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Benjamin A Farber, Gadi Lalazar, Elana P Simon, William J Hammond, David Requena, Umesh K Bhanot, Michael P La Quaglia, Sanford M Simon
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare primary liver cancer found in adolescents and young adults without underlying liver disease. A deletion of ~400 kD has been found in one copy of chromosome 19 in the tumor tissue of all patients tested. This produces a fusion of the genes DNAJB1 and PRKACA which, in turn, produces a chimeric transcript and protein. Transcriptomic analysis of the tumor has shown upregulation of various oncologically relevant pathways, including EGF/ErbB, Aurora Kinase A, pak21 and wnt...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
S Salari, N Sadat Seddighi, P Ghasemi Nejad Almani
OBJECTIVE: Biofilm formation ability is one of the major virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of Candida species. Biofilms produced by Candida spp. cause complicated treatments and contribute to increasing unpleasant mortality rates. Nanoparticles of Fe3 O4 (Fe3 O4 -NPs) are considered due to their magnetic and biochemical properties, as well as their low costs. The purpose of present study was to determine biofilm formation ability in different Candida strains and evaluation of anti-biofilm effect of Fe3 O4 -NPs compared with FLC...
March 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Sushil Kumar, Pratibha Choudhary, Mansi Gupta, Utpal Nath
In plants, endogenous and environmental signals such as light control the timing of the transition to flowering. Two phytochrome B-interacting transcription factors, VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the voz1 voz2 mutant the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) was up-regulated and that of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was down-regulated, which was proposed to be the cause of late flowering in voz1 voz2. However, the detailed mechanism by which the VOZ genes promote flowering is not well understood...
March 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
Lingmei Sun, Kai Liao, Chengcheng Hang
BACKGROUND: Owing to the increased morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections, treatments with a combination of antifungal agents are often considered. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major active component of propolis, possesses many biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between CAPE and fluconazole (FLC) against Candida albicans...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Viktoria Palm, Ruofan Sheng, Philipp Mayer, Karl-Heinz Weiss, Christoph Springfeld, Arianeb Mehrabi, Thomas Longerich, Anne Katrin Berger, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Tim Frederik Weber
BACKGROUND: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare malignancy occurring in young patients without cirrhosis. Objectives of our study were to analyze contrast material uptake in hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP) in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI in patients with FLC and to characterize imaging features in sequence techniques other than HBP. METHODS: In this retrospective study on histology-proven FLC, contrast material uptake in HBP was quantitatively assessed by calculating the corrected FLC enhancement index (CEI) using mean signal intensities of FLC and lumbar muscle on pre-contrast imaging and HBP, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Ruben Bill, Matteo Montani, Benedikt Blum, Jean-François Dufour, Robert Escher, Michael Bühlmann
Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a distinct and rare liver cancer typically occurring in young adults in the non-cirrhotic liver. Its rarity impedes evidence-based treatment guidelines derived from large clinical trials and thus case reports describing successful experimental treatments are an important instrument in improving FLC-patient care. We report one patient with end-stage FLC at time of diagnosis with a significant reduction in tumor mass and improvement of quality of life upon third-line palliative treatment with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus...
February 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Kanji Miyazaki, Kenshi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Heavy/light chain (HLC) assay can quantify involved as well as uninvolved immunoglobulin pairs and is used to detect monoclonal proteins. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the sensitivity between HLC assay and serum protein electrophoresis, serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), and free light chain (FLC) assay in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n = 111) whose responses were stable disease or better. RESULTS: Among patients with negative IFE and normal FLC ratios, 84...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Gadi Lalazar, Sanford M Simon
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare form of primary liver cancer that affects adolescents and young adults without underlying liver disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy; however, most patients are either not surgical candidates or suffer from recurrence. There is no approved systemic therapy and the overall survival remains poor. Historically classified as a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), FLC has a unique clinical, histological, and molecular presentation. At the genomic level, FLC contains a single 400kB deletion in chromosome 19, leading to a functional DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion protein...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Alexander L Andreev, Tatiana B Andreeva, Igor N Kompanets, Nikolay V Zalyapin
Spatially inhomogeneous modulation of a phase delay with the depth of the order π or more makes it possible to destroy phase relations in a laser beam passing through an electro-optical cell with the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) and, as a consequence, to suppress speckle noise in images formed by this beam. Such a modulation is a consequence of chaotic changes in the position of the scattering indicatrix of helix-free FLC, when an electro-optical cell is simultaneously supplied with a low-frequency and high-frequency bipolar control voltage...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Ana Lazaro, Evelyn Obeng-Hinneh, Maria C Albani
The alpine perennial Arabis alpina initiates flower buds during prolonged exposure to cold. In the accession Pajares we demonstrate that the length of vernalization influences flowering time and inflorescence fate, but does not affect the axillary branches that maintain vegetative growth. The expression of floral organ identity genes gradually increases in the main shoot apex during vernalization, correlating with an increase in floral commitment. In northern Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, the length of vernalization modulates the stable silencing of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
February 21, 2018: Plant Physiology
Kari M Gurtner, Eslam Shosha, Sandra C Bryant, Bruna D Andreguetto, David L Murray, Sean J Pittock, Maria Alice V Willrich
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) used in immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) index testing and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are common laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The measurement of CSF free light chains (FLC) could pose as an alternative to the labor-intensive isoelectric-focusing (IEF) gels used for OCBs. METHODS: A total of 325 residual paired CSF and serum specimens were obtained after physician-ordered OCB IEF testing. CSF kappa (cKFLC) and lambda FLC (cLFLC), albumin and total IgG were measured...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Marcela Dotto, María Sol Gómez, María Soledad Soto, Paula Casati
UV-B is a high-energy component of the solar radiation perceived by the plant and induces a number of modifications in plant growth and development, including changes in flowering time. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. In the present work, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis plants grown under white light supplemented with UV-B show a delay in flowering time, and this developmental reprogramming is mediated by the UVR8 photoreceptor. Using a combination of gene expression analyses and UV-B irradiation of different flowering mutants, we gained insight into the pathways involved in the observed flowering time delay in UV-B exposed Arabidopsis plants...
February 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Silvia Bosello, Umberto Basile, Enrico De Lorenzis, Francesca Gulli, Giovanni Canestrari, Cecilia Napodano, Federico Parisi, Krizia Pocino, Clara Di Mario, Barbara Tolusso, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Elisa Gremese
AIM: Humoral immunity and B cells are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of the systemic sclerosis (SSc). The production of free light chains (FLC) of immunoglobulins is abnormally high in several pathological autoimmune conditions and reflects B cell activation. Furthermore, FLCs demonstrated different biological activities including their capability to modulate the immune system, proteolytic activity and complement cascade activation. The aims of this study are to determine the FLC levels in patients with SSc compared with healthy controls (HC) and to study their possible association with organ involvement and disease characteristics...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Zhenping Ming, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Min Li, Yao Li, Jing Pang, Stephanie Dong, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium parvum causes significant alterations in the gene expression profile in host epithelial cells. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that trans-suppression of the cadherin 3 (CDH3) and lysyl oxidase like 4 (LOXL4) genes in human intestinal epithelial cells following C...
February 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jo Hepworth, Rea L Antoniou-Kourounioti, Rebecca H Bloomer, Catja Selga, Kristina Berggren, Deborah Cox, Barley R Collier Harris, Judith A Irwin, Svante Holm, Torbjörn Säll, Martin Howard, Caroline Dean
Plants integrate widely fluctuating temperatures to monitor seasonal progression. Here, we investigate the temperature signals in field conditions that result in vernalisation, the mechanism by which flowering is aligned with spring. We find that multiple, distinct aspects of the temperature profile contribute to vernalisation. In autumn, transient cold temperatures promote transcriptional shutdown of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), independently of factors conferring epigenetic memory. As winter continues, expression of VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3), a factor needed for epigenetic silencing, is upregulated by at least two independent thermosensory processes...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Licong Yi, Chunhong Chen, Shuai Yin, Haitao Li, Zhaohong Li, Bo Wang, Graham J King, Jing Wang, Kede Liu
BACKGROUND: Allelic variation at the FRIGIDA (FRI) locus is a major contributor to natural variation of flowering time and vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dominant FRI inhibits flowering by activating the expression of the MADS box transcriptional repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which represses flowering prior to vernalization. Four FRI orthologues had been identified in the domesticated amphidiploid Brassica napus. Linkage and association studies had revealed that one of the FRI orthologues, BnaA3...
February 13, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jennifer L J Heaney, Sophie C Killer, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson, John P Campbell
Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise...
February 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Christine L H Snozek, Theresa N Kinard, Jill Adamski
This report describes a patient with light chain myeloma and acute renal injury. Serum kappa free light chain (FLC) was extremely elevated, >33,000 mg/dL. Treatment with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) started day 2 for biopsy-confirmed cast nephropathy. Bortezomib-containing chemotherapy was initiated on day 5, and hemodialysis for tumor lysis syndrome on day 7. TPE alone decreased kappa FLC >70% by day 5, indicating direct FLC removal was successful in this patient. A total of 25 TPE procedures were performed in a 31-day hospitalization...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Guang-Hui Zhao, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Min Li, Nicholas W Mathy, Xian-Ming Chen
Intestinal infection by the zoonotic protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum, causes significant alterations in the gene expression profile in host epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms of how C. parvum may modulate host cell gene transcription and the pathological significance of such alterations are largely unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the impact of host delivery of C...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Archana Thakre, Gajanan Zore, Santosh Kodgire, Rubina Kazi, Shradha Mulange, Rajendra Patil, Amruta Shelar, Bayitigeri Santhakumari, Mahesh Kulkarni, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Anti-Candida potential of limonene was evaluated against planktonic growth, biofilm (adhesion, development and maturation) and morphogenesis of Candida albicans in this study. Limonene is a major constituent of citrus oil and most frequently used terpene in food and beverage industry due to its pleasant fragrance, nontoxic, and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavoring agent as well as treatment option in many gastrointestinal diseases.Limonene exhibited excellent anti-Candida activity and was equally effective against planktonic growth of C...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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