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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228029/predicting-low-temperature-free-energy-landscapes-with-flat-histogram-monte-carlo-methods
#1
Nathan A Mahynski, Marco A Blanco, Jeffrey R Errington, Vincent K Shen
We present a method for predicting the free energy landscape of fluids at low temperatures from flat-histogram grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations performed at higher ones. We illustrate our approach for both pure and multicomponent systems using two different sampling methods as a demonstration. This allows us to predict the thermodynamic behavior of systems which undergo both first order and continuous phase transitions upon cooling using simulations performed only at higher temperatures. After surveying a variety of different systems, we identify a range of temperature differences over which the extrapolation of high temperature simulations tends to quantitatively predict the thermodynamic properties of fluids at lower ones...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176897/mechanical-characteristics-of-plastic-base-ports-and-impact-on-flushing-efficacy
#2
Gérard Guiffant, Patrice Flaud, Laurent Royon, Espérie Burnet, Jacques Merckx
BACKGROUND: Three types of totally implantable venous access devices, Ports, are currently in use: titanium, plastic (polyoxymethylene, POM), and mixed (titanium base with a POM shell). Physics theory suggests that the interaction between a non-coring needle (NCN, made of stainless steel) and a plastic base would lead to the stronger material (steel) altering the more malleable material (plastic). OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether needle impacts can alter a plastic base's surface, thus potentially reducing flushing efficacy...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155122/anisotropic-permeability-of-trabecular-bone-and-its-relationship-to-fabric-and-architecture-a-computational-study
#3
T C Kreipke, G L Niebur
Trabecular bone is a porous, mineralized tissue found in vertebral bodies, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, and in the irregular and flat shaped bones. The pore space is filled with bone marrow, a highly cellular fluid. Together, the bone and marrow behave as a poroelastic solid. In poroelasticity theory, the permeability is the primary material property that governs the momentum transfer between the solid and fluid constituents. In the linearized theory, the permeability of a material depends on the shape and connectivity of the pores...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147539/tuning-flexibility-to-control-selectivity-in-soft-porous-crystals
#4
Nathan A Mahynski, Vincent K Shen
We use flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations to study how changing the flexibility of soft porous crystals (SPCs) affects their selective adsorption of a binary, size-asymmetric supercritical fluid. Specifically, we consider mesoporous SPCs which have multiple minima in their free energy profiles as a function of pore size such that they are capable of exhibiting polymorphism between a narrow and large pore phase. While specific fluid-pore interactions determine the shape of both pores' selectivity curve as a function of adsorbate pressure, an individual pore tends to selectively adsorb a species based on the size of the adsorbate molecule relative to itself, thereby shifting the pore's selectivity curve relative to its polymorph...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130556/the-new-vestibular-stimuli-sound-and-vibration-anatomical-physiological-and-clinical-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys
The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116539/characteristics-of-melting-heat-transfer-during-flow-of-carreau-fluid-induced-by-a-stretching-cylinder
#6
Hashim, Masood Khan, Ali Saleh Alshomrani
This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the energy transportation by virtue of the melting process of high-temperature phase change materials. We have developed a two-dimensional model for the boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. It is assumed that flow is caused by stretching of a cylinder in the axial direction by means of a linear velocity. Adequate local similarity transformations are employed to determine a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which govern the flow problem...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097480/average-flow-generation-by-a-pulsating-flow-near-a-curved-interface
#7
Lyudmila S Klimenko, Dmitry V Lyubimov
This paper is devoted to the study of curvature influence on the average flow generation near the fluid interface. The time averaging of a non-uniform pulsating flow often results in a nonzero average flow in the bulk. The well-known average flow occurs near a solid surface, the so-called Schlichting mechanism of the average flow generation. For flows with a free surface there is the other known mechanism of Longuet-Higgins, according to which the average flow is generated by surface waves traveling on a free surface...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062204/impact-of-formulation-properties-and-process-parameters-on-the-dispensing-and-depositioning-of-drug-nanosuspensions-using-micro-valve-technology
#8
Bastian Bonhoeffer, Arno Kwade, Michael Juhnke
Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy and robustness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056057/flat-anterior-chamber-after-trabeculectomy-in-secondary-angle-closure-glaucoma-with-best1-gene-mutation-case-series
#9
Yimin Zhong, Xinxing Guo, Hui Xiao, Jingyi Luo, Chengguo Zuo, Xiaobo Huang, Jingjing Huang, Lan Mi, Qingjiong Zhang, Xing Liu
PURPOSE: Trabeculectomy has been regarded as a mainstay of initial treatment in eyes of angle closure glaucoma (ACG) with peripheral anterior synechia > 180° in the Chinese population while its efficacy in secondary ACG with BEST1 gene mutation remains unclear. We set out to investigate the treatment outcome of trabeculectomy for secondary ACG in a group of patients with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). METHODS: In this retrospective case series study, 8 secondary ACG patients with ARB and their 4 recruited family members underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and fundus examinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049334/anomalous-diffusion-and-diffusion-anomaly-in-confined-janus-dumbbells
#10
Leandro B Krott, Cristina Gavazzoni, José Rafael Bordin
Self-assembly and dynamical properties of Janus nanoparticles have been studied by molecular dynamic simulations. The nanoparticles are modeled as dimers and they are confined between two flat parallel plates to simulate a thin film. One monomer from the dumbbells interacts by a standard Lennard-Jones potential and the other by a two-length scales shoulder potential, typically used for anomalous fluids. Here, we study the effects of removing the Brownian effects, typical from colloidal systems immersed in aqueous solution, and consider a molecular system, without the drag force and the random collisions from the Brownian motion...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033229/primary-laser-photocoagulation-for-the-treatment-of-giant-retinal-tears
#11
Jack Ao, Saban Horo, Lachlan Farmer, Weng Onn Chan, Jagjit Gilhotra
PURPOSE: Laser photocoagulation has typically been used as an adjunctive treatment to pars planar vitrectomy in achieving retinopexy in the treatment of giant retinal tears. We describe three cases where the giant retinal tear was treated with laser photocoagulation alone. METHODS: A retrospective case report of three patients with giant retinal tears who underwent primary laser photocoagulation. RESULTS: Fundus examination up to 18 months after primary laser photocoagulation of all 3 patients revealed a flat attached retina and no significant complications...
December 28, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007984/microbial-competition-in-porous-environments-can-select-against-rapid-biofilm-growth
#12
Katharine Z Coyte, Hervé Tabuteau, Eamonn A Gaffney, Kevin R Foster, William M Durham
Microbes often live in dense communities called biofilms, where competition between strains and species is fundamental to both evolution and community function. Although biofilms are commonly found in soil-like porous environments, the study of microbial interactions has largely focused on biofilms growing on flat, planar surfaces. Here, we use microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study how porous media hydrodynamics can mediate competition between bacterial genotypes. Our experiments reveal a fundamental challenge faced by microbial strains that live in porous environments: cells that rapidly form biofilms tend to block their access to fluid flow and redirect resources to competitors...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993017/pore-model-in-the-melting-regime-of-a-lyotropic-biomembrane-with-an-anionic-phospholipid
#13
Francesco Spinozzi, Lia Q Amaral
Aqueous dispersions of the anionic phospholipid dimyristoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DMPG) exhibit an unusual "melting regime", at the phase transition between the ordered (gel) and the disordered (fluid liquid crystal) state of hydrocarbon chains, depending on the ionic strength and DMPG concentration, previously attributed to the pore formation. Dispersions with 150 mM DMPG present a lamellar phase above 23 °C, within the melting regime. In this study, we present a detailed pore model for the analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results and their variation with temperature, focused on the surface fractions of pores in the bilayers...
December 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982636/evolution-of-a-vortex-in-a-strain-flow
#14
N C Hurst, J R Danielson, D H E Dubin, C M Surko
Experiments and vortex-in-cell simulations are used to study an initially axisymmetric, spatially distributed vortex subject to an externally imposed strain flow. The experiments use a magnetized pure electron plasma to model an inviscid two-dimensional fluid. The results are compared to a theory assuming an elliptical region of constant vorticity. For relatively flat vorticity profiles, the dynamics and stability threshold are in close quantitative agreement with the theory. Physics beyond the constant-vorticity model, such as vortex stripping, is investigated by studying the behavior of nonflat vorticity profiles...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890677/time-course-of-organ-of-corti-degeneration-after-noise-exposure
#15
Barbara A Bohne, Melissa Kimlinger, Gary W Harding
From our permanent collection of plastic-embedded flat preparations of chinchilla cochleae, 22 controls and 199 ears from noise-exposed animals were used to determine when, postexposure, hair cell (HC) and supporting cell (SC) degeneration were completed. The exposed ears were divided into four groups based on exposure parameters: 0.5- or 4-kHz octave band of noise at moderate (M) or high (H) intensities. Postexposure survival ranged from <1 h to 2.5 y. Ears fixed ≤ 0-12 h postexposure were called 'acute'...
November 24, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889129/biofouling-of-ultrafiltration-membrane-by-dairy-fluids-characterization-of-pioneer-colonizer-bacteria-using-a-dna-metabarcoding-approach
#16
Julien Chamberland, Marie-Hélène Lessard, Alain Doyen, Steve Labrie, Yves Pouliot
Biofouling of filtration membranes is a major quality and performance issue for the dairy industry. Because biofilms that survive cleaning cycles become resistant over time, prevention strategies limiting the adhesion of bacteria to membranes should be prioritized for sustainable control of biofouling. However, this cannot be achieved because the pioneer bacteria colonizing these membranes are still unknown. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize pioneer bacteria on the filtration membrane surface and to measure the effect of filtration operational parameters on their diversity...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882468/discrete-element-modelling-of-sediment-falling-in-water
#17
Dong Wang, Dao Ho-Minh, Danielle S Tan
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a discrete, particle-based method commonly used in studies involving granular media, e.g. sediment transport, and geomechanics. It is heavily dependent on particle properties, and one important component is the force model, which relates the relative positions and velocities of the simulated particles to the forces they experience. In this paper we model a collection of lightly compacted granular material, released at a short distance above a flat base in a quiescent fluid --similar to the process whereby sediment tailings are released back into the sea during nodule harvesting...
November 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867723/all-optical-highly-sensitive-akinetic-sensor-for-ultrasound-detection-and-photoacoustic-imaging
#18
Stefan Preisser, Wolfgang Rohringer, Mengyang Liu, Christian Kollmann, Stefan Zotter, Balthasar Fischer, Wolfgang Drexler
A novel all-optical akinetic ultrasound sensor, consisting of a rigid, fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot etalon with a transparent central opening is presented. The sensing principle relies exclusively on the detection of pressure-induced changes of the refractive index in the fluid filling the Fabry-Pérot cavity. This enables resonance-free, inherently linear signal detection over a broad bandwidth. We demonstrate that the sensor achieves a exceptionally low peak noise equivalent pressure (NEP) values of 2 Pa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth (without signal averaging), while maintaining a flat frequency response, and a detection bandwidth up to 22...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847158/effect-of-interim-cement-application-on-bond-strength-between-resin-cements-and-dentin-immediate-and-delayed-dentin-sealing
#19
Vinícius C Brigagão, Luis F D Barreto, Kellem A S Gonçalves, Marina Amaral, Rafael P Vitti, Ana C C Neves, Laís R Silva-Concílio
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Despite the advances in materials and techniques, adhesion to dentin is challenging because of the complex composition of dentin's mineral, organic, and fluid phases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 different resin cements (conventional and self-adhesive) with or without previous dentin sealing and the effect of interim cement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five molars were embedded into acrylic resin blocks and a flat dentin surface was exposed...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843235/flat-choroidal-melanoma-masquerading-as-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#20
Timothy Patrick Higgins, Chloe T L Khoo, George Magrath, Carol L Shields
There are several mimickers of choroidal melanoma. We report a patient with recent family stress who developed blurred vision to 20/50 OD and was found to have unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy and a coincidental choroidal nevus. After 1 year without resolution of the subretinal fluid, the patient was referred for our opinion. On examination, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The left eye was normal. Evaluation of the right eye showed a small, pigmented submacular choroidal lesion measuring 4 mm × 3 mm...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
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