosomal distribution, structure and the presence of cis-elements in the promoter. We also predicted the cellular localization of the encoded proteins. An analysis of the synteny within the apple genome revealed that tandem, segmental, and whole-genome duplication events likely contributed to the expansion of the apple carotenoid oxygenase gene family...
December 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Kun Zhou, Lingyu Hu, Pengmin Li, Xiaoqing Gong, Fengwang Ma
Phloridzin (phloretin 2'-O-glucoside) is the most abundant phenolic compound in Malus species, accounting for up to 18% of the dry weight in leaves. Glycosylation of phloretin at the 2' position is the last and key step in phloridzin biosynthesis. It is catalyzed by a uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose:phloretin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase (P2'GT), which directly determines the concentration of phloridzin. However, this process is poorly understood. We conducted a large-scale investigation of phloridzin accumulations in leaves from 64 Malus species and cultivars...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Fernando Maia de Oliveira, João Benhur Mokochinski, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Herta Stutz Dalla Santa, Pedro Pablo González-Borrero
This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
Ana-Rosa Ballester, John Norelli, Erik Burchard, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Elena Levin, Luis González-Candelas, Samir Droby, Michael Wisniewski
Malus sieversii from Central Asia is a progenitor of the modern domesticated apple (Malus × domestica). Several accessions of M. sieversii are highly resistant to the postharvest pathogen Penicillium expansum. A previous study identified the qM-Pe3.1 QTL on LG3 for resistance to P. expansum in the mapping population GMAL4593, developed using the resistant accession, M. sieversii -PI613981, and the susceptible cultivar "Royal Gala" (RG) (M. domestica), as parents. The goal of the present study was to characterize the transcriptomic response of susceptible RG and resistant PI613981 apple fruit to wounding and inoculation with P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Charles Stewart, Kate Woods, Greg Macias, Andrew C Allan, Roger P Hellens, Joseph P Noel
Biphenyl synthase and benzophenone synthase constitute an evolutionarily distinct clade of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that use benzoic acid-derived substrates to produce defense metabolites in plants. The use of benzoyl-CoA as an endogenous substrate is unusual for type III PKSs. Moreover, sequence analyses indicate that the residues responsible for the functional diversification of type III PKSs are mutated in benzoic acid-specific type III PKSs. In order to gain a better understanding of structure-function relationships within the type III PKS family, the crystal structures of biphenyl synthase from Malus × domestica and benzophenone synthase from Hypericum androsaemum were compared with the structure of an archetypal type III PKS: chalcone synthase from Malus × domestica...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Rui Wang, Qiqi Sun, Ying Wang, Wei Zheng, Lunguang Yao, Yaxian Hu, Shengli Guo
Land use plays an essential role in regional carbon cycling, potentially influencing the exchange rates of CO2 flux between soil and the atmosphere in terrestrial ecosystems. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10), as an efficient parameter to reflect the possible feedback between the global carbon cycle and climate change, has been extensively studied. However, very few reports have assessed the difference in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under different land use types. In this study, a three-year field experiment was conducted in cropland (winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L...
November 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Y Wang, N Li, X Zhao, J Hu, Y He, T Hu, S Wang, Y Wang, K Cao
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) movement protein (P50) is involved in cell-to-cell transport and influences the long-distance spread of silencing activity. Previously, we obtained 69 P50-interacting proteins from Malus sylvestris cv. R12740-7A and using bioinformatics analyzed their biological functions. In this study, we used the GAL4-based two-hybrid yeast system and His pull-down assays to confirm an interaction between PR-10 of M. sylvestris cv. R12740-7A and ACLSV P50. Our results provide a theoretical basis for further research on the biological function of PR-10 in ACLSV infection and the interacting mechanism between host and virus...
2017: Acta Virologica
Bahaeldeen Babikar Mohamed, Beenish Aftab, Muhammad Bilal Sarwar, Bushra Rashid, Zarnab Ahmad, Sameera Hassan, Tayyab Husnain
Various regulatory proteins play a fundamental role to manage the healthy plant growth under stress conditions. Differential display reverse transcriptase PCR and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to explore the osmotic stress-responsive transcripts. We identified and characterized the salt stress-responsive R2R3 type RMYB transcription factor from Hibiscus sabdariffa which has an open reading frame of 690 bp, encoding 229 long chain amino acids. In silico analysis confirmed the conserved R2 and R3 domain as well as an NLS-1 localization site...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
Xiaodong Zheng, Yu Zhao, Dongqian Shan, Kun Shi, Lin Wang, Qingtian Li, Na Wang, Jingzhe Zhou, Junzhu Yao, Yuan Xue, Shuang Fang, Jinfang Chu, Yan Guo, Jin Kong
Dwarfing rootstocks enable high-density planting and are therefore highly desirable in modern apple (Malus domestica) production. M26 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock that is used worldwide, but identifying intensive dwarfing rootstock is a major goal of apple breeding programs. Herein, we show that MdWRKY9 mediates dwarfing by directly inhibiting the transcription of the brassinosteroid (BR) rate-limiting synthetase MdDWF4 and reducing BR production. We found that the transcriptional factor MdWRKY9 is highly expressed in all tested dwarfing rootstocks...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
Meiling Yang, Yunxiu Zhang, Huanhuan Zhang, Hongbin Wang, Tao Wei, Shiyou Che, Lipeng Zhang, Baoquan Hu, Hong Long, Wenqin Song, Weiwei Yu, Guorong Yan
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are common molecular chaperones present in all plants that accumulate in response to abiotic stress. Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play important roles in alleviating diverse abiotic stresses, especially heat stress. However, very little is known about the MsHsp20 gene family in the wild apple Malus sieversii, a precious germplasm resource with excellent resistance characteristics. In this study, 12 putative M. sieversii Hsp20 genes were identified from RNA-Seq data and analyzed in terms of gene structure and phylogenetic relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gennaro Riccio, Maria Maisto, Sara Bottone, Nadia Badolati, Giovanni Battista Rossi, Gian Carlo Tenore, Mariano Stornaiuolo, Ettore Novellino
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv...
November 18, 2017: Nutrients
Rossella Russo, Laura Pucci, Lucia Giorgetti, Július Árvay, Francesco Vizzarri, Vincenzo Longo, Luisa Pozzo
Lisosan® Reduction is a plant mixture produced from powder of fermented Triticum aestivum (Lisosan® G), Desmodium adscendens, Malus domestica, Picrorhiza kurroa and Hordeum vulgare. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenolic profile of Lisosan® Reduction and to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract on mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Syringic acid, trans sinapic acid and neochlorogenic acid were identified by HPLC-DAD to be the dominant polyphenols of Lisosan® Reduction, followed by vitexin, trans p-coumeric acid and trans ferulic acid...
November 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
Die Gao, Dan-Dan Wang, Qi-Feng Fu, Lu-Jun Wang, Kai-Lian Zhang, Feng-Qing Yang, Zhi-Ning Xia
In present study, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were successfully prepared for specific recognition and selective enrichment of phloridzin from the leaves of Malus doumeri (Bois) A. Chev and rats' plasma. The magnetic Fe3O4 were prepared by the solvothermal reaction method and followed by the modification of TEOS and functionalization with APTES. Using functionalized Fe3O4 particles as the magnetic cores, phloridzin as template, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker and 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN) as initiator, the MMIPs were prepared through APTES to associate the template on the surface of the magnetic substrate...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Zhen Zhang, Fang Liu, Caian He, Yueli Yu, Min Wang
Application of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasonic technology for the extraction of phloridzin from Malus micromalus Makino was evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The ethanol/ammonium sulfate ATPS was selected for detailed investigation, including the phase diagram, effect of phase composition and extract conditions on the partition of phloridzin, and the recycling of ammonium sulfate. In addition, the evaluation of extraction efficiency and the identification of phloridzin were investigated...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Yi-Chen Lee, Chun-Wen Cheng, Huei-Jane Lee, Huei-Chuien Chu
Indomethacin is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine. Previous studies indicated that NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal mucosal complications, and it is associated with mucosal lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage. Based on the evidences, decreasing oxidative stress may be an ideal therapeutic strategy for preventing gastrointestinal ulcer. Apple (Rosaceae Malus sp.) is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. The abundant polyphenolic constituents have received increasing attention for decades...
November 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
Song Tan, Peng Zhang, Wei Xiao, Bing Feng, Lan-You Chen, Shuang Li, Peng Li, Wei-Zhong Zhao, Xiao-Ting Qi, Li-Ping Yin
Iron is essential for most living organisms. The iron-regulated transporter1 (IRT1) plays a major role in iron uptake in roots, and its trafficking from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to plasma membrane (PM) is tightly coordinated with changes in iron environment. However, studies on IRT1 response are limited. Here, we report that Malus xiaojinesis IRT1 (MxIRT1) associates with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs, a biochemical counterpart of PM microdomains), whereas the PM microdomains are known platforms for signal transduction in the PM...
November 7, 2017: Traffic
Xueqiang Su, Xu Sun, Xi Cheng, Yanan Wang, Muhammad Abdullah, Manli Li, Dahui Li, Junshan Gao, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS) can catalyse the formation of a series of secondary metabolites with different structures and different biological functions; the enzyme plays an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. At present, the PKS gene has been identified and studied in a variety of plants. Here, we identified 11 PKS genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and compared them with 41 PKS genes in Populus tremula, Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: PeerJ
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Mingzhi Xin, Muhammad Mobeen Tahir, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
BACKGROUND: The plant-specific gibberellic acid stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family is critical for plant development. However, little is known about these genes, particularly in fruit tree species. RESULTS: We identified 15 putative Arabidopsis thaliana GASA (AtGASA) and 26 apple GASA (MdGASA) genes. The identified genes were then characterized (e.g., chromosomal location, structure, and evolutionary relationships). All of the identified A. thaliana and apple GASA proteins included a conserved GASA domain and exhibited similar characteristics...
October 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
Suxiao Hao, Yiyi Ma, Shuang Zhao, Qianlong Ji, Kezhong Zhang, Mingfeng Yang, Yuncong Yao
Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface...
2017: PloS One
Xin Liu, Rong Li, Yaqing Dai, Xuesen Chen, Xiaoyun Wang
The B-box proteins (BBXs) are a family of zinc finger proteins containing one/two B-box domain(s). Compared with intensive studies of animal BBXs, investigations of the plant BBX family are limited, though some specific plant BBXs have been demonstrated to act as transcription factors in the regulation of flowering and photomorphogenesis. In this study, using a global search of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome, a total of 64 members of BBX (MdBBX) were identified. All the MdBBXs were divided into five groups based on the phylogenetic relationship, numbers of B-boxes contained and whether there was with an additional CCT domain...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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