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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911739/toward-whole-body-connectomics
#1
Chung-Chuan Lo, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Recent advances in neuro-technologies have revolutionized knowledge of brain structure and functions. Governments and private organizations worldwide have initiated several large-scale brain connectome projects, to further understand how the brain works at the systems levels. Most recent projects focus on only brain neurons, with the exception of an early effort to reconstruct the 302 neurons that comprise the whole body of the small worm, Caenorhabditis elegans However, to fully elucidate the neural circuitry of complex behavior, it is crucial to understand brain interactions with the whole body, which can be achieved only by mapping the whole-body connectome...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911289/the-brain-s-structural-connectome-mediates-the-relationship-between-regional-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Sneha Pandya, Amy Kuceyeski, Ashish Raj
Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common causes of dementia in adults, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting well-defined neuropathological hallmarks. It is known that disease pathology involves misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, and exhibits a relatively stereotyped progression over decades. The relationship between AD neuropathological hallmarks (Aβ, hypometabolism, and tau proteins) and imaging biomarkers (MRI, AV-45/FDG-PET) is not fully understood. In addition, biomarker pathologies are oftentimes discordant, wherein it may show varying levels of abnormality across brain regions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#3
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894889/tradeoffs-in-pushing-the-spatial-resolution-of-fmri-for-the-7t-human-connectome-project
#4
An Thanh Vu, Keith Jamison, Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Timothy Coalson, Steen Moeller, Edward J Auerbach, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub
Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892543/functional-and-structural-signatures-of-the-anterior-insula-are-associated-with-risk-taking-tendency-of-analgesic-decision-making
#5
Chia-Shu Lin, Hsiao-Han Lin, Shih-Yun Wu
In a medical context, decision-making is associated with complicated assessment of gains, losses and uncertainty of outcomes. We here provide novel evidence about the brain mechanisms underlying decision-making of analgesic treatment. Thirty-six healthy participants were recruited and completed the Analgesic Decision-making Task (ADT), which quantified individual tendency of risk-taking (RPI), as the frequency of choosing a riskier option to relieve pain. All the participants received resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural MRI...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885635/astroglia-glutamatergic-transmission-and-psychiatric-diseases
#6
Alexei Verkhratsky, Luca Steardo, Liang Peng, Vladimir Parpura
Astrocytes are primary homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They regulate glutamatergic transmission through the removal of glutamate from the extracellular space and by supplying neurons with glutamine. Glutamatergic transmission is generally believed to be significantly impaired in the contexts of all major neuropsychiatric diseases. In most of these neuropsychiatric diseases, astrocytes show signs of degeneration and atrophy, which is likely to be translated into reduced homeostatic capabilities...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882295/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-a-connectomic-approach
#7
Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Jhimli Mitra, Kerstin Pannek, Rosa Pasquariello, Paola Cipriani, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni, Stephen E Rose, Anna Chilosi
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a paediatric speech sound disorder in which precision and consistency of speech movements are impaired. Most children with idiopathic CAS have normal structural brain MRI. We hypothesize that children with CAS have altered structural connectivity in speech/language networks compared to controls and that these altered connections are related to functional speech/language measures. Whole brain probabilistic tractography, using constrained spherical deconvolution, was performed for connectome generation in 17 children with CAS and 10 age-matched controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881953/connectomic-analysis-of-brain-networks-novel-techniques-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
J Leonie Cazemier, Francisco Clascá, Paul H E Tiesinga
Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e., between specific pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. "Connectomics" is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path, and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875803/analysis-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-the-nathan-kline-institute-rockland-sample-correlation-of-brain-cortical-thickness-with-neuroticism
#9
Yihong Zhao, Zhi-Liang Zheng, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Although differences in both neuroanatomical measures and personality traits, in particular neuroticism, have been associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), whether lifetime AUD diagnosis alters the relationship between neuroticism and neuroanatomical structures remains to be determined. METHODS: Data from 65 patients with lifetime AUD diagnoses and 65 healthy comparisons (HC) group-matched on age, sex and race were extracted from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample data set...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875123/synergetic-and-redundant-information-flow-detected-by-unnormalized-granger-causality-application-to-resting-state-fmri
#10
Sebastiano Stramaglia, Leonardo Angelini, Guorong Wu, Jesus M Cortes, Luca Faes, Daniele Marinazzo
OBJECTIVES: We develop a framework for the analysis of synergy and redundancy in the pattern of information flow between subsystems of a complex network. METHODS: The presence of redundancy and/or synergy in multivariate time series data renders difficulty to estimate the neat flow of information from each driver variable to a given target. We show that adopting an unnormalized definition of Granger causality, one may put in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target by maximizing the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875122/inferring-individual-level-variations-in-the-functional-parcellation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#11
Lei Nie, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
OBJECTIVE: Functional parcellation of the cerebral cortex is variable across different subjects or between cognitive states. Ignoring individual-or state-dependent variations in the functional parcellation may lead to inaccurate representations of individual functional connectivity, limiting the precision of interpretations of differences in individual connectivity profiles. However, it is difficult to infer the individual-level variations due to the relatively low robustness of methods for parcellation of individual subjects...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870393/sexual-modulation-of-sex-shared-neurons-and-circuits-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
REVIEW
Douglas S Portman
Studies using the nematode C. elegans have provided unique insights into the development and function of sex differences in the nervous system. Enabled by the relative simplicity of this species, comprehensive studies have solved the complete cellular neuroanatomy of both sexes as well as the complete neural connectomes of the entire adult hermaphrodite and the adult male tail. This work, together with detailed behavioral studies, has revealed three aspects of sex differences in the nervous system: sex-specific neurons and circuits; circuits with sexually dimorphic synaptic connectivity; and sex differences in the physiology and functions of shared neurons and circuits...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867354/a-symmetry-based-method-to-infer-structural-brain-networks-from-probabilistic-tractography-data
#13
Kamal Shadi, Saideh Bakhshi, David A Gutman, Helen S Mayberg, Constantine Dovrolis
Recent progress in diffusion MRI and tractography algorithms as well as the launch of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) have provided brain research with an abundance of structural connectivity data. In this work, we describe and evaluate a method that can infer the structural brain network that interconnects a given set of Regions of Interest (ROIs) from probabilistic tractography data. The proposed method, referred to as Minimum Asymmetry Network Inference Algorithm (MANIA), does not determine the connectivity between two ROIs based on an arbitrary connectivity threshold...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865923/deriving-reproducible-biomarkers-from-multi-site-resting-state-data-an-autism-based-example
#14
Alexandre Abraham, Michael Milham, Adriana Di Martino, R Cameron Craddock, Dimitris Samaras, Bertrand Thirion, Gael Varoquaux
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (R-fMRI) holds the promise to reveal functional biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, extracting such biomarkers is challenging for complex multi-faceted neuropathologies, such as autism spectrum disorders. Large multi-site datasets increase sample sizes to compensate for this complexity, at the cost of uncontrolled heterogeneity. This heterogeneity raises new challenges, akin to those face in realistic diagnostic applications. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of inter-site classification of neuropsychiatric status, with an application to the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) database, a large (N=871) multi-site autism dataset...
November 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865786/human-connectomics-across-the-life-span
#15
REVIEW
Xi-Nian Zuo, Ye He, Richard F Betzel, Stan Colcombe, Olaf Sporns, Michael P Milham
Connectomics has enhanced our understanding of neurocognitive development and decline by the integration of network sciences into studies across different stages of the human life span. However, these studies commonly occurred independently, missing the opportunity to test integrated models of the dynamical brain organization across the entire life span. In this review article, we survey empirical findings in life-span connectomics and propose a generative framework for computationally modeling the connectome over the human life span...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856314/the-fiber-density-coreset-for-redundancy-reduction-in-huge-fiber-sets
#16
Guy Alexandroni, Gali Zimmerman Moreno, Nir Sochen, Hayit Greenspan
State of the art Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) protocols of white matter followed by advanced tractography techniques produce impressive reconstructions of White Matter (WM) pathways. These pathways often contain millions of trajectories (fibers). While for several applications the high number of fibers is essential, other applications (visualization, registration, some types of across-subject comparison) can achieve satisfying results using much smaller sets and may be overburdened by the computational load of the large fiber sets...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856312/empirical-validation-of-directed-functional-connectivity
#17
Ravi D Mill, Anto Bagic, Andreea Bostan, Walter Schneider, Michael W Cole
Mapping directions of influence in the human brain connectome represents the next phase in understanding its functional architecture. However, a host of methodological uncertainties have impeded the application of directed connectivity methods, which have primarily been validated via "ground truth" connectivity patterns embedded in simulated functional MRI (fMRI) and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) datasets. Such simulations rely on many generative assumptions, and we hence utilized a different strategy involving empirical data in which a ground truth directed connectivity pattern could be anticipated with confidence...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848136/the-effect-of-idh1-mutation-on-the-structural-connectome-in-malignant-astrocytoma
#18
Shelli R Kesler, Kyle Noll, Daniel P Cahill, Ganesh Rao, Jeffrey S Wefel
Mutation of the IDH1 gene is associated with differences in malignant astrocytoma growth characteristics that impact phenotypic severity, including cognitive impairment. We previously demonstrated greater cognitive impairment in patients with IDH1 wild type tumor compared to those with IDH1 mutant, and therefore we hypothesized that brain network organization would be lower in patients with wild type tumors. Volumetric, T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained retrospectively from 35 patients with IDH1 mutant and 32 patients with wild type malignant astrocytoma (mean age = 45 ± 14 years) and used to extract individual level, gray matter connectomes...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846212/quantifying-differences-and-similarities-in-whole-brain-white-matter-architecture-using-local-connectome-fingerprints
#19
Fang-Cheng Yeh, Jean M Vettel, Aarti Singh, Barnabas Poczos, Scott T Grafton, Kirk I Erickson, Wen-Yih I Tseng, Timothy D Verstynen
Quantifying differences or similarities in connectomes has been a challenge due to the immense complexity of global brain networks. Here we introduce a noninvasive method that uses diffusion MRI to characterize whole-brain white matter architecture as a single local connectome fingerprint that allows for a direct comparison between structural connectomes. In four independently acquired data sets with repeated scans (total N = 213), we show that the local connectome fingerprint is highly specific to an individual, allowing for an accurate self-versus-others classification that achieved 100% accuracy across 17,398 identification tests...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845623/synaptic-transmission-parallels-neuromodulation-in-a-central-food-intake-circuit
#20
Philipp Schlegel, Michael J Texada, Anton Miroschnikow, Andreas Schoofs, Sebastian Hückesfeld, Marc Peters, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Haluk Lacin, Feng Li, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Albert Cardona, Michael J Pankratz
NeuromedinU is a potent regulator of food intake and activity in mammals. In Drosophila, neurons producing the homologous neuropeptide hugin regulate feeding and locomotion in a similar manner. Here, we use EM-based reconstruction to generate the entire connectome of hugin-producing neurons in the Drosophila larval CNS. We demonstrate that hugin neurons use synaptic transmission in addition to peptidergic neuromodulation and identify acetylcholine as a key transmitter. Hugin neuropeptide and acetylcholine are both necessary for the regulatory effect on feeding...
November 15, 2016: ELife
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