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independent component analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645947/role-structure-and-effects-of-medical-tourism-in-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review-protocol
#1
John Jo Mogaka, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni, Lucia M Mupara, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Some patients travel out of, while others come into Africa for medical care through a growing global phenomenon referred to as medical tourism (MT): the travel in search of medical care that is either unavailable, unaffordable or proscribed at home healthcare systems. While some castigate MT as promoting healthcare inequity, others endorse it as a revenue generator, promising local healthcare system strengthening. Currently, however, the understanding of this component of healthcare in Africa is inadequate...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645697/clinical-high-resolution-mapping-of-the-proteoglycan-bound-water-fraction-in-articular-cartilage-of-the-human-knee-joint
#2
Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Kyle W Sexton, Christopher M Bergeron, Linda M Zukley, Richard G Spencer
PURPOSE: We applied a recently introduced method to achieve clinically-feasible in-vivo mapping of the proteoglycan water fraction (PgWF) of human knee cartilage with improved spatial resolution and stability as compared to existing methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) datasets were acquired from the knees of two healthy young subjects and one older subject with previous knee injury. Each dataset was processed using Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis incorporating a two-component tissue model...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645025/decreased-functional-connectivity-and-disrupted-neural-network-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-affective-disorders-a-resting-state-fnirs-study
#3
Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Jiangxue Li, Hongjun Peng, Tingting Cai, Xinge Li, Shijing Wu, Wei Cao, Sailing He
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. METHODS: 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641967/fluoroscopically-guided-acetabular-component-positioning-does-it-reduce-the-risk-of-malpositioning-in-obese-patients
#4
Raul G Gosthe, Juan C Suarez, Colin A McNamara, Cecilia Calvo, Preetesh D Patel
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been described as an independent risk factor for acetabular component malpositioning. The purpose of this study was to determine if this could be overcome by use of fluoroscopic navigation in total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: The first, postoperative, standing, anteroposterior pelvis radiographs from 1599 consecutive patients who underwent fluoroscopic-guided THAs via anterior approach during a six-year period were obtained. We retrospectively reviewed this prospectively collected data...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641831/two-components-of-the-new-espen-diagnostic-criteria-for-malnutrition-are-independent-predictors-of-lung-function-in-hospitalized-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#5
Arora Ros Ingadottir, Anne Marie Beck, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes, Olof Gudny Geirsdottir, Alfons Ramel, Thorarinn Gislason, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
INTRODUCTION: Low fat free mass index (FFMI) is a component of the ESPEN diagnosis criteria of malnutrition, that only when accompanied with weight loss is considered to be a determinant of malnutrition. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) applying the ESPEN criteria, and to examine the ability of different components of the criteria to predict COPD severity, length of stay (LOS), hospital readmissions within 30 days and mortality...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641744/polygenic-risk-score-and-heritability-estimates-reveals-a-genetic-relationship-between-asd-and-ocd
#6
W Guo, J F Samuels, Y Wang, H Cao, M Ritter, P S Nestadt, J Krasnow, B D Greenberg, A J Fyer, J T McCracken, D A Geller, D L Murphy, J A Knowles, M A Grados, M A Riddle, S A Rasmussen, N C McLaughlin, E L Nurmi, K D Askland, B A Cullen, J Piacentini, D L Pauls, O J Bienvenu, S E Stewart, F S Goes, B Maher, A E Pulver, D Valle, M Mattheisen, J Qian, G Nestadt, Y Y Shugart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641247/modeling-task-fmri-data-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#7
Heng Huang, Xintao Hu, Yu Zhao, Milad Makkie, Qinglin Dong, Shijie Zhao, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to study functional brain networks under task performance. Modeling tfMRI data is challenging due to at least two problems: the lack of the ground truth of underlying neural activity and the highly complex intrinsic structure of tfMRI data. To better understand brain networks based on fMRI data, data-driven approaches have been proposed, for instance, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Dictionary Learning (SDL). However, both ICA and SDL only build shallow models, and they are under the strong assumption that original fMRI signal could be linearly decomposed into time series components with their corresponding spatial maps...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641239/automatic-recognition-of-fmri-derived-functional-networks-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Yu Zhao, Qinglin Dong, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Xi Jiang, Lei Guo, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
Current fMRI data modeling techniques such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding methods can effectively reconstruct dozens or hundreds of concurrent interacting functional brain networks simultaneously from the whole brain fMRI signals. However, such reconstructed networks have no correspondences across different subjects. Thus, automatic, effective and accurate classification and recognition of these large numbers of fMRI-derived functional brain networks are very important for subsequent steps of functional brain analysis in cognitive and clinical neuroscience applications...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640816/topographic-independent-component-analysis-reveals-random-scrambling-of-orientation-in-visual-space
#9
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Luis M Martinez, Jesús Malo
Neurons at primary visual cortex (V1) in humans and other species are edge filters organized in orientation maps. In these maps, neurons with similar orientation preference are clustered together in iso-orientation domains. These maps have two fundamental properties: (1) retinotopy, i.e. correspondence between displacements at the image space and displacements at the cortical surface, and (2) a trade-off between good coverage of the visual field with all orientations and continuity of iso-orientation domains in the cortical space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639752/eosinophils-in-patients-with-lone-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Peng Chen, Junzhu Chen, Xudong Xie, Junhui Zhu, Liang Xia
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been evidenced as a critical contributable mechanism for the atrial fibrillation (AF) onset and development. As the consistent inflammatory and oxidative marker, the effects of white blood cell (WBC) and its differential on lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) were investigated in the study. METHODS: 126 patients with paroxysmal LAF who scheduled for rhythm control drug therapy and 120 age- and gender-matched subjects in sinus rhythm were included sequentially...
June 22, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639161/moral-distress-and-its-contribution-to-the-development-of-burnout-syndrome-among-critical-care-providers
#11
Renata Rego Lins Fumis, Gustavo Adolpho Junqueira Amarante, Andréia de Fátima Nascimento, José Mauro Vieira Junior
BACKGROUND: Burnout appears to be common among critical care providers. It is characterized by three components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Moral distress is the inability of a moral agent to act according to his or her core values and perceived obligations due to internal and external constraints. We aimed to estimate the correlation between moral distress and burnout among all intensive care unit (ICU) and the step-down unit (SDU) providers (physicians, nurses, nurse technicians and respiratory therapists)...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638356/how-can-smoking-cessation-be-induced-before-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-behavior-change-techniques-and-other-intervention-characteristics
#12
REVIEW
Andrew Prestwich, Sally Moore, Alwyn Kotze, Luke Budworth, Rebecca Lawton, Ian Kellar
Background: Smokers who continue to smoke up to the point of surgery are at increased risk of a range of complications during and following surgery. Objective: To identify whether behavioral and/or pharmacological interventions increase the likelihood that smokers quit prior to elective surgery and which intervention components are associated with larger effects. Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and Embase Classic, CINAHL, CENTRAL. Study selection: Studies testing the effect of smoking reduction interventions delivered at least 24 h before elective surgery were included...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638001/comparison-between-glioblastoma-and-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-using-mr-image-based-texture-analysis
#13
Akira Kunimatsu, Natsuko Kunimatsu, Kouhei Kamiya, Takeyuki Watadani, Harushi Mori, Osamu Abe
PURPOSE: To elucidate differences between glioblastoma (GBM) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) with magnetic resonance (MR) image-based texture features. METHODS: This was an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective study. Consecutive, pathologically proven, initially treated 44 patients with GBM and 16 patients with PCNSL were enrolled. We calculated a total of 67 image texture features on the largest contrast-enhancing lesion in each patient on post-contrast T1-weighted images...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637888/maternal-bmi-and-glycemia-impact-the-fetal-metabolome
#14
William L Lowe, James R Bain, Michael Nodzenski, Anna C Reisetter, Michael J Muehlbauer, Robert D Stevens, Olga R Ilkayeva, Lynn P Lowe, Boyd E Metzger, Christopher B Newgard, Denise M Scholtens
OBJECTIVE: We used targeted metabolomics to determine associations of maternal BMI and glucose levels with cord blood metabolites and associations of cord blood metabolites with newborn birth weight and adiposity in mother-offspring dyads. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Targeted metabolomic assays were performed on cord blood serum samples from European ancestry, Afro-Caribbean, Thai, and Mexican American newborns (400 from each ancestry group) whose mothers participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and who had anthropometric measurements at birth...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637835/do-copd-subtypes-really-exist-copd-heterogeneity-and-clustering-in-10-independent-cohorts
#15
Peter J Castaldi, Marta Benet, Hans Petersen, Nicholas Rafaels, James Finigan, Matteo Paoletti, H Marike Boezen, Judith M Vonk, Russell Bowler, Massimo Pistolesi, Milo A Puhan, Josep Anto, Els Wauters, Diether Lambrechts, Wim Janssens, Francesca Bigazzi, Gianna Camiciottoli, Michael H Cho, Craig P Hersh, Kathleen Barnes, Stephen Rennard, Meher Preethi Boorgula, Jennifer Dy, Nadia N Hansel, James D Crapo, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Alvar Agusti, Edwin K Silverman, Judith Garcia-Aymerich
BACKGROUND: COPD is a heterogeneous disease, but there is little consensus on specific definitions for COPD subtypes. Unsupervised clustering offers the promise of 'unbiased' data-driven assessment of COPD heterogeneity. Multiple groups have identified COPD subtypes using cluster analysis, but there has been no systematic assessment of the reproducibility of these subtypes. OBJECTIVE: We performed clustering analyses across 10 cohorts in North America and Europe in order to assess the reproducibility of (1) correlation patterns of key COPD-related clinical characteristics and (2) clustering results...
June 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637811/bayesian-networks-illustrate-genomic-and-residual-trait-connections-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#16
Katrin Töpner, Guilherme J M Rosa, Daniel Gianola, Chris-Carolin Schön
Relationships among traits were investigated on the genomic and residual levels using novel methodology. This included inference on these relationships via Bayesian networks and an assessment of the networks with structural equation models. The methodology employed three steps. First, a Bayesian multiple-trait Gaussian model was fitted to the data to decompose phenotypic values into their genomic and residual components. Second, genomic and residual network structures among traits were learned from estimates of these two components...
June 21, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635499/hearing-aid-fine-tuning-based-on-dutch-descriptions
#17
Thijs Thielemans, Donné Pans, Michelene Chenault, Lucien Anteunis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive an independent fitting assistant based on expert consensus. Two questions were asked: (1) what (Dutch) terms do hearing impaired listeners use nowadays to describe their specific hearing aid fitting problems? (2) What is the expert consensus on how to resolve these complaints by adjusting hearing aid parameters? DESIGN: Hearing aid dispensers provided descriptors that impaired listeners use to describe their reactions to specific hearing aid fitting problems...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633482/markers-of-adipogenesis-but-not-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue-are-independently-related-to-insulin-sensitivity
#18
Natalia Matulewicz, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
Context: In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes dynamic remodeling, including an alternations in adipogenesis, AT-resident cell content, angiogenesis and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Studies on AT in humans have been carried out mostly on people with severe metabolic abnormalities, like type 2 diabetes or morbid obesity. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate subcutaneous AT gene expression of markers of adipogenesis, ECM remodeling and inflammation in young, healthy, overweight or obese subjects...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633306/multivariate-phylogenetic-comparative-methods-evaluations-comparisons-and-recommendations
#19
Dean C Adams, Michael L Collyer
Recent years have seen increased interest in phylogenetic comparative analyses of multivariate datasets, but to date the varied proposed approaches have not been extensively examined. Here we review the mathematical properties required of any multivariate method, and specifically evaluate existing multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods in this context. Phylogenetic comparative methods based on the full multivariate likelihood are robust to levels of covariation among trait dimensions and are insensitive to the orientation of the dataset, but display increasing model misspecification as the number of trait dimensions increases...
June 13, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633292/ahp2-ahp3-and-ahp5-act-downstream-of-cki1-in-arabidopsis-female-gametophyte-development
#20
Zhenning Liu, Li Yuan, Xiaoya Song, Xiaolin Yu, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs) are key elements of the two-component signaling system, which act as a shuttle to transfer phosphorylation signals from histidine kinases (HKs) to response regulators (RRs). CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1), a key regulator of central cell specification in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte, activates the cytokinin signaling pathway through the Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs). There are five HP genes in Arabidopsis, AHP1-AHP5, but it remains unknown which AHP genes act downstream of CKI1 in Arabidopsis female gametophyte development...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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