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Xiangxiong Kong, Xi Luo, Gao-Ping Qu, Peng Liu, Jing Bo Jin
The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
C-G Ou, J-H Mao, L-J Liu, C-J Li, H-F Ren, Z-W Zhao, F-Y Zhuang
Carrot is generally regarded as a biennial plant with an obligatory vernalization requirement. Early spring cultivation makes plants vulnerable to premature bolting, which results in a loss of commercial value. However, our knowledge of flowering time genes and flowering mechanisms in carrot remain limited. Bolting behavior of D. carota ssp. carota 'Songzi', a wild species sensitive to flower induction by vernalization and photoperiod, and orange cultivar 'Amsterdam forcing', and their offspring were investigated in different growing conditions...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biology
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Chunxiao Xu, Yang Yu, Yuxia Zhang, Yue Li, Shufeng Wei
We previously found that flowering of Arabidopsis was suppressed by near-null magnetic field, which was related to the modification of cryptochrome. To disclose the physiological mechanism of this effect, we detected gibberellin (GA) levels and expressions of GA biosynthetic and signaling genes in wild type Arabidopsis plants and cryptochrome double mutant, cry1/cry2, grown in near-null magnetic field. We found that levels of GA4 , GA9 , GA34 , and GA51 in wild type plants in near-null magnetic field were significantly decreased compared with local geomagnetic field controls...
September 6, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
Philipp Alter, Susanne Bircheneder, Liang-Zi Zhou, Urte Schlüter, Manfred Gahrtz, Uwe Sonnewald, Thomas Dresselhaus
Flowering time (FTi) control is well examined in the long-day plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and increasing knowledge is available for the short-day plant rice (Oryza sativa). In contrast, little is known in the day-neutral and agronomically important crop plant maize (Zea mays). To learn more about FTi and to identify novel regulators in this species, we first compared the time points of floral transition of almost 30 maize inbred lines and show that tropical lines exhibit a delay in flowering transition of more than 3 weeks under long-day conditions compared with European flint lines adapted to temperate climate zones...
September 2016: Plant Physiology
Renata Magalhães Cyrino, Fernando Oliveira Costa, José Roberto Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca Cortelli, Luís Otávio Miranda Cota
OBJECTIVE: Sense of Coherence (SOC) has been associated with perceived oral health measures, but the contribution of SOC to clinical measures is still unclear. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the potential association between periodontal health outcomes, such as periodontal clinical parameters and perceived periodontal health, and SOC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample comprised 276 individuals, aged 18-60 years, from Belo Horizonte, Brazil...
July 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Lilong He, Xiaoling Ma, Zhenzhen Li, Zhengli Jiao, Yongqing Li, David W Ow
Previously the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) zinc finger protein OXIDATIVE STRESS2 (AtOXS2) and four OXS2-like (AtO2L) family members were described to play a role in stress tolerance and stress escape. For stress escape, SOC1 was a target of AtOXS2. However, for stress tolerance, the downstream targets were not identified. We cloned two OXS2 homolog genes from sweet corn, ZmOXS2b and ZmO2L1 Both genes are transiently inducible by Cd treatment. When expressed in Arabidopsis, each enhances tolerance against cadmium...
July 2016: Plant Physiology
Xianxian Yu, Xiaoshan Duan, Rui Zhang, Xuehao Fu, Lingling Ye, Hongzhi Kong, Guixia Xu, Hongyan Shan
AP1/FUL, SEP, AGL6, and FLC subfamily genes play important roles in flower development. The phylogenetic relationships among them, however, have been controversial, which impedes our understanding of the origin and functional divergence of these genes. One possible reason for the controversy may be the problems caused by changes in the exon-intron structure of genes, which, according to recent studies, may generate non-homologous sites and hamper the homology-based sequence alignment. In this study, we first performed exon-by-exon alignments of these and three outgroup subfamilies (SOC1, AG, and STK)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dhananjay K Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Plant profilin genes encode core cell-wall structural proteins and are evidenced for their up-regulation under cotton domestication. Notwithstanding striking discoveries in the genetics of cell-wall organization in plants, little is explicit about the manner in which profilin-mediated molecular interplay and corresponding networks are altered, especially during cellular signalling of apical meristem determinacy and flower development. RESULTS: Here we show that the ectopic expression of GhPRF1 gene in tobacco resulted in the hyperactivation of apical meristem and early flowering phenotype with increased flower number in comparison to the control plants...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Youbong Hyun, René Richter, Coral Vincent, Rafael Martinez-Gallegos, Aimone Porri, George Coupland
Flowering is initiated in response to environmental and internal cues that are integrated at the shoot apical meristem (SAM). We show that SPL15 coordinates the basal floral promotion pathways required for flowering of Arabidopsis in non-inductive environments. SPL15 directly activates transcription of the floral regulators FUL and miR172b in the SAM during floral induction, whereas its paralog SPL9 is expressed later on the flanks of the SAM. The capacity of SPL15 to promote flowering is regulated by age through miR156, which targets SPL15 mRNA, and gibberellin (GA), which releases SPL15 from DELLAs...
May 9, 2016: Developmental Cell
Walid Mahrez, Juhyun Shin, Rafael Muñoz-Viana, Duarte D Figueiredo, Minerva S Trejo-Arellano, Vivien Exner, Alexey Siretskiy, Wilhelm Gruissem, Claudia Köhler, Lars Hennig
Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes...
April 2016: PLoS Genetics
Iván Del Olmo, Juan A López, Jesús Vázquez, Cécile Raynaud, Manuel Piñeiro, José A Jarillo
Arabidopsis ESD7 locus encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA Pol ϵ involved in the synthesis of the DNA leading strand and is essential for embryo viability. The hypomorphic allele esd7-1 is viable but displays a number of pleiotropic phenotypic alterations including an acceleration of flowering time. Furthermore, Pol ϵ is involved in the epigenetic silencing of the floral integrator genes FT and SOC1, but the molecular nature of the transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms involved remains elusive. Here we reveal that ESD7 interacts with components of the PRC2 such as CLF, EMF2 and MSI1, and that mutations in ESD7 cause a decrease in the levels of the H3K27me3 mark present in the chromatin of FT and SOC1 We also demonstrate that a domain of the C-terminal region of ESD7 mediates the binding to the different PRC2 components and this interaction is necessary for the proper recruitment of PRC2 to FT and SOC1 chromatin...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Nicolas Davin, Patrick P Edger, Charles A Hefer, Eshchar Mizrachi, Mathias Schuetz, Erik Smets, Alexander A Myburg, Carl J Douglas, Michael E Schranz, Frederic Lens
Many plant genes are known to be involved in the development of cambium and wood, but how the expression and functional interaction of these genes determine the unique biology of wood remains largely unknown. We used the soc1ful loss of function mutant - the woodiest genotype known in the otherwise herbaceous model plant Arabidopsis - to investigate the expression and interactions of genes involved in secondary growth (wood formation). Detailed anatomical observations of the stem in combination with mRNA sequencing were used to assess transcriptome remodeling during xylogenesis in wild-type and woody soc1ful plants...
June 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Qiu-Yang Yao, Hui Huang, Yan Tong, En-Hua Xia, Li-Zhi Gao
Camellia reticulata, which is native to Southwest China, is famous for its ornamental flowers and high-quality seed oil. However, the lack of genomic information for this species has largely hampered our understanding of its key pathways related to oil production, photoperiodic flowering process and pigment biosynthesis. Here, we first sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of a diploid C. reticulata in an attempt to identify genes potentially involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis (TAGBS), photoperiodic flowering, flavonoid biosynthesis (FlaBS), carotenoid biosynthesis (CrtBS) pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
C Liu, C Zhu, H M Zeng
Kalanchoe daigremontiana utilizes plantlet formation between its zigzag leaf margins as its method of asexual reproduction. In this study, K. daigremontiana SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (KdSOC1), a key intermediate in the transition from vegetative to asexual growth, was cloned. Furthermore, its expression profiles during plantlet formation under different environmental and hormone induction conditions were analyzed. The full-KdSOC1 cDNA sequence length was 1410 bp with 70% shared homology with Carya cathayensis SOC1...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xiao-Ru Liu, Ting Pan, Wei-Qi Liang, Lan Gao, Xiao-Jing Wang, Hong-Qing Li, Shan Liang
Flowering in the appropriate season is critical for successful reproduction in angiosperms. The orchid species, Dendrobium nobile, requires vernalization to achieve flowering in the spring, but the underlying regulatory network has not been identified to date. The MADS-box transcription factor DnAGL19 was previously identified in a study of low-temperature treated D. nobile buds and was suggested to regulate vernalization-induced flowering. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of DnAGL9 and the MADS-box containing proteins showed that DnAGL19 is phylogenetically closely related to the SOC1-like protein from orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile, DOSOC1...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Boyu Liu, Alexandre Berr, Cheng Chang, Chunlin Liu, Wen-Hui Shen, Ying Ruan
Histone methylations play fundamental roles in epigenetic regulation of transcription in many eukaryotes. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as in human, a same histone lysine residue (e.g. H3K4 or H3K36) can be a potential target substrate for various different histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs). Using powerful genetic tool in Arabidopsis, we here investigate the interplay between two close HKMT homologues, SET DOMAIN GROUP 8 (SDG8) and SDG26, in regulating transcription and plant growth and development...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yunfeng Liu, Dajian Zhang, Jieqing Ping, Shuai Li, Zhixiang Chen, Jianxin Ma
It has been demonstrated that Terminal Flowering 1 (TFL1) in Arabidopsis and its functional orthologs in other plants specify indeterminate stem growth through their specific expression that represses floral identity genes in shoot apical meristems (SAMs), and that the loss-of-function mutations at these functional counterparts result in the transition of SAMs from the vegetative to reproductive state that is essential for initiation of terminal flowering and thus formation of determinate stems. However, little is known regarding how semi-determinate stems, which produce terminal racemes similar to those observed in determinate plants, are specified in any flowering plants...
January 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yoon-Hyung Hwang, Soon-Kap Kim, Keh Chien Lee, Young Soo Chung, Jeong Hwan Lee, Jeong-Kook Kim
Rice Os NF - YB and Os NF - YC complement the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf - yb double and nf - yc triple mutants, respectively. In addition, OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with AtNF-YC and AtNF-YB, respectively. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins...
April 2016: Plant Cell Reports
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