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Mild cognitive impair,

Gro Gujord Tangen, Astrid Bergland, Knut Engedal, Anne Marit Mengshoel
Parkinsonian signs are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild degree and predict functional decline, but their relationship with gait speed and balance is unclear. The aims of this study were to describe characteristics of patients with parkinsonian signs among 98 patients with AD of mild degree (with no comorbid Parkinson's disease), and to examine associations between parkinsonian signs with gait speed and balance. A cross sectional study at a memory clinic was conducted. Presence of each parkinsonian sign (bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor) was derived from the UPDRS, regular gait speed was recorded over 10m and balance were assessed using the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest)...
October 14, 2016: Gait & Posture
(no author information available yet)
Dementia prevalence estimates vary among population-based studies, depending on the definitions of dementia, methodologies and data sources and types of costs they use. A common approach is needed to avoid confusion and increase public and stakeholder confidence in the estimates. Since 1994, five major studies have yielded widely differing estimates of dementia prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada. These studies variously estimated the prevalence of dementia for the year 2011 as low as 340 170 and as high as 747 000...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Dennis Chan, Laura Marie Gallaher, Kuven Moodley, Ludovico Minati, Neil Burgess, Tom Hartley
This protocol describes the administration of the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), a short test of spatial memory, in which memory for the topographical layout of four mountains within a computer-generated landscape is tested using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm. Allocentric spatial memory is assessed by altering the viewpoint, colors and textures between the initially presented and target images. Allocentric spatial memory is a key function of the hippocampus, one of the earliest brain regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impairment of hippocampal function predates the onset of dementia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Katherine Amy Lin, Colin Rundel, P Murali Doraiswamy
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have noted gender differences in cognition, imaging, and pathological markers in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a major controlling factor in the proportion of bioavailable versus bound testosterone and estrogen, has been proposed to contribute to links between hormones and dementia, but has not yet been investigated fully in a prospective biomarker trial. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether, among subjects with MCI, SHBG levels predict future rate of cognitive decline...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at
October 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Xiaoniu Liang, Ding Ding, Qianhua Zhao, Qihao Guo, Jianfeng Luo, Zhen Hong
BACKGROUND: The smell sense reduction was considered to represent the potentially warning of early stage of neurodegenerative disorders. The Shanghai Aging Study provided us a unique opportunity to explore the association between olfactory identification (OI) and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly in China. METHODS: OI of each participant was measured by the 12-item identification tests from Sniffin' Sticks Screening test (SSST-12). Participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were diagnosed by Petersen criteria...
October 20, 2016: BMC Neurology
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Emily C Edmonds, Joel Eppig, Mark W Bondi, Kelly M Leyden, Bailey Goodwin, Lisa Delano-Wood, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in regional cortical thickness between previously identified empirically derived mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes (amnestic MCI, dysnomic MCI, dysexecutive/mixed MCI, and cluster-derived normal) in order to determine whether these cognitive subtypes would show different patterns of cortical atrophy. METHODS: Participants were 485 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 178 cognitively normal individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Teresa Liu-Ambrose, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Philip E Lee, Claudia Jacova, Lara A Boyd, Penelope M Brasher, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a progressive aerobic exercise training program on cognitive and everyday function among adults with mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). METHODS: This was a proof-of-concept single-blind randomized controlled trial comparing a 6-month, thrice-weekly, progressive aerobic exercise training program (AT) with usual care plus education on cognitive and everyday function with a follow-up assessment 6 months after the formal cessation of aerobic exercise training...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Erica M Barhorst-Cates, Kristina M Rand, Sarah H Creem-Regehr
Recent work with simulated reductions in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity has found decrements in survey spatial learning as well as increased attentional demands when navigating, compared to performance with normal vision. Given these findings, and previous work showing that peripheral field loss has been associated with impaired mobility and spatial memory for room-sized spaces, we investigated the role of peripheral vision during navigation using a large-scale spatial learning paradigm. First, we aimed to establish the magnitude of spatial memory errors at different levels of field restriction...
2016: PloS One
Jens Bohlken, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
The goal of this study was to estimate the rate of the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia and identify the potential risk factors in German specialist practices from 2005 to 2015. This study included 4633 patients aged 40 years and over from 203 neuropsychiatric practices, who were initially diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment between 2005 and 2013. The primary outcome was diagnosis of all-cause dementia recorded in the database until the end of the five-year follow-up period. Cox regression models were used to examine mild cognitive impairment progression to dementia when adjusted for confounders (age, sex, and health-insurance type)...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
Adam Simning, Kelsey V Simons
BACKGROUND: Depression in nursing facilities is widespread and has been historically under-recognized and inadequately treated. Many interventions have targeted depression among residents with dementia in these settings. Less is known about depression treatment in residents without dementia who may be more likely to return to community living. Our study aimed to systematically evaluate randomized control trials (RCTs) in nursing facilities that targeted depression within samples largely comprised of residents without dementia...
October 19, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Thammanard Charernboon, Kankamol Jaisin, Tiraya Lerthattasilp
The objective of our study was to assess the accuracy of the Thai version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-T). We used the ACE-T to assess 107 participants aged 60 or over, divided into the following groups: early dementia, n=30; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n=29; and normal controls (NC), n=48. The ACE-T exhibited good internal consistency (0.93) and inter-rater reliability (1.0). The optimal cut-off score for the ACE-T to differentiate MCI from NC was 75/76, giving a sensitivity of 0...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Changtae Hahn, Chang-Uk Lee, Wang Yeon Won, Soo-Hyun Joo, Hyun Kook Lim
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate thalamic shape alterations and their relationships with various episodic memory impairments in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We compared volumes and morphological alterations of the thalamus between aMCI subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between thalamic deformations and various memory impairments in aMCI subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Marina Ávila-Villanueva, Ana Rebollo-Vázquez, José M Ruiz-Sánchez de León, Meritxell Valentí, Miguel Medina, Miguel A Fernández-Blázquez
Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Liangyan Gui, Xiaoying Tang, José M F Moura
We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD > MCI > HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
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