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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415178/capillary-and-geometrically-driven-fingering-instability-in-nonflat-hele-shaw-cells
#1
Rodolfo Brandão, José A Miranda
The usual viscous fingering instability arises when a fluid displaces another of higher viscosity in a flat Hele-Shaw cell, under sufficiently large capillary number conditions. In this traditional framing, the reverse flow case (more viscous fluid displacing a less viscous one) and the viscosity-matched situation (fluids of equal viscosities) are stable. We revisit this classical fluid dynamic problem, now considering flow in a nonflat Hele-Shaw cell. For a specific nonflat environment, we show that both the reverse and the viscosity-matched flows can become unstable, even at low capillary number...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411214/achiral-symmetry-breaking-and-positive-gaussian-modulus-lead-to-scalloped-colloidal-membranes
#2
Thomas Gibaud, C Nadir Kaplan, Prerna Sharma, Mark J Zakhary, Andrew Ward, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Robert B Meyer, Randall D Kamien, Thomas R Powers, Zvonimir Dogic
In the presence of a nonadsorbing polymer, monodisperse rod-like particles assemble into colloidal membranes, which are one-rod-length-thick liquid-like monolayers of aligned rods. Unlike 3D edgeless bilayer vesicles, colloidal monolayer membranes form open structures with an exposed edge, thus presenting an opportunity to study elasticity of fluid sheets. Membranes assembled from single-component chiral rods form flat disks with uniform edge twist. In comparison, membranes composed of a mixture of rods with opposite chiralities can have the edge twist of either handedness...
April 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390354/brownian-motion-as-a-new-probe-of-wettability
#3
Jianyong Mo, Akarsh Simha, Mark G Raizen
Understanding wettability is crucial for optimizing oil recovery, semiconductor manufacturing, pharmaceutical industry, and electrowetting. In this letter, we study the effects of wettability on Brownian motion. We consider the cases of a sphere in an unbounded fluid medium, as well as a sphere placed in the vicinity of a plane wall. For the first case, we show the effects of wettability on the statistical properties of the particles' motion, such as velocity autocorrelation, velocity, and thermal force power spectra over a large range of time scales...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372382/forced-oscillations-dynamic-tribometer-with-real-time-insights-of-lubricated-interfaces
#4
M Yahiaoui, E Rigaud, D Mazuyer, J Cayer-Barrioz
This paper presents an innovative forced oscillations dynamic tribometer, the CHRONOS tribometer, with a lubricated ball-on-flat contact configuration fitted out with an in situ optical visualization system and a triggered high-speed camera. The CHRONOS tribometer generates controlled oscillating kinematics by means of a shaker with a range of strokes from 5 μm to 2.5 mm and an oscillation frequency which can be adjusted from 5 Hz to 250 Hz. Displacement and velocity are measured using a vibrometer. The ball-on-flat mean contact pressure is set between 200 MPa and 600 MPa...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365648/passive-leg-raising-and-prediction-of-fluid-responsiveness-systematic-review
#5
Joya D Pickett, Elizabeth Bridges, Patricia A Kritek, JoAnne D Whitney
Fluid boluses are often administered with the aim of improving tissue hypoperfusion in shock. However, only approximately 50% of patients respond to fluid administration with a clinically significant increase in stroke volume. Fluid overload can exacerbate pulmonary edema, precipitate respiratory failure, and prolong mechanical ventilation. Therefore, it is important to predict which hemodynamically unstable patients will increase their stroke volume in response to fluid administration, thereby avoiding deleterious effects...
April 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328234/quantification-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-and-human-insulin-in-adipose-tissue-interstitial-fluid-by-open-flow-microperfusion
#6
Katrin Tiffner, Beate Boulgaropoulos, Christian Höfferer, Thomas Birngruber, Niels Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Parag Garhyan, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Mary Pat Knadler, Thomas R Pieber, Frank Sinner
BACKGROUND: Restoration of the physiologic hepatic-to-peripheral insulin gradient may be achieved by either portal vein administration or altering insulin structure to increase hepatic specificity or restrict peripheral access. Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) is a novel, PEGylated basal insulin with a flat pharmacokinetic and glucodynamic profile and altered hepatic-to-peripheral action gradient. We hypothesized reduced BIL exposure in peripheral tissues explains the latter, and in this study assessed the adipose tissue interstitial fluid (ISF) concentrations of BIL compared with human insulin (HI)...
March 22, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297978/phase-behavior-of-charged-colloids-at-a-fluid-interface
#7
Colm P Kelleher, Rodrigo E Guerra, Andrew D Hollingsworth, Paul M Chaikin
We study the phase behavior of a system of charged colloidal particles that are electrostatically bound to an almost flat interface between two fluids. We show that, despite the fact that our experimental system consists of only 10^{3}-10^{4} particles, the phase behavior is consistent with the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young. Using spatial and temporal correlations of the bond-orientational order parameter, we classify our samples into solid, isotropic fluid, and hexatic phases...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297838/inelastic-non-newtonian-flow-over-heterogeneously-slippery-surfaces
#8
A Sander Haase, Jeffery A Wood, Lisette M J Sprakel, Rob G H Lammertink
In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bubbles. The results reveal that for shear-thinning fluids wall slip can be increased significantly, provided that the system is operated in the shear-thinning regime. For a 0.2 wt% xanthan gum solution with a power-law index of n=0...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291321/nanoengineered-superhydrophobic-surfaces-of-aluminum-with-extremely-low-bacterial-adhesivity
#9
Ferdi Hizal, Natthakan Rungraeng, Junghoon Lee, Soojin Jun, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Chang-Hwan Choi
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces are troublesome in many industrial processes. Here, nanoporous and nanopillared aluminum surfaces were engineered by anodizing and postetching processes and made hydrophilic (using the inherent oxide layer) or hydrophobic (applying a Teflon coating) with the aim of discouraging bacterial adhesion. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 (Gram-positive, spherically shaped) and Escherichia coli K-12 (Gram-negative, rod-shaped) was evaluated to the nanoengineered surfaces under both static and flow conditions (fluid shear rate of 37 s(-1))...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275605/unrelenting-ocular-pain-as-a-masquerading-symptom-of-occult-choroidal-metastasis
#10
Jordan D Deaner, Renelle Pointdujour-Lim, Emil Anthony T Say, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To report a case of chronic eye pain as a presenting feature of choroidal metastasis from lung cancer. METHODS: We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma presenting with an 8-month history of left eye pain and blurred vision. RESULTS: The patient had previously consulted 14 ophthalmologists with varying diagnoses including posterior scleritis and trigeminal neuralgia. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye...
January 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267999/extension-of-golay-s-plate-height-equation-from-laminar-to-turbulent-flow-i-theory
#11
Fabrice Gritti
The reduced plate height (RPH) equation of Golay derived in 1958 for open tubular columns (OTC) is extended from laminar to turbulent-like flow. The mass balance equation is solved under near-equilibrium conditions in the mobile phase for changing shapes of the velocity profile across the OTC diameter. The final expression of the general RPH equation is: [Formula: see text] where ν is the reduced linear velocity, k is the retention factor, Dm is the bulk diffusion coefficient in the mobile phase, Da¯ is the average axial dispersion coefficient, Dr¯ is the average radial dispersion coefficient, Ds is the diffusion coefficient of the analyte in the stationary film of thickness df, D is the OTC inner diameter, and n≥2 is a positive number controlling the shape of the flow profile (polynomial of degree n)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228029/predicting-low-temperature-free-energy-landscapes-with-flat-histogram-monte-carlo-methods
#12
Nathan A Mahynski, Marco A Blanco, Jeffrey R Errington, Vincent K Shen
We present a method for predicting the free energy landscape of fluids at low temperatures from flat-histogram grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations performed at higher ones. We illustrate our approach for both pure and multicomponent systems using two different sampling methods as a demonstration. This allows us to predict the thermodynamic behavior of systems which undergo both first order and continuous phase transitions upon cooling using simulations performed only at higher temperatures. After surveying a variety of different systems, we identify a range of temperature differences over which the extrapolation of high temperature simulations tends to quantitatively predict the thermodynamic properties of fluids at lower ones...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176897/mechanical-characteristics-of-plastic-base-ports-and-impact-on-flushing-efficacy
#13
Gérard Guiffant, Patrice Flaud, Laurent Royon, Espérie Burnet, Jacques Merckx
BACKGROUND: Three types of totally implantable venous access devices, Ports, are currently in use: titanium, plastic (polyoxymethylene, POM), and mixed (titanium base with a POM shell). Physics theory suggests that the interaction between a non-coring needle (NCN, made of stainless steel) and a plastic base would lead to the stronger material (steel) altering the more malleable material (plastic). OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether needle impacts can alter a plastic base's surface, thus potentially reducing flushing efficacy...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155122/anisotropic-permeability-of-trabecular-bone-and-its-relationship-to-fabric-and-architecture-a-computational-study
#14
T C Kreipke, G L Niebur
Trabecular bone is a porous, mineralized tissue found in vertebral bodies, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, and in the irregular and flat shaped bones. The pore space is filled with bone marrow, a highly cellular fluid. Together, the bone and marrow behave as a poroelastic solid. In poroelasticity theory, the permeability is the primary material property that governs the momentum transfer between the solid and fluid constituents. In the linearized theory, the permeability of a material depends on the shape and connectivity of the pores...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147539/tuning-flexibility-to-control-selectivity-in-soft-porous-crystals
#15
Nathan A Mahynski, Vincent K Shen
We use flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations to study how changing the flexibility of soft porous crystals (SPCs) affects their selective adsorption of a binary, size-asymmetric supercritical fluid. Specifically, we consider mesoporous SPCs which have multiple minima in their free energy profiles as a function of pore size such that they are capable of exhibiting polymorphism between a narrow and large pore phase. While specific fluid-pore interactions determine the shape of both pores' selectivity curve as a function of adsorbate pressure, an individual pore tends to selectively adsorb a species based on the size of the adsorbate molecule relative to itself, thereby shifting the pore's selectivity curve relative to its polymorph...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130556/the-new-vestibular-stimuli-sound-and-vibration-anatomical-physiological-and-clinical-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys
The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116539/characteristics-of-melting-heat-transfer-during-flow-of-carreau-fluid-induced-by-a-stretching-cylinder
#17
Hashim, Masood Khan, Ali Saleh Alshomrani
This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the energy transportation by virtue of the melting process of high-temperature phase change materials. We have developed a two-dimensional model for the boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. It is assumed that flow is caused by stretching of a cylinder in the axial direction by means of a linear velocity. Adequate local similarity transformations are employed to determine a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which govern the flow problem...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097480/average-flow-generation-by-a-pulsating-flow-near-a-curved-interface
#18
Lyudmila S Klimenko, Dmitry V Lyubimov
This paper is devoted to the study of curvature influence on the average flow generation near the fluid interface. The time averaging of a non-uniform pulsating flow often results in a nonzero average flow in the bulk. The well-known average flow occurs near a solid surface, the so-called Schlichting mechanism of the average flow generation. For flows with a free surface there is the other known mechanism of Longuet-Higgins, according to which the average flow is generated by surface waves traveling on a free surface...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062204/impact-of-formulation-properties-and-process-parameters-on-the-dispensing-and-depositioning-of-drug-nanosuspensions-using-micro-valve-technology
#19
Bastian Bonhoeffer, Arno Kwade, Michael Juhnke
Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing, or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy, and robustness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056057/flat-anterior-chamber-after-trabeculectomy-in-secondary-angle-closure-glaucoma-with-best1-gene-mutation-case-series
#20
Yimin Zhong, Xinxing Guo, Hui Xiao, Jingyi Luo, Chengguo Zuo, Xiaobo Huang, Jingjing Huang, Lan Mi, Qingjiong Zhang, Xing Liu
PURPOSE: Trabeculectomy has been regarded as a mainstay of initial treatment in eyes of angle closure glaucoma (ACG) with peripheral anterior synechia > 180° in the Chinese population while its efficacy in secondary ACG with BEST1 gene mutation remains unclear. We set out to investigate the treatment outcome of trabeculectomy for secondary ACG in a group of patients with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). METHODS: In this retrospective case series study, 8 secondary ACG patients with ARB and their 4 recruited family members underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and fundus examinations...
2017: PloS One
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