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Zhiyuan Liu, Dianpeng Qi, Wan Ru Leow, Jiancan Yu, Michele Xiloyannnis, Leonardo Cappello, Yaqing Liu, Bowen Zhu, Ying Jiang, Geng Chen, Lorenzo Masia, Bo Liedberg, Xiaodong Chen
Stretchable strain sensors, as the soft mechanical interface, provide the key mechanical information of the systems for healthcare monitoring, rehabilitation assistance, soft exoskeletal devices, and soft robotics. Stretchable strain sensors based on 2D flat film have been widely developed to monitor the in-plane force applied within the plane where the sensor is placed. However, to comprehensively obtain the mechanical feedback, the capability to detect the out-of-plane force, caused by the interaction outside of the plane where the senor is located, is needed...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Holly Carpenter, Katherine-Helen Hurndall, Ajay K Asokan, Roland Fernandes
A 19-year-old man with a stab injury to the lower back presented with no focal neurology or haemodynamic instability. He complained of a headache that was improved by lying flat and underwent imaging to look for damage to local structures. He was found to have air in his intraspinal space. Initially this case was managed conservatively; however, 2 weeks after discharge, he presented with cerebrospinal fluid leak from his wound. This was managed with neurosurgical intervention and watertight closure of fascia...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Asger Bolet, Gaute Linga, Joachim Mathiesen
In low-permeability rock, fluid and mineral transport occur in pores and fracture apertures at the scale of micrometers and below. At this scale, the presence of surface charge, and a resultant electrical double layer, may considerably alter transport properties. However, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the governing equations, numerical and theoretical studies of the coupling between electric double layers and flow have mostly been limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric geometries. Here, we present comprehensive three-dimensional simulations of electrohydrodynamic flow in an idealized fracture geometry consisting of a sinusoidally undulated bottom surface and a flat top surface...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Gilles P L Thomas, Jean-Yves Chapelon, Jean-Christophe Bera, Cyril Lafon
Focused transducers composed of flat piezoelectric ceramic coupled with an acoustic lens present an economical alternative to curved piezoelectric ceramics and are already in use in a variety of fields. Using a displacement/pressure (u/p) mixed finite element formulation combined with parametric level-set functions to implicitly define the boundaries between the materials and the fluid-structure interface, a method to optimize the shape of acoustic lens made of either one or multiple materials is presented...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Mikihito Kondo, Yasushi Oshima, Hirokazu Inoue, Yuichi Takano, Hirohiko Inanami, Hisashi Koga
Background: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is a relatively less invasive treatment for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The present study focused on the transforaminal approach (TFA) and investigated the significance of PELD via this approach for large central LDH. Methods: LDH that did not show cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance images was defined as large central LDH. PELD via the TFA was performed in 11 patients with large central LDH...
March 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Joseph A Ferrar, Deshpreet Singh Bedi, Shangnan Zhou, Peijun Zhu, Xiaoming Mao, Michael J Solomon
We observe capillary-driven binding between thin, equilateral triangular prisms at a flat air-water interface. The edge length of the equilateral triangle face is 120 μm, and the thickness of the prism is varied between 2 and 20 μm. For thickness to length (T/L) ratios of 1/10 or less, pairs of triangles preferentially bind in either tip-to-tip or tip-to-midpoint edge configurations; for pairs of prisms of thickness T/L = 1/5, the tip of one triangle binds to any position along the other triangle's edge. The distinct binding configurations for small T/L ratios result from physical bowing of the prisms, a property that arises during their fabrication...
May 4, 2018: Soft Matter
Qirong Xiong, Chun Yee Lim, Jinghua Ren, Jiajing Zhou, Kanyi Pu, Mary B Chan-Park, Hui Mao, Yee Cheong Lam, Hongwei Duan
Microfluidic biochips hold great potential for liquid analysis in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However, the lack of integrated on-chip liquid mixing, bioseparation and signal transduction presents a major challenge in achieving rapid, ultrasensitive bioanalysis in simple microfluidic configurations. Here we report magnetic nanochain integrated microfluidic chip built upon the synergistic functions of the nanochains as nanoscale stir bars for rapid liquid mixing and as capturing agents for specific bioseparation...
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
Ricardo Martínez-García, Carey D Nadell, Raimo Hartmann, Knut Drescher, Juan A Bonachela
Biofilms are microbial collectives that occupy a diverse array of surfaces. It is well known that the function and evolution of biofilms are strongly influenced by the spatial arrangement of different strains and species within them, but how spatiotemporal distributions of different genotypes in biofilm populations originate is still underexplored. Here, we study the origins of biofilm genetic structure by combining model development, numerical simulations, and microfluidic experiments using the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jun Cheng, Junchen Xu, Hongxiang Lu, Qing Ye, Jianzhong Liu, Junhu Zhou
Double paddlewheels were proposed to generate cycle flow for increasing horizontal fluid velocity between dark and light zones in a flat plate photo-bioreactor, which strengthened the mass transfer and the mixing effect to improve microalgal growth with 15% CO2 . Numerical fluid dynamics were used to simulate the cycle flow field with double paddlewheels. The local flow field measured with particle image velocimetry fitted well with the numerical simulation results. The horizontal fluid velocity in the photo-bioreactor was markedly increased from 5...
April 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yun Huang, Yaping Zheng, Jun Li, Qiang Liao, Qian Fu, Ao Xia, Jingwei Fu, Yahui Sun
Attachment of cells to substrate surface is the premise for biofilm formation. To shelter microalgae cells from fluid shear stress and offer larger areas for microalgae attachment, the inerratic microgrooves, which can act as anchor points that offer larger areas for microalgae attachment and induce vortex to protect cells from hydraulic shear stress, were designed and fabricated into substrate surface. The results indicated that the shear stress on the surface with V-grooves was weaker than that on the surface with U-grooves, and 45° V-grooves with the width of 200 μm were benefit for cells attachment...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Riccardo Sfriso, Shengye Zhang, Colette Andrea Bichsel, Oliver Steck, Alain Despont, Olivier Thierry Guenat, Robert Rieben
In the context of xenotransplantation, in ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as in cardiovascular research, the study of the fascinating interplay between endothelial cells (EC) and the plasma cascade systems often requires in vitro models. Blood vessels are hardly reproducible with standard flat-bed culture systems and flow-plate assays are limited in their low surface-to-volume ratio which impedes the study of the anticoagulant properties of the endothelial cells. According to the 3R regulations (reduce, replace and refine animal experimentation) we developed a closed circuit microfluidic in vitro system in which endothelial cells are cultured in 3D round section microchannels and subjected to physiological, pulsatile flow...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vincent K Shen, Daniel W Siderius, Nathan A Mahynski
We used flat-histogram sampling Monte Carlo to study capillary phase transitions in deformable adsorbent materials. Specifically, we considered a pure adsorbate fluid below its bulk critical temperature within a slit pore of variable pore width. The instantaneous pore width is dictated by a number of factors, such as adsorbate loading, reservoir pressure, fluid-wall interaction, and bare adsorbent properties. In the slit pores studied here, the bare adsorbent free energy was assumed to be biparabolic, consisting of two preferential pore configurations, namely, the narrow pore and the large pore configurations...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Iku Nambu, Kouichi Misaki, Naoyuki Uchiyama, Masanao Mohri, Takashi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Takao, Yuichi Murayama, Kazuya Futami, Tomoki Kawamura, Yasushi Inoguchi, Teruo Matsuzawa, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic factors play a crucial role in the recurrence of intracranial aneurysms after coiling. However, the strongest factor for predicting recurrence remains unclear because each risk factor has been investigated and reported separately. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the strongest predictor of recurrence with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). METHODS: Using pretreatment patient-specific 3-dimensional rotational angiography data of 50 internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (7 recanalized, 43 stable) treated with endovascular coiling, we created a precoiling model and a virtual postcoiling model produced by manually cutting the aneurysm by the flat plane corresponding to the virtual coil surface...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
Saeed Rismani Yazi, Reza Nosrati, Corey A Stevens, David Vogel, Carlos Escobedo
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) migrate in complex porous sediments where fluid flow is ubiquitous. Here, we demonstrate that magnetotaxis enables MTB to migrate effectively through porous micromodels. Directed MTB can circumvent curved obstacles by traveling along the boundaries and pass flat obstacles by repeatedly switching between forward and backward runs. Magnetotaxis enables directed motion of MTB through heterogeneous porous media, overcoming tortuous flow fields with local velocities as high as 250  μ m s-1 ...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Teresa Veselack, Gregoire Aldebert, Ana-Maria Trunfio-Sfarghiu, Thomas M Schmid, Michel P Laurent, Markus A Wimmer
Introduction: Pre-clinical testing of hemiarthroplasty devices requires that the tribological conditions present in vivo with live cartilage be closely duplicated. A current limitation in the tribological testing of live cartilage involves the use of cell-culture media as lubricant. Study Aim: to develop and test a new hyaluronan-phospholipid based medium (HA-phospholipid medium) that combines the rheological and frictional properties of synovial fluid with the nourishing properties of culture media to keep cells alive...
2018: Lubricants
James K C Liu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypotension from cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia resulting in cerebral herniation is a rare but known complication that can occur following neurosurgical procedures, usually encountered in correlation with perioperative placement of a lumbar subarachnoid drain. Decrease in CSF volume resulting in loss of buoyancy results in downward herniation of the brain without contributing mass effect, causing a phenomenon known as 'brain sag.' Unreported previously is brain sag occurring without concomitant occult CSF leak or lumbar drainage...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Edward J Casswell, Sleiman Abou Ltaif, Thomas Carr, Pearse A Keane, David G Charteris, Louisa Wickham
PURPOSE: To describe the widefield spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features of peripheral round retinal holes, with or without associated retinal detachment (RD). METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of 28 eyes with peripheral round retinal holes, with and without RD. Patients underwent imaging with a widefield 50-degree spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) and Optos ultra-widefield imaging systems (Optos, United Kingdom)...
March 2, 2018: Retina
SriniVas R Sadda, Lisa L Tuomi, Beiying Ding, Anne E Fung, J Jill Hopkins
PURPOSE: To evaluate macular atrophy (MA) presence in the 24-month HARBOR study (NCT00891735) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a phase 3 multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-masked, active treatment-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Evaluable subjects (N = 1095) with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to neovascular AMD treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg or 2...
February 21, 2018: Ophthalmology
Yihua Ren, Wei Cui, Shuiqing Li
We report an electrohydrodynamic instability in a premixed stagnation flame under manipulations of a dc electric field. This instability occurs when the electric field strength is at a certain value below the breakdown threshold, which is 0.75 kV/cm in the experimental setup. Above this value the flame front suddenly transits from a substrate-stabilized near-flat shape to a nozzle-stabilized conical surface, accompanied by a jump in the electric current through the flame field. At the transition moment, the flame spontaneously propagates upstream to the nozzle while the flow velocity at the upstream of the flame front decreases to zero, as revealed by high-speed photographs and PIV measurements...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
James T Waters, Ya Liu, Like Li, Anna C Balazs
Using computational modeling, we show that the dynamic interplay between a flowing fluid and the appropriately designed surface relief pattern can inhibit the fouling of the substrate. We specifically focus on surfaces that are decorated with three-dimensional (3D) chevron or sawtooth "micromixer" patterns and model the fouling agents (e.g., cells) as spherical microcapsules. The interaction between the imposed shear flow and the chevrons on the surface generates 3D vortices in the system. We pinpoint a range of shear rates where the forces from these vortices can rupture the bonds between the two mobile microcapsules near the surface...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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