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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890677/time-course-of-organ-of-corti-degeneration-after-noise-exposure
#1
Barbara A Bohne, Melissa Kimlinger, Gary W Harding
From our permanent collection of plastic-embedded flat preparations of chinchilla cochleae, 22 controls and 199 ears from noise-exposed animals were used to determine when, postexposure, hair cell (HC) and supporting cell (SC) degeneration were completed. The exposed ears were divided into four groups based on exposure parameters: 0.5- or 4-kHz octave band of noise at moderate (M) or high (H) intensities. Postexposure survival ranged from < 1 h to 2.5 y. Ears fixed ≤ 0-12 h postexposure were called ‛acute‛...
November 24, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889129/biofouling-of-ultrafiltration-membrane-by-dairy-fluids-characterization-of-pioneer-colonizer-bacteria-using-a-dna-metabarcoding-approach
#2
Julien Chamberland, Marie-Hélène Lessard, Alain Doyen, Steve Labrie, Yves Pouliot
Biofouling of filtration membranes is a major quality and performance issue for the dairy industry. Because biofilms that survive cleaning cycles become resistant over time, prevention strategies limiting the adhesion of bacteria to membranes should be prioritized for sustainable control of biofouling. However, this cannot be achieved because the pioneer bacteria colonizing these membranes are still unknown. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize pioneer bacteria on the filtration membrane surface and to measure the effect of filtration operational parameters on their diversity...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882468/discrete-element-modelling-of-sediment-falling-in-water
#3
Dong Wang, Dao Ho-Minh, Danielle S Tan
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a discrete, particle-based method commonly used in studies involving granular media, e.g. sediment transport, and geomechanics. It is heavily dependent on particle properties, and one important component is the force model, which relates the relative positions and velocities of the simulated particles to the forces they experience. In this paper we model a collection of lightly compacted granular material, released at a short distance above a flat base in a quiescent fluid --similar to the process whereby sediment tailings are released back into the sea during nodule harvesting...
November 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867723/all-optical-highly-sensitive-akinetic-sensor-for-ultrasound-detection-and-photoacoustic-imaging
#4
Stefan Preisser, Wolfgang Rohringer, Mengyang Liu, Christian Kollmann, Stefan Zotter, Balthasar Fischer, Wolfgang Drexler
A novel all-optical akinetic ultrasound sensor, consisting of a rigid, fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot etalon with a transparent central opening is presented. The sensing principle relies exclusively on the detection of pressure-induced changes of the refractive index in the fluid filling the Fabry-Pérot cavity. This enables resonance-free, inherently linear signal detection over a broad bandwidth. We demonstrate that the sensor achieves a exceptionally low peak noise equivalent pressure (NEP) values of 2 Pa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth (without signal averaging), while maintaining a flat frequency response, and a detection bandwidth up to 22...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847158/effect-of-interim-cement-application-on-bond-strength-between-resin-cements-and-dentin-immediate-and-delayed-dentin-sealing
#5
Vinícius C Brigagão, Luis F D Barreto, Kellem A S Gonçalves, Marina Amaral, Rafael P Vitti, Ana C C Neves, Laís R Silva-Concílio
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Despite the advances in materials and techniques, adhesion to dentin is challenging because of the complex composition of dentin's mineral, organic, and fluid phases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 different resin cements (conventional and self-adhesive) with or without previous dentin sealing and the effect of interim cement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five molars were embedded into acrylic resin blocks and a flat dentin surface was exposed...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843235/flat-choroidal-melanoma-masquerading-as-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#6
Timothy Patrick Higgins, Chloe T L Khoo, George Magrath, Carol L Shields
There are several mimickers of choroidal melanoma. We report a patient with recent family stress who developed blurred vision to 20/50 OD and was found to have unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy and a coincidental choroidal nevus. After 1 year without resolution of the subretinal fluid, the patient was referred for our opinion. On examination, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The left eye was normal. Evaluation of the right eye showed a small, pigmented submacular choroidal lesion measuring 4 mm × 3 mm...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834433/late-stage-drainage-of-block-copolymer-stabilized-emulsion-drops
#7
Damith P Rozairo, Andrew B Croll
Polymer covered emulsion droplets have a considerable number of applications ranging from active cosmetics to advance drug delivery systems. In many of these systems the emulsion droplets do not exist in isolation but interact with other drops, surfaces and particles. In a step towards understanding how these complex mechanical interactions take place, we examine the interaction between a block copolymer covered emulsion droplet (polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) covered toluene) and a flat mica interface...
November 11, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825240/multicomponent-adsorption-in-mesoporous-flexible-materials-with-flat-histogram-monte-carlo-methods
#8
Nathan A Mahynski, Vincent K Shen
We demonstrate an extensible flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulation methodology for studying the adsorption of multicomponent fluids in flexible porous solids. This methodology allows us to easily obtain the complete free energy landscape for the confined fluid-solid system in equilibrium with a bulk fluid of any arbitrary composition. We use this approach to study the adsorption of a prototypical coarse-grained binary fluid in "Hookean" solids, where the free energy of the solid may be described as a simple spring...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821339/experimental-study-of-the-heated-contact-line-region-for-a-pure-fluid-and-binary-fluid-mixture-in-microgravity
#9
Thao T T Nguyen, Akshay Kundan, Peter C Wayner, Joel L Plawsky, David F Chao, Ronald J Sicker
Understanding the dynamics of phase change heat and mass transfer in the three-phase contact line region is a critical step toward improving the efficiency of phase change processes. Phase change becomes especially complicated when a fluid mixture is used. In this paper, a wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the contact line dynamics of a pentane/isohexane mixture. Different interfacial regions were identified, compared, and studied. Using high resolution (50×), interference images, we calculated the curvature gradient of the liquid-vapor interface at the contact line region along the edges of the heat pipe...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802010/nanoscale-pillar-enhanced-tribological-surfaces-as-antifouling-membranes
#10
Wansuk Choi, Edwin P Chan, Jong-Hyun Park, Won-Gi Ahn, Hyun Wook Jung, Seungkwan Hong, Jong Suk Lee, Ji-Young Han, Sangpil Park, Doo-Hyun Ko, Jung-Hyun Lee
We present a nonconventional membrane surface modification approach that utilizes surface topography to manipulate the tribology of foulant accumulation on water desalination membranes via imprinting of submicron titanium dioxide (TiO2) pillar patterns onto the molecularly structured, flat membrane surface. This versatile approach overcomes the constraint of the conventional approach relying on interfacial polymerization that inevitably leads to the formation of ill-defined surface topography. Compared to the nonpatterned membranes, the patterned membranes showed significantly improved fouling resistance for both organic protein and bacterial foulants...
November 1, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785110/successful-closure-of-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-flat-edge-type-ii-full-thickness-macular-hole-using-inverted-internal-limiting-membrane-flap-technique
#11
Nazimul Hussain, Anjli Hussain
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present the outcome of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling flap technique for a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole (MH). METHODS: A 52-year-old man presented with complaints of decreased vision and seeing black spot. He was diagnosed to have a flat edge, full-thickness MH, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). He underwent 23G vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted inverted ILM peeling with an inverted flap over the hole followed by fluid gas exchange...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721527/effect-of-different-fluids-on-rectified-motion-of-leidenfrost-droplets-on-micro-sub-micron-ratchets
#12
Jeong Tae Ok, Junseo Choi, Emily Brown, Sunggook Park
Leidenfrost droplets, liquid droplets placed on a hot flat surface above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid, are an interesting model system to understand and achieve frictionless motion of droplets on a surface. Controlled unidirectional motion of otherwise random Leidenfrost droplets can be achieved by replacing the flat surface by a surface with topological ratchets. In this study, we show how an increase in the vapor layer thickness below the Leidenfrost droplet influences the droplet motion for underlying ratchets with various periods ranging from 1...
June 1, 2016: Microelectronic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717131/directional-fluid-transport-in-thin-porous-materials-and-its-functional-applications
#13
Yan Zhao, Hongxia Wang, Hua Zhou, Tong Lin
Directional fluid motion driven by the surface property of solid substrate is highly desirable for manipulating microfluidic liquid and collecting water from humid air. Studies on such liquid motion have been confined to dense material surfaces such as flat panels and single filaments. Recently, directional fluid transport through the thickness of thin porous materials has been reported by several research groups. Their studies not only attract fundamental, experimental and theoretical interest but also open novel application opportunities...
September 15, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714164/effect-of-temperature-on-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-nano-confined-liquid-mixtures
#14
Kislon Voïtchovsky
The behaviour of fluids confined in nanoscale gaps plays a central role in molecular science and nanofluidics, with applications ranging from biological function to multiscale printing, osmosis and filtration, lab-on-chip technology and friction reduction. Here atomic force microscopy is used to shear five different mixtures of hexadecane and squalane confined between the tip apex and atomically flat graphite. The shearing amplitudes are typically <2 nm, hence reflecting highly localised information at the interface...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694997/a-capillary-electrophoresis-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry-pipeline-for-long-term-comparable-assessment-of-the-urinary-metabolome
#15
Franck Boizard, Valérie Brunchault, Panagiotis Moulos, Benjamin Breuil, Julie Klein, Nadia Lounis, Cécile Caubet, Stéphanie Tellier, Jean-Loup Bascands, Stéphane Decramer, Joost P Schanstra, Bénédicte Buffin-Meyer
Although capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has potential application in the field of metabolite profiling, very few studies actually used CE-MS to identify clinically useful body fluid metabolites. Here we present an optimized CE-MS setup and analysis pipeline to reproducibly explore the metabolite content of urine. We show that the use of a beveled tip capillary improves the sensitivity of detection over a flat tip. We also present a novel normalization procedure based on the use of endogenous stable urinary metabolites identified in the combined metabolome of 75 different urine samples from healthy and diseased individuals...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693500/tribological-rehydration-of-cartilage-and-its-potential-role-in-preserving-joint-health
#16
A C Moore, D L Burris
OBJECTIVE: During exercise, cartilage recovers interstitial fluid lost during inactivity, which explains how tissue thickness and joint space are maintained over time. This recovery phenomenon is currently explained by a combination of osmotic swelling during intermittent bath exposure and sub-ambient pressurization during unloading. This paper tests an alternate hypothesis that cartilage can retain and recover interstitial fluid in the absence of bath exposure and unloading when physiological hydrodynamics are present...
September 30, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663561/pharmacists-guide-to-the-management-of-organ-donors-after-brain-death
#17
REVIEW
Catherine Korte, Jennifer L Garber, Jillian L Descourouez, Katelyn R Richards, Karen Hardinger
PURPOSE: This article reviews organ donor pathophysiology as it relates to medication use with the goal of maximizing the successful procurement and transplantation of donor organs. SUMMARY: The number of patients requiring organ transplantation continues to grow, yet organ donation rates remain flat, making it critical to appropriately manage each organ donor in order to ensure viability of all transplantable organs. The care given to one organ donor is tantamount to the care of several transplant recipients...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649964/lipids-rich-in-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-from-microalgae
#18
REVIEW
N F Santos-Sánchez, R Valadez-Blanco, B Hernández-Carlos, A Torres-Ariño, P C Guadarrama-Mendoza, R Salas-Coronado
Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646630/optimisation-of-the-sputnik-vad-design
#19
Sergey V Selishchev, Dmitry V Telyshev
PURPOSE: Miniaturisation of VADs can offer important benefits, including less invasive implantation techniques and more versatility in patient selection. The aim of this work was to reduce the weight, size, and energy consumption of the Sputnik VAD. METHODS: The second generation of the Sputnik VAD was developed with a set of changes in construction. The head pressure-flow rate (H-Q) and power consumption-flow rate curves for the Sputnik VADs were measured at different rotational speeds...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635785/mhz-ultrasound-induced-roughness-of-fluid-interfaces
#20
Rym Boubekri, Michel Gross, Martin In, Olivier Diat, Maurizio Nobili, Helmuth Möhwald, Antonio Stocco
The interface between two fluids is never flat at the nanoscale, and this is important for transport across interfaces. In the absence of any external field, the surface roughness is due to thermally excited capillary waves possessing subnanometric amplitudes in the case of simple liquids. Here, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the surface roughness of liquid-gas and liquid-liquid interfaces. Megahertz (MHz) frequency ultrasound was applied normal to the interface at relatively low ultrasonic pressures (<0...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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