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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127942/attenuation-measurements-with-ultrasonic-diffraction-grating-show-dependence-upon-particle-size-of-slurry-and-viscosity-of-base-liquid
#1
Margaret Stautberg Greenwood
How can using an ultrasonic diffraction grating lead to slurry characterization? The diffraction grating, which is formed by machining triangular grooves on the flat surface of an aluminum unit, has send and receive transducers fastened to the unit at an angle of 30°. The ultrasonic beam strikes the back of the grating, in contact with the slurry, and reflects a beam to the receive transducer; m = 0 and m = 1 beams are transmitted into the slurry. The angle of the m = 1 beam changes with frequency and, at the critical frequency fCR, it reaches 90°...
October 5, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125174/self-assembly-of-cubic-colloidal-particles-at-fluid-fluid-interfaces-by-hexapolar-capillary-interactions
#2
Giuseppe Soligno, Marjolein Dijkstra, René van Roij
Colloidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces can self-assemble, thanks to capillary interactions, into 2D ordered structures. Recently, it has been predicted by theoretical and numerical calculations [G. Soligno et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2016, 116, 258001] that cubes with smooth edges adsorbed at a flat fluid-fluid interface generate hexapolar capillary deformations that cause the particles to self-assemble into honeycomb and hexagonal lattices, at equilibrium and for Young's contact angle π/2. Here we extend these results...
November 10, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124103/data-on-the-agitation-of-a-viscous-newtonian-fluid-by-radial-impellers-in-a-cylindrical-tank
#3
Houari Ameur, Youcef Kamla, Djamel Sahel
In this paper, the data assembled concerning the agitation of a Newtonian fluid in a cylindrical vessel is disclosed. The stirred vessel is not provided with baffles and has a flat-bottom. The data presents some information on the characteristics of two impellers: a six-blade Rushton turbine and a six-blade paddle impeller. The flow patterns generated by both impellers are depicted and compared. Also, the power required when changing the impeller rotational speed is given. The data summarized here via three-dimensional calculations of velocities and viscous dissipation in the whole volume of the tank provides additional knowledge for the best choice of impellers for each industrial process...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094950/flat-drops-elastic-sheets-and-microcapsules-by-interfacial-assembly-of-a-bacterial-biofilm-protein-bsla
#4
Gilad Kaufman, Wei Liu, Danielle M Williams, Youngwoo Choo, Manesh Gopinadhan, Niveditha Samudrala, Raphael Sarfati, Elsa C Y Yan, Lynne Regan, Chinedum O Osuji
Protein adsorption and assembly at interfaces provides a potentially versatile route to create useful constructs for fluid compartmentalization. In this context, we consider the interfacial assembly of a bacterial biofilm protein, BslA, at air-water and oil-water interfaces. Densely packed, high modulus monolayers form at air-water interfaces leading to the formation of flattened sessile water drops. BslA forms elastic sheets at oil-water interfaces leading to the production of stable monodisperse oil-in-water microcapsules...
November 2, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081644/precision-guided-personalized-intrapleural-fibrinolytic-therapy-for-empyema-and-complicated-parapneumonic-pleural-effusions-the-case-for-the-fibrinolytic-potential
#5
Steven Idell, Galina Florova, Sreerama Shetty, Torry Tucker, Richard Idell, Kathy Koenig, Ali Azghani, Najib M Rahman, Andrey Komissarov
Complicated pleural effusions and empyema with loculation and failed drainage are common clinical problems. In adults, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy is commonly used with variable results and therapy remains empiric. Despite the intrapleural use of various plasminogen activators; fibrinolysins, for about sixty years, there is no clear consensus about which agent is most effective. Emerging evidence demonstrates that intrapleural administration of plasminogen activators is subject to rapid inhibition by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and that processing of fibrinolysins is importantly influenced by other factors including the levels and quality of pleural fluid DNA...
July 2017: Clinical Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074887/curvature-instability-of-chiral-colloidal-membranes-on-crystallization
#6
Lachit Saikia, Tanmoy Sarkar, Meera Thomas, V A Raghunathan, Anirban Sain, Prerna Sharma
Buckling and wrinkling instabilities are failure modes of elastic sheets that are avoided in the traditional material design. Recently, a new paradigm has appeared where these instabilities are instead being utilized for high-performance applications. Multiple approaches such as heterogeneous gelation, capillary stresses, and confinement have been used to shape thin macroscopic elastic sheets. However, it remains a challenge to shape two-dimensional self-assembled monolayers at colloidal or molecular length scales...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061734/a-computational-study-on-the-influence-of-insect-wing-geometry-on-bee-flight-mechanics
#7
Jeffrey Feaster, Francine Battaglia, Javid Bayandor
Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to better understand the effects of wing cross-sectional morphology on flow field and force production. The influence of wing cross-section on insect scale flapping flight performance is investigated for the first time using a morphologically representative model of a bee (Bombus pensylvanicus) wing. The bee wing cross-section was determined using a microCT scanner. The results of the bee wing are compared with flat and elliptical cross-sections, representative of those used in modern literature, to determine the impact of profile variation on aerodynamic performance...
October 23, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060111/real-time-model-based-control-of-afterload-for-in-vitro-cardiac-tissue-experimentation
#8
Amy S Garrett, Toan Pham, Denis S Loiselle, June-Chiew Han, Andrew J Taberner
The performance of mechanical work by isolated cardiac muscle samples has typically been studied by subjecting their tissues to an isotonic shortening protocol, which results in "flat-topped" work-loop profiles. In order to better replicate the forces experienced by these tissues in vivo, we have developed a system for imposing a model-based, time-varying, load on isolated cardiac tissue preparations. A model of systemic afterload was developed from the combination of a Windkessel-type model of vascular fluid impedance, and the Laplace law of the heart, and encoded into a hardware-based control system...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045977/-clinical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-williams-beuren-syndrome-2-cases-report
#9
S Q Wang, Z X Yang, H Li
To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and to raise awareness of the disease. The characteristics of clinical manifestations, personal history, cardiac ultrasound, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and chromosome detection results of two cases with WBS were analyzed. The two patients were both male and the age was 11 months and 1 day, and 9 months and 9 days, respectively. They both suffered from cardiovascular malformation: case one presented supravalvular aortic stenosis, and case two showed atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032036/relationship-between-the-subcostal-and-right-lateral-views-of-inferior-vena-cava%C3%A2-collapse-implications-for-clinical-use
#10
Rian Shah, Rory Spiegel, Christina Lu, Ivan Crnosija, Sahar Ahmad
BACKGROUND: The collapsibility index of the inferior vena cava is traditionally visualized from the subcostal region in the sagittal plane, referred to here as cIVCSS. Alternatively, the collapsibility index of the inferior vena cava can be visualized from the right midaxillary line in the coronal plane, referred to here as cIVCRC. It is unclear whether values of cIVCRC are comparable with values of cIVCSS because the inferior vena cava collapses asymmetrically into an elliptical form, quantified as the flat ratio of the inferior vena cava (F-IVC)...
October 12, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970586/microscale-bioreactors-for-in-situ-characterization-of-gi-epithelial-cell-physiology
#11
Cait M Costello, Mikkel B Phillipsen, Leonard M Hartmanis, Marek A Kwasnica, Victor Chen, David Hackam, Matthew W Chang, William E Bentley, John C March
The development of in vitro artificial small intestines that realistically mimic in vivo systems will enable vast improvement of our understanding of the human gut and its impact on human health. Synthetic in vitro models can control specific parameters, including (but not limited to) cell types, fluid flow, nutrient profiles and gaseous exchange. They are also "open" systems, enabling access to chemical and physiological information. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of gut surface topography and fluid flow dynamics which are shown to impact epithelial cell growth, proliferation and intestinal cell function...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966756/preventive-kidney-stones-continue-medical-education
#12
REVIEW
Farahnak Assadi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi
Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963377/a-frog-in-the-throat
#13
Hunniya Waseem, Matthew Welch
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 44-year-old woman, with an unremarkable medical history, presented in the middle of the night with discomfort in her throat. She described being assaulted by an assailant who put his 'fist in her mouth', trying to suffocate her. On examination, she had normal observations and no signs of injury, other than scratch marks around her mouth; she reported no odynophagia and was able to swallow fluids readily. During examination, she complained that lying flat made her increasingly uncomfortable and was causing burgeoning dyspnoea...
October 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942191/improving-the-thermal-efficiency-of-a-jaggery-production-module-using-a-fire-tube-heat-exchanger
#14
Raul La Madrid, Elder Mendoza Orbegoso, Rafael Saavedra, Daniel Marcelo
Jaggery is a product obtained after heating and evaporation processes have been applied to sugar cane juice via the addition of thermal energy, followed by the crystallisation process through mechanical agitation. At present, jaggery production uses furnaces and pans that are designed empirically based on trial and error procedures, which results in low ranges of thermal efficiency operation. To rectify these deficiencies, this study proposes the use of fire-tube pans to increase heat transfer from the flue gases to the sugar cane juice...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912039/acquired-heart-disease-superimposed-on-congenital-heart-disease
#15
D Luke Glancy
A 50-year-old man with a murmur since birth developed systemic arterial hypertension as an adult. He came to the hospital because of dyspnea. He had a pulmonic valve ejection click and a murmur of pulmonic stenosis. His echocardiogram showed biventricular hypertrophy, a flat ventricular septum, a D-shaped left ventricle, systolic doming of the pulmonic valve, and Doppler evidence of a 70 mm Hg peak systolic pressure gradient across the pulmonic valve and a peak right ventricular systolic pressure of 100 mm Hg...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893063/multistep-heterogeneous-nucleation-in-binary-mixtures-of-charged-colloidal-spheres
#16
Jianing Liu, Tong Shen, Zhao Hua Yang, Shu Zhang, Guang Yu Sun
Nucleation plays a decisive role in determining the crystal structure and size distribution; however, understanding of the fundamentals of nucleation is quite limited. In particular, it is unclear whether a nucleus forms spontaneously from solution via a single- or multiple-step process. Here we show how a binary mixture of charged colloidal spheres nucleates heterogeneously on a flat substrate by means of Bragg microscopy, laser diffraction, and laser microscopy. In contrast with the conventional one-step and two-step nucleation mechanisms, a novel pathway of multistep heterogeneous nucleation under certain experimental conditions is highlighted by four steps: initial homogeneous fluid → prenucleation clusters → preordered prenucleation clusters → intermediate ordered phase → final crystal...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885848/structure-and-interfacial-tension-of-a-hard-rod-fluid-in-planar-confinement
#17
Paul E Brumby, Henricus H Wensink, Andrew J Haslam, George Jackson
The structural properties and interfacial tension of a fluid of rodlike hard-spherocylinder particles in contact with hard structureless flat walls are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The calculated surface tension between the rod fluid and the substrate is characterized by a nonmonotonic trend as a function of the bulk concentration (density) over the range of isotropic bulk concentrations. As suggested by earlier theoretical studies, a surface-ordering scenario is confirmed by our simulations: the local orientational order close to the wall changes from uniaxial to biaxial nematic when the bulk concentration reaches about 85% of the value at the onset of the isotropic-nematic phase transition...
October 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808586/quality-of-vision-after-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-fluid-dissection-compared-to-penetrating-keratoplasty-for-the-treatment-of-keratoconus
#18
Islam Mahmoud Hamdi, Momen Mahmoud Hamdi
PURPOSE: To compare the visual quality of patients with keratoconus who underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with fluid dissection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS: Twelve eyes that underwent PKP (PKP group) were compared to 24 eyes that underwent DALK (DALK group) after complete removal of sutures and stability of refraction. Visual, refractive, corneal topographic, corneal aberrometry, and ocular aberrometry parameters were compared for both groups...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808251/continuous-production-of-macroporous-films-an-alternative-to-breath-figure-assembly
#19
Nazia Noor, Joachim Koll, Clarissa Abetz, Heiko Notzke, Volker Abetz
Despite the need for sophisticated instrumentation, breath figure assembly (BFA) methods are restricted to produce macroporous films on a tiny scale so far. The current study narrates the fabrication of macroporous films in hollow fiber geometry which extends to adopt the method for continuous production of isoporous surfaces from commercially available low-priced polymer materials. The fabrication of the films in the hollow fiber geometry is carried out by a co-centric quadruple orifice spinneret through which four different liquids are co-extruded simultaneously: bore fluid (to fill the lumen of the fiber), support layer solution, glycerol, and an isoporous film forming solution through the outer most orifice...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792730/rough-adhesive-hydrogels-rad-gels-for-underwater-adhesion
#20
Laura C Bradley, Nathan D Bade, Lisa M Mariani, Kevin T Turner, Daeyeon Lee, Kathleen J Stebe
In this work, underwater adhesion is achieved between biocompatible hydrogels and a suite of substrates. Surface roughness, which is typically detrimental for adhesion in air, is shown to be beneficial for underwater adhesion. Contact between the hydrogels with macroscopically flat substrates, and the resulting nonspecific chemical interaction, is facilitated by surface roughness, which enables drainage of the lubricating fluid layer. Hydrogel composition plays an important role in tuning the gel elasticity and interaction with the substrate...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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