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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335513/bioactive-potential-of-marine-macroalgae-from-the-central-red-sea-saudi-arabia-assessed-by-high-throughput-imaging-based-phenotypic-profiling
#1
Stephan Kremb, Constanze Müller, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Christian R Voolstra
Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335478/lactational-stage-of-pasteurized-human-donor-milk-contributes-to-nutrient-limitations-for-infants
#2
Christina J Valentine, Georgia Morrow, Amanda Reisinger, Kelly A Dingess, Ardythe L Morrow, Lynette K Rogers
BACKGROUND: Mother's own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM) is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335279/a-novel-polyvinylidene-fluoride-tree-like-nanofiber-membrane-for-microfiltration
#3
Zongjie Li, Weimin Kang, Huihui Zhao, Min Hu, Na Wei, Jiuan Qiu, Bowen Cheng
A novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tree-like nanofiber membrane (PVDF-TLNM) was fabricated by adding tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC) into a PVDF spinning solution via one-step electrospinning. The structure of the prepared membranes was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and pore size analysis, and the hydrophilic property and microfiltration performance were also evaluated. The results showed that the tree-like nanofiber was composed of trunk fibers and branch fibers with diameters of 100-500 nm and 5-100 nm, respectively...
August 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335258/nanostructures-derived-from-starch-and-chitosan-for-fluorescence-bio-imaging
#4
Yinxue Zu, Jingran Bi, Huiping Yan, Haitao Wang, Yukun Song, Bei-Wei Zhu, Mingqian Tan
Fluorescent nanostructures (NSs) derived from polysaccharides have drawn great attention as novel fluorescent probes for potential bio-imaging applications. Herein, we reported a facile alkali-assisted hydrothermal method to fabricate polysaccharide NSs using starch and chitosan as raw materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the average particle sizes are 14 nm and 75 nm for starch and chitosan NSs, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that there are a large number of hydroxyl or amino groups on the surface of these polysaccharide-based NSs...
July 5, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335246/quaternized-carboxymethyl-chitosan-based-silver-nanoparticles-hybrid-microwave-assisted-synthesis-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity
#5
Siqi Huang, Jing Wang, Yang Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Chusheng Qi
A facile, efficient, and eco-friendly approach for the preparation of uniform silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 8 min, using laboratory-prepared, water-soluble quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) as a chemical reducer and stabilizer and silver nitrate as the silver source. The structure of the prepared QCMC was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
June 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335214/graphene-fets-with-low-resistance-hybrid-contacts-for-improved-high-frequency-performance
#6
Chowdhury Al-Amin, Mustafa Karabiyik, Phani Kiran Vabbina, Raju Sinha, Nezih Pala
This work proposes a novel geometry field effect transistor with graphene as a channel-graphene field-effect transistor (GFET), having a hybrid contact that consists of an ohmic source/drain and its extended part towards the gate, which is capacitively coupled to the channel. The ohmic contacts are used for direct current (DC) biasing, whereas their capacitive extension reduces access region length and provides the radio frequency (RF) signal a low impedance path. Minimization of the access region length, along with the paralleling of ohmic contact's resistance and resistive part of capacitively coupled contact's impedance, lower the overall source/drain resistance, which results in an increase in current gain cut-off frequency, fT...
May 10, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335093/carbohydrate-and-lipid-spectroscopic-molecular-structures-of-different-alfalfa-hay-and-their-relationship-with-nutrient-availability-in-ruminants
#7
Mojtaba Yari, Reza Valizadeh, Abbas Ali Naserian, Arjan Jonker, Peiqiang Yu
Objective: This study was conducted to determine molecular structures related to carbohydrates and lipid in alfalfa hay cut at early bud, late bud and early flower and in the afternoon and next morning using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT/IR) and to determine their relationship with alfalfa hay nutrient profile and availability in ruminants. Methods: Chemical composition analysis, carbohydrate fractionation, in situ ruminal degradability and DVE/OEB model were used to measure nutrient profile and availability of alfalfa hay...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333570/plantar-pressure-and-surgical-indication-of-toe-arthroplasty-for-rheumatoid-forefoot-deformity
#8
Hyunho Lee, Hajime Ishikawa, Yusuke Miyagawa, Chinatsu Takai, Yumi Nomura, Tetsuya Nemoto, Daisuke Kobayashi, Asami Abe, Hiroshi Otani, Satoshi Ito, Kiyoshi Nakazono, Takao Ishii, Shu Saito, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Akira Murasawa
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to clarify the surgical indication for rheumatoid forefoot deformity according to background characteristics and plantar pressure. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were divided into a non-surgical group (group N) and a surgical group (group S). The former consisted of 225 ft, and the latter consisted of 88 ft. DAS28, Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot rheumatoid arthritis foot and ankle scale (JSSF scale) and hallux valgus angle (HVA) were evaluated as background characteristics...
March 23, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333435/laser-desorption-ionization-coupled-to-ft-icr-mass-spectrometry-for-studies-of-natural-organic-matter
#9
John W T Blackburn, Will Kew, Margaret C Graham, Dusan Uhrin
Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) was investigated as an ionization method for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) studies of natural organic matter (NOM). Using International Humic Substances Society standards, Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), LDI was found to ionize very similar set of compounds (> 90 % of molecular formulae identity) to the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), while producing higher quality spectra...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332659/hydration-controlled-anisotropic-and-giant-permittivity-in-teg-functionalized-eumelanin
#10
Marianna Ambrico, Paolo F Ambrico, Teresa Ligonzo, Antonio Cardone, Maria Grazia Bridelli, Giuseppe Casamassima, Paola Manini, Marco d'Ischia
Although it has long been known that the peculiar electronic-ionic conductor behavior of eumelanin is critically dependent on hydration, the detailed mechanisms by which water-polymer interactions control and affect the conduction properties have remained largely obscure. In this paper, we report a remarkable anisotropy and giant polarization effect in a synthetic eumelanin (TEGMe) chemically functionalized with hydrophilic TEG residues. FT-IR analyses of water sorption isotherms and AC measurements were consistent with a microporous structure binding or hosting mainly isolated water molecules...
March 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330763/ph-responsive-controlled-release-of-anti-cancer-hydrophobic-drugs-from-sodium-alginate-and-hydroxyapatite-bi-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#11
Danushika C Manatunga, Rohini M de Silva, K M Nalin de Silva, Nuwan de Silva, Shiva Bhandari, Yoke Khin Yap, N Pabakara Costha
Developing a drug carrier system which could perform targeted and controlled release over a period of time is utmost concern in the pharmaceutical industry. This is more relevant when designing drug carriers for poorly water soluble drug molecules such as curcumin and 6-gingerol. Development of a drug carrier system which could overcome these limitations and perform controlled and targeted drug delivery is beneficial. This study describes a promising approach for the design of novel pH sensitive sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite bilayer coated iron oxide nanoparticle composite (IONP/HAp-NaAlg) via the co-precipitation approach...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330301/evaluation-of-p-cresol-degradation-with-polyphenol-oxidase-ppo-immobilized-in-various-matrices
#12
Vijayalakshmi A Edalli, Sikandar I Mulla, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Gurumurthy D Mahadevan, Rohit Sharma, Yogesh Shouche, Chandrappa M Kamanavalli
p-Cresol is an environmental pollutant due to its vast use, toxicity and persistence, nevertheless, its degradation in an enzyme is unclear. In this study, we used Pleurotus sp. isolate VLECK02 polyphenol oxidase (PPO) for the determination of p-cresol degradation. On the basis of UV, FT-IR and chromatographic (HPLC and GC-MS) analysis, 4-methylcatechol was identified as the main metabolite of p-cresol catabolism. In addition, batch and semi-continuous degradation of p-cresol (10 and 20 mM) were studied and compared by free and immobilized PPO in different matrices like sodium alginate (SA), sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) and sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol-silver nanoparticles (SA-PVA-AgNPs)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330288/biofabrication-and-spectral-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-cytotoxic-studies-on-human-cd34-ve-stem-cells
#13
Venkata S Kotakadi, Susmila Aparna Gaddam, Sucharitha K Venkata, P V G K Sarma, D V R Sai Gopal
Biosynthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles is gaining significant importance due to environmentally safe 'green method' and it is an efficient alternative method. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra an important medicinal plant. The AgNPs are characterized by spectral analysis; the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of AgNPs showed maximum absorption at 445 nm. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) data show that the O-H hydroxyl groups, carboxylic acids, ester and ether groups and C-O stretching of alcohols have been utilized in the formation of AgNPs...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330271/assessment-of-protein-silver-nanoparticles-toxicity-against-pathogenic-alternaria-solani
#14
Sobhy I I Abdel-Hafez, Nivien A Nafady, Ismail R Abdel-Rahim, Abeer M Shaltout, José-Antonio Daròs, Mohamed A Mohamed
Mycogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out in the present investigation using an aqueous extract of endophytic non-pathogenic Alternaria solani F10 (KT721914). The mycosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by means of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The surface plasmon resonance found at 430 nm confirmed the formation of stable AgNPs for several weeks at room temperature. Also, the results revealed the formation of spherical and monodispersed AgNPs with an average size of 14...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330268/antimicrobial-activity-of-pvp-coated-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-lysinibacillus-varians
#15
Divya Bhatia, Ashwani Mittal, Deepak Kumar Malik
Emergence of resistant microbes to conventional antibiotics and increased emphasis on health-care costs has raised the concern for the development of new effective antimicrobial reagents. Silver nanoparticles being an excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial agent could be considered as a suitable alternative for existing antibiotic. This study demonstrates the extra-cellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using supernatant of Lysinibacillus varians. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR analysis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330266/biosorption-of-lead-copper-and-cadmium-using-the-extracellular-polysaccharides-eps-of-bacillus-sp-from-solar-salterns
#16
Syed Shameer
Extracellular Polysaccharides (EPS) from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a great deal of research interest as they protect the producer from different stresses including antibiotics, ionic stress, desiccation and assist in bio-film formation, pathogenesis, adhesion, etc. In this study haloalkaliphilic Bacillus sp., known to cope with osmophilic stress, was selected and screened for EPS production. The EPS were isolated, partially purified and chemical characteristics were documented using liquid FT-IR followed by assessment of heavy metal biosorption (lead, copper and cadmium) using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330244/elucidation-of-impact-of-heavy-metal-pollution-on-soil-bacterial-growth-and-extracellular-polymeric-substances-flexibility
#17
Muniswamy David, Paidi Murali Krishna, Jeybalan Sangeetha
Metal bioaccessibility is an alarming issue in croplands of mining sites due to overloading of toxic metals. Hence, the present study is aimed to determine the overloading of toxic metal in croplands across the Tawag village, Hutti, Raichur, India. Correspondingly, to identify the soil bacterial growth, physiological oxidative stress enzyme activity and surface macromolecular functional group evolution were analysed in and around the toxic metal contaminated sites through FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrometry. The evaluated results attribute that the study area is heavily polluted with the toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330235/antimicrobial-activities-of-a-promising-glycolipid-biosurfactant-from-a-novel-marine-staphylococcus-saprophyticus-sbps-15
#18
P Mani, G Dineshkumar, T Jayaseelan, K Deepalakshmi, C Ganesh Kumar, S Senthil Balan
Biosurfactants have gained a renewed interest in the recent years for their commercial application in diverse research areas. Recent evidences suggest that the antimicrobial activities exhibited by biosurfactants make them promising molecules for the application in the field of therapeutics. Marine microbes are well known for their unique metabolic and functional properties; however, few reports are available till date regarding their biosurfactant production and antimicrobial potential. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15 isolated from the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal site, Puducherry, India, was identified as a promising biosurfactant producer based on multiple screening methods...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330087/decolorization-and-biodegradation-of-remazol-reactive-dyes-by-clostridium-species
#19
Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Umayal Annamalai
Decolorisation and biodegradation efficacy of potential strains isolated from dyeing effluent collected from Tirupur region, Tamil Nadu, India were studied in remazol reactive dyes. Two potential strains Clostridium butyricum (EI05) and Clostridium acetobutylicum (EI25) identified by biochemical tests in our previous study were studied for their decolorising efficiency on various remazol reactive dyes (Remazol Blue RGB, Remazol Blue RR, Remazol Navy RGB and Remazol Orange RR). The synthetic dyes showed complete decolorization after 24-72 h by two potential strains EI05 and EI25...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329007/highly-efficient-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue-by-popd-tio2-nanocomposite
#20
Chuanxi Yang, Ming Zhang, Wenping Dong, Guanwei Cui, Zongming Ren, Weiliang Wang
The poly-o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/TiO2 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via 'in situ' oxidative polymerization method. The modified photocatalysts were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrarad spectra (FT-IR), thermogravimrtic analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-Vis DRS) and Photocurrent Test. The results showed that the PoPD exists on the surface of TiO2, the presence of PoPD does not impact on the lattice structure and grain size of TiO2, and the presence of PoPD enhances the visible response and photoelectric property...
2017: PloS One
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