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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816791/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-connectome-project-current-status-and-relevance-to-understanding-psychopathology
#1
Deanna M Barch
A key tenet of modern psychiatry is that psychiatric disorders arise from abnormalities in brain circuits that support human behavior. Our ability to examine hypotheses around circuit-level abnormalities in psychiatric disorders has been made possible by advances in human neuroimaging technologies. These advances have provided the basis for recent efforts to develop a more complex understanding of the function of brain circuits in health and of their relationship to behavior-providing, in turn, a foundation for our understanding of how disruptions in such circuits contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders...
August 16, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816657/a-dynamic-regression-approach-for-frequency-domain-partial-coherence-and-causality-analysis-of-functional-brain-networks
#2
Lipeng Ning, Yogesh Rathi
Coherence and causality measures are often used to analyze the influence of one region on another during analysis of functional brain networks. The analysis methods usually involve a regression problem where the signal of interest is decomposed into a mixture of regressor and a residual signal. In this paper, we revisit this basic problem and present solutions that provide the minimal-entropy residuals for different types of regression filters, such as causal, instantaneously causal and noncausal filters. Using optimal prediction theory, we derive several novel frequency-domain expressions for partial coherence, causality and conditional causality analysis...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811520/chronic-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-is-determined-by-fragmentation-of-residual-white-matter-networks
#3
Barbara K Marebwa, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Lynda Feenaughty, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Many stroke survivors with aphasia in the acute period experience spontaneous recovery within the first six months after the stroke. However, approximately 30-40% sustain permanent aphasia and the factors determining incomplete recovery are unclear. Suboptimal recovery may be influenced by disruption of areas seemingly spared by the stroke due to loss of white matter connectivity and network integrity. We reconstructed individual anatomical whole-brain connectomes from 90 left hemisphere stroke survivors using diffusion MR images...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804744/reduced-rich-club-connectivity-is-related-to-disability-in-primary-progressive-ms
#4
Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Sibylle Hodecker, Bastian Cheng, Nadine Wanke, Kim Lea Young, Claus Hilgetag, Christian Gerloff, Christoph Heesen, Götz Thomalla, Susanne Siemonsen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the structural connectivity of the brain's rich-club organization is altered in patients with primary progressive MS and whether such changes to this fundamental network feature are associated with disability measures. METHODS: We recruited 37 patients with primary progressive MS and 21 healthy controls for an observational cohort study. Structural connectomes were reconstructed based on diffusion-weighted imaging data using probabilistic tractography and analyzed with graph theory...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800674/the-genetic-encoded-toolbox-for-electron-microscopy-and-connectomics
#5
REVIEW
Ryuichi Shigemoto, Maximilian Joesch
Developments in bioengineering and molecular biology have introduced a palette of genetically encoded probes for identification of specific cell populations in electron microscopy. These probes can be targeted to distinct cellular compartments, rendering them electron dense through a subsequent chemical reaction. These electron densities strongly increase the local contrast in samples prepared for electron microscopy, allowing three major advances in ultrastructural mapping of circuits: genetic identification of circuit components, targeted imaging of regions of interest and automated analysis of the tagged circuits...
August 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799862/disrupted-topologic-efficiency-of-white-matter-structural-connectome-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline
#6
Ni Shu, Xiaoni Wang, Qiuhui Bi, Tengda Zhao, Ying Han
Purpose To determine whether individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), which is defined by memory complaints with normal performance at objective neuropsychologic examinations, exhibit disruptions of white matter (WM) connectivity and topologic alterations of the brain structural connectome. Materials and Methods Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory approaches were used to investigate the topologic organization of the brain structural connectome in 36 participants with SCD (21 women: mean age, 62...
August 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796202/the-complete-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-centre-in-an-insect-brain
#7
Katharina Eichler, Feng Li, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Youngser Park, Ingrid Andrade, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Timo Saumweber, Annina Huser, Claire Eschbach, Bertram Gerber, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Carey E Priebe, L F Abbott, Andreas S Thum, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona
Associating stimuli with positive or negative reinforcement is essential for survival, but a complete wiring diagram of a higher-order circuit supporting associative memory has not been previously available. Here we reconstruct one such circuit at synaptic resolution, the Drosophila larval mushroom body. We find that most Kenyon cells integrate random combinations of inputs but that a subset receives stereotyped inputs from single projection neurons. This organization maximizes performance of a model output neuron on a stimulus discrimination task...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794427/neuroimaging-biomarkers-to-associate-obesity-and-negative-emotions
#8
Bo-Yong Park, Jisu Hong, Hyunjin Park
Obesity is a serious medical condition highly associated with health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Obesity is highly associated with negative emotional states, but the relationship between obesity and emotional states in terms of neuroimaging has not been fully explored. We obtained 196 emotion task functional magnetic resonance imaging (t-fMRI) from the Human Connectome Project database using a sampling scheme similar to a bootstrapping approach. Brain regions were specified by automated anatomical labeling atlas and the brain activity (z-statistics) of each brain region was correlated with body mass index (BMI) values...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790321/reliable-multi-fractal-characterization-of-weighted-complex-networks-algorithms-and-implications
#9
Yuankun Xue, Paul Bogdan
Through an elegant geometrical interpretation, the multi-fractal analysis quantifies the spatial and temporal irregularities of the structural and dynamical formation of complex networks. Despite its effectiveness in unweighted networks, the multi-fractal geometry of weighted complex networks, the role of interaction intensity, the influence of the embedding metric spaces and the design of reliable estimation algorithms remain open challenges. To address these challenges, we present a set of reliable multi-fractal estimation algorithms for quantifying the structural complexity and heterogeneity of weighted complex networks...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779909/resting-state-functional-under-connectivity-within-and-between-large-scale-cortical-networks-across-three-low-frequency-bands-in-adolescents-with-autism
#10
Xujun Duan, Heng Chen, Changchun He, Zhiliang Long, Xiaonan Guo, Yuanyue Zhou, Lucina Q Uddin, Huafu Chen
Although evidence is accumulating that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disruption of functional connections between and within brain networks, it remains largely unknown whether these abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands. To address this question, network contingency analysis was performed on brain functional connectomes obtained from 213 adolescent participants across nine sites in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) multisite sample, to determine the disrupted connections between and within seven major cortical networks in adolescents with ASD at Slow-5, Slow-4 and Slow-3 frequency bands and further assess whether the aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity varied as a function of ASD symptoms...
August 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771867/motion-corrected-k-space-reconstruction-for-interleaved-epi-diffusion-imaging
#11
Zijing Dong, Fuyixue Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Erpeng Dai, Zhe Zhang, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: To develop a new approach to correct for physiological and macroscopic motion in multishot, interleaved echo-planar diffusion imaging. THEORY: This work built on the previous SPIRiT (iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction) based reconstruction for physiological motion correction in multishot diffusion-weighted imaging to account for macroscopic motion. In-plane rotation, translation correction, data rejection, and weighted combination are integrated in SPIRiT-based reconstruction to correct for ghosting artifacts, blurring, altered b-matrix, and residual artifacts caused by motion...
August 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763447/braph-a-graph-theory-software-for-the-analysis-of-brain-connectivity
#12
Mite Mijalkov, Ehsan Kakaei, Joana B Pereira, Eric Westman, Giovanni Volpe
The brain is a large-scale complex network whose workings rely on the interaction between its various regions. In the past few years, the organization of the human brain network has been studied extensively using concepts from graph theory, where the brain is represented as a set of nodes connected by edges. This representation of the brain as a connectome can be used to assess important measures that reflect its topological architecture. We have developed a freeware MatLab-based software (BRAPH-BRain Analysis using graPH theory) for connectivity analysis of brain networks derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and electroencephalogram (EEG) data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760438/elucidating-functional-differences-between-cortical-gyri-and-sulci-via-sparse-representation-hcp-grayordinate-fmri-data
#13
Huan Liu, Xi Jiang, Tuo Zhang, Yudan Ren, Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
The highly convoluted cerebral cortex is characterized by two different topographic structures: convex gyri and concave sulci. Increasing studies have demonstrated that cortical gyri and sulci exhibit different structural connectivity patterns. Inspired by the intrinsic structural differences between gyri and sulci, in this paper, we present a data-driven framework based on sparse representation of fMRI data for functional network inferences, then examine the interactions within and across gyral and sulcal functional networks and finally elucidate possible functional differences using graph theory based properties...
July 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759745/changes-of-metabolism-and-functional-connectivity-in-late-onset-deafness-evidence-from-cerebral-18-f-fdg-pet
#14
Antoine Verger, Stéphane Roman, Rose-May Chaudat, Olivier Felician, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Mira Didic, Eric Guedj
Hearing loss is known to impact brain function. The aim of this study was to characterize cerebral metabolic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) changes in elderly patients fulfilling criteria for cochlear implant and investigate the impact of hearing loss on functional connectivity. Statistical Parametric Mapping-T-scores-maps comparisons of (18)F-FDG-PET of 27 elderly patients fulfilling criteria for cochlear implant for hearing loss (best-aided speech intelligibility lower or equal to 50%) and 27 matched healthy subjects (p < 0...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757305/precision-functional-mapping-of-individual-human-brains
#15
Evan M Gordon, Timothy O Laumann, Adrian W Gilmore, Dillan J Newbold, Deanna J Greene, Jeffrey J Berg, Mario Ortega, Catherine Hoyt-Drazen, Caterina Gratton, Haoxin Sun, Jacqueline M Hampton, Rebecca S Coalson, Annie L Nguyen, Kathleen B McDermott, Joshua S Shimony, Abraham Z Snyder, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Steven M Nelson, Nico U F Dosenbach
Human functional MRI (fMRI) research primarily focuses on analyzing data averaged across groups, which limits the detail, specificity, and clinical utility of fMRI resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-activation maps. To push our understanding of functional brain organization to the level of individual humans, we assembled a novel MRI dataset containing 5 hr of RSFC data, 6 hr of task fMRI, multiple structural MRIs, and neuropsychological tests from each of ten adults. Using these data, we generated ten high-fidelity, individual-specific functional connectomes...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756237/distinct-resting-state-functional-connections-associated-with-episodic-and-visuospatial-memory-in-older-adults
#16
Sana Suri, Anya Topiwala, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Claire E Sexton, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Clare E Mackay, Stephen Smith, Klaus P Ebmeier
Episodic and spatial memory are commonly impaired in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest a preferential involvement of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), particularly the hippocampus, in episodic and spatial memory processing. The present study examined how these two memory types were related in terms of their associated resting-state functional architecture. 3T multiband resting state fMRI scans from 497 participants (60-82 years old) of the cross-sectional Whitehall II Imaging sub-study were analysed using an unbiased, data-driven network-modelling technique (FSLNets)...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751860/pseudo-bootstrap-network-analysis-an-application-in-functional-connectivity-fingerprinting
#17
Hu Cheng, Ao Li, Andrea A Koenigsberger, Chunfeng Huang, Yang Wang, Jinhua Sheng, Sharlene D Newman
Brain parcellation divides the brain's spatial domain into small regions, which are represented by nodes within the network analysis framework. While template-based parcellations are widely used, the parcels on the template do not necessarily match individual's functional nodes. A new method is developed to overcome the inconsistent network analysis results by by-passing the difficulties of parcellating the brain into functionally meaningful areas. First, roughly equal-sized parcellations are obtained. Second, these random parcellations are applied to individual subjects multiple times and a pseudo-bootstrap (PBS) of the network is obtained for statistical inferences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751859/probabilistic-white-matter-atlases-of-human-auditory-basal-ganglia-language-precuneus-sensorimotor-visual-and-visuospatial-networks
#18
Teresa D Figley, Behnoush Mortazavi Moghadam, Navdeep Bhullar, Jennifer Kornelsen, Susan M Courtney, Chase R Figley
Background: Despite the popularity of functional connectivity analyses and the well-known topology of several intrinsic cortical networks, relatively little is known about the white matter regions (i.e., structural connectivity) underlying these networks. In the current study, we have therefore performed fMRI-guided diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to create probabilistic white matter atlases for eight previously identified functional brain networks, including the Auditory, Basal Ganglia, Language, Precuneus, Sensorimotor, Primary Visual, Higher Visual and Visuospatial Networks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#19
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. METHODS: RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n=879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
July 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747782/hybrid-high-order-functional-connectivity-networks-using-resting-state-functional-mri-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-diagnosis
#20
Yu Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Conventional functional connectivity (FC), referred to as low-order FC, estimates temporal correlation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) time series between any pair of brain regions, simply ignoring the potentially high-level relationship among these brain regions. A high-order FC based on "correlation's correlation" has emerged as a new approach for abnormality detection of brain disease. However, separate construction of the low- and high-order FC networks overlooks information exchange between the two FC levels...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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