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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785055/mindfulness-training-induces-structural-connectome-changes-in-insula-networks
#1
Paul B Sharp, Bradley P Sutton, Erick J Paul, Nikolai Sherepa, Charles H Hillman, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Wendy Heller, Eva H Telzer, Aron K Barbey
Although mindfulness meditation is known to provide a wealth of psychological benefits, the neural mechanisms involved in these effects remain to be well characterized. A central question is whether the observed benefits of mindfulness training derive from specific changes in the structural brain connectome that do not result from alternative forms of experimental intervention. Measures of whole-brain and node-level structural connectome changes induced by mindfulness training were compared with those induced by cognitive and physical fitness training within a large, multi-group intervention protocol (n = 86)...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784759/of-what-use-is-connectomics-a-personal-perspective-on-the-drosophila-connectome
#2
REVIEW
Ian A Meinertzhagen
The brain is a network of neurons and its biological output is behaviour. This is an exciting age, with a growing acknowledgement that the comprehensive compilation of synaptic circuits densely reconstructed in the brains of model species is now both technologically feasible and a scientifically enabling possibility in neurobiology, much as 30 years ago genomics was in molecular biology and genetics. Implemented by huge advances in electron microscope technology, especially focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) milling (see Glossary), image capture and alignment, and computer-aided reconstruction of neuron morphologies, enormous progress has been made in the last decade in the detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuits formed by real neurons, in various brain regions of the fly Drosophila It is useful to distinguish synaptic pathways that are major, with 100 or more presynaptic contacts, from those that are minor, with fewer than about 10; most neurites are both presynaptic and postsynaptic, and all synaptic sites have multiple postsynaptic dendrites...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781389/tracking-neuronal-connectivity-from-electric-brain-signals-to-predict-performance
#3
Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Paolo Maria Rossini
The human brain is a complex container of interconnected networks. Network neuroscience is a recent venture aiming to explore the connection matrix built from the human brain or human "Connectome." Network-based algorithms provide parameters that define global organization of the brain; when they are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals network, configuration and excitability can be monitored in millisecond time frames, providing remarkable information on their instantaneous efficacy also for a given task's performance via online evaluation of the underlying instantaneous networks before, during, and after the task...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779726/multimodal-connectomics-in-psychiatry-bridging-scales-from-micro-to-macro
#4
REVIEW
Lianne H Scholtens, Martijn P van den Heuvel
The human brain is a highly complex system, with a large variety of microscale cellular morphologies and macroscale global properties. Working at multiple scales, it forms an efficient system for processing and integration of multimodal information. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between modalities of both microscales and macroscales of brain organization. These consistent observations point toward potential common organization principles where regions with a microscale architecture supportive of a larger computational load have more and stronger connections in the brain network on the macroscale...
April 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779670/a-connectome-wide-functional-signature-of-transdiagnostic-risk-for-mental-illness
#5
Maxwell L Elliott, Adrienne Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: High rates of comorbidity, shared risk, and overlapping therapeutic mechanisms have led psychopathology research toward transdiagnostic dimensional investigations of clustered symptoms. One influential framework accounts for these transdiagnostic phenomena through a single general factor, sometimes referred to as the "p" factor, associated with risk for all common forms of mental illness. METHODS: We build on previous research identifying unique structural neural correlates of the p factor by conducting a data-driven analysis of connectome-wide intrinsic functional connectivity (n = 605)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771288/sex-differences-in-the-adult-human-brain-evidence-from-5216-uk-biobank-participants
#6
Stuart J Ritchie, Simon R Cox, Xueyi Shen, Michael V Lombardo, Lianne M Reus, Clara Alloza, Mathew A Harris, Helen L Alderson, Stuart Hunter, Emma Neilson, David C M Liewald, Bonnie Auyeung, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie, Catharine R Gale, Mark E Bastin, Andrew M McIntosh, Ian J Deary
Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that brain differences might help to explain. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain (2750 female, 2466 male participants; mean age 61.7 years, range 44-77 years). Males had higher raw volumes, raw surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had higher raw cortical thickness and higher white matter tract complexity...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770368/multi-label-inductive-matrix-completion-for-joint-mgmt-and-idh1-status-prediction-for-glioma-patients
#7
Lei Chen, Han Zhang, Kim-Han Thung, Luyan Liu, Junfeng Lu, Jinsong Wu, Qian Wang, Dinggang Shen
MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation in high-grade gliomas (HGG) have proven to be the two important molecular indicators associated with better prognosis. Traditionally, the statuses of MGMT and IDH1 are obtained via surgical biopsy, which is laborious, invasive and time-consuming. Accurate presurgical prediction of their statuses based on preoperative imaging data is of great clinical value towards better treatment plan. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-label Inductive Matrix Completion (MIMC) model, highlighted by the online inductive learning strategy, to jointly predict both MGMT and IDH1 statuses...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758339/population-averaged-atlas-of-the-macroscale-human-structural-connectome-and-its-network-topology
#8
Fang-Cheng Yeh, Sandip Panesar, David Fernandes, Antonio Meola, Masanori Yoshino, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
A comprehensive map of the structural connectome in the human brain has been a coveted resource for understanding macroscopic brain networks. Here we report an expert-vetted, population-averaged atlas of the structural connectome derived from diffusion MRI data (N = 842). This was achieved by creating a high-resolution template of diffusion patterns averaged across individual subjects and using tractography to generate 550,000 trajectories of representative white matter fascicles annotated by 80 anatomical labels...
May 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755515/anticorrelations-between-active-brain-regions-an-agent-based-model-simulation-study
#9
Fabrizio Parente, Alfredo Colosimo
Anticorrelations among brain areas observed in fMRI acquisitions under resting state are not endowed with a well-defined set of characters. Some evidence points to a possible physiological role for them, and simulation models showed that it is appropriate to explore such an issue. A large-scale brain representation was considered, implementing an agent-based brain-inspired model (ABBM) incorporating the SER (susceptible-excited-refractory) cyclic mechanism of state change. The experimental data used for validation included 30 selected functional images of healthy controls from the 1000 Functional Connectomes Classic collection...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755398/deconvolution-of-human-brain-cell-type-transcriptomes-unraveled-microglia-specific-potential-biomarkers
#10
R Ayana, Shailja Singh, Soumya Pati
Microglial cells form a context-dependent network of brain immunoeffector cells. Despite their indispensable roles, unresolved questions exist around biomarker discovery relevant to their cellular localization, self-renewing potential, and brain developmental dynamics. To resolve the existent gap in the annotation of candidate biomarkers, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain cells using available high-throughput data sets for deciphering microglia-specific expression profiles. We have identified 3,290 significant genes specific to microglia and further selected the top 20 dysregulated genes on the basis of p -value and log2 FC...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753843/using-temporal-ica-to-selectively-remove-global-noise-while-preserving-global-signal-in-functional-mri-data
#11
Matthew F Glasser, Timothy S Coalson, Janine D Bijsterbosch, Samuel J Harrison, Michael P Harms, Alan Anticevic, David C Van Essen, Stephen M Smith
Temporal fluctuations in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been profitably used to study brain activity and connectivity for over two decades. Unfortunately, fMRI data also contain structured temporal "noise" from a variety of sources, including subject motion, subject physiology, and the MRI equipment. Recently, methods have been developed to automatically and selectively remove spatially specific structured noise from fMRI data using spatial Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and machine learning classifiers...
May 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751242/local-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Yange Wei, Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Qian Zhou, Zhiyang Yin, Shengnan Wei, Yifang Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Xudong Yao, Jia Duan, Ke Xu, Xi-Nian Zuo, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Local functional connectivity (FC) indicates local or short-distance functional interactions and may serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain connectome. Local FC alterations suggest a disrupted balance in the local functionality of the whole brain network and are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We aim to examine the similarities and differences in the local FC across SZ, BD, and MDD...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746906/multi-subject-hierarchical-inverse-covariance-modelling-improves-estimation-of-functional-brain-networks
#13
Giles L Colclough, Mark W Woolrich, Samuel J Harrison, Pedro A Rojas López, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Stephen M Smith
A Bayesian model for sparse, hierarchical inverse covariance estimation is presented, and applied to multi-subject functional connectivity estimation in the human brain. It enables simultaneous inference of the strength of connectivity between brain regions at both subject and population level, and is applicable to fmri, meg and eeg data. Two versions of the model can encourage sparse connectivity, either using continuous priors to suppress irrelevant connections, or using an explicit description of the network structure to estimate the connection probability between each pair of regions...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743583/changes-in-functional-and-structural-brain-connectome-along-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#14
Massimo Filippi, Silvia Basaia, Elisa Canu, Francesca Imperiale, Giuseppe Magnani, Monica Falautano, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Federica Agosta
The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) to investigate structural and functional brain network architecture in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), stratified in converters (c-aMCI) and non-converters (nc-aMCI) to AD; and to assess the relationship between healthy brain network functional connectivity and the topography of brain atrophy in patients along the AD continuum. Ninety-four AD patients, 47 aMCI patients (25 c-aMCI within 36 months) and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742386/heritability-estimates-of-cortical-anatomy-the-influence-and-reliability-of-different-estimation-strategies
#15
Sejal Patel, Raihaan Patel, Min Tae M Park, Mario Masellis, Jo Knight, M Mallar Chakravarty
Twin study designs have been previously used to investigate the heritability of neuroanatomical measures, such as regional cortical volumes. Volume can be fractionated into surface area and cortical thickness, where both measures are considered to have independent genetic and environmental bases. Region of interest (ROI) and vertex-wise approaches have been used to calculate heritability of cortical thickness and surface area in twin studies. In our study, we estimate heritability using the Human Connectome Project magnetic resonance imaging dataset composed of healthy young twin and non-twin siblings (mean age of 29, sample size of 757)...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739890/specificity-and-robustness-of-long-distance-connections-in-weighted-interareal-connectomes
#16
Richard F Betzel, Danielle S Bassett
Brain areas' functional repertoires are shaped by their incoming and outgoing structural connections. In empirically measured networks, most connections are short, reflecting spatial and energetic constraints. Nonetheless, a small number of connections span long distances, consistent with the notion that the functionality of these connections must outweigh their cost. While the precise function of long-distance connections is unknown, the leading hypothesis is that they act to reduce the topological distance between brain areas and increase the efficiency of interareal communication...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735154/dynamic-functional-connectivity-states-reflecting-psychotic-like-experiences
#17
Anita D Barber, Martin A Lindquist, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with lower social and occupational functioning, and lower executive function. Emerging evidence also suggests that PLEs reflect neural dysfunction resembling that of psychotic disorders. METHODS: The present study examined dynamic connectivity related to a measure of PLEs derived from the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, in an otherwise-healthy sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project. A total of 76 PLE-endorsing and 153 control participants were included in the final sample...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734951/disrupted-rich-club-organization-and-structural-brain-connectome-in-unmedicated-bipolar-disorder
#18
Ying Wang, Feng Deng, Yanbin Jia, Junjing Wang, Shuming Zhong, Huiyuan Huang, Lixiang Chen, Guanmao Chen, Huiqing Hu, Li Huang, Ruiwang Huang
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with altered brain structural and functional connectivity. However, little is known regarding alterations of the structural brain connectome in BD. The present study aimed to use diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theory approaches to investigate the rich club organization and white matter structural connectome in BD. METHODS: Forty-two patients with unmedicated BD depression and 59 age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy control participants underwent DTI...
May 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733955/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-nondecussating-dentato-rubro-thalamic-tract
#19
Kalen J Petersen, Jacqueline A Reid, Srijata Chakravorti, Meher R Juttukonda, Giulia Franco, Paula Trujillo, Adam J Stark, Benoit M Dawant, Manus J Donahue, Daniel O Claassen
The dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) regulates motor control, connecting the cerebellum to the thalamus. This tract is modulated by deep-brain stimulation in the surgical treatment of medically refractory tremor, especially in essential tremor, where high-frequency stimulation of the thalamus can improve symptoms. The DRTT is classically described as a decussating pathway, ascending to the contralateral thalamus. However, the existence of a nondecussating (i.e. ipsilateral) DRTT in humans was recently demonstrated, and these tracts are arranged in distinct regions of the superior cerebellar peduncle...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725083/author-correction-efficient-communication-dynamics-on-macro-connectome-and-the-propagation-speed
#20
Masanori Shimono, Naomichi Hatano
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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