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V Reggie Edgerton, Parag Gad
What are the implications of the vagus nerve being able to mediate the time-dependent plasticity of an array of sensorimotor networks?
March 16, 2018: ELife
Atsuo Nishino
Neurobiology in ascidians has made many advances. Ascidians have offered natural advantages to researchers, including fecundity, structural simplicity, invariant morphology, and fast and stereotyped developmental processes. The researchers have also accumulated on this animal a great deal of knowledge, genomic resources, and modern genetic techniques. A recent connectomic analysis has shown an ultimately resolved image of the larval nervous system, whereas recent applications of live imaging and optogenetics have clarified the functional organization of the juvenile nervous system...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Joe Bathelt, Susan E Gathercole, Sally Butterfield, Duncan E Astle
Literacy and numeracy are important skills that are typically learned during childhood, a time that coincides with considerable shifts in large-scale brain organization. However, most studies emphasize focal brain contributions to literacy and numeracy development by employing case-control designs and voxel-by-voxel statistical comparisons. This approach has been valuable, but may underestimate the contribution of overall brain network organization. The current study includes children (N = 133 children; 86 male; mean age = 9...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Science
Helena Verhelst, Catharine Vander Linden, Toon De Pauw, Guy Vingerhoets, Karen Caeyenberghs
Recent evidence has shown the presence of a "rich club" in the brain, which constitutes a core network of highly interconnected and spatially distributed brain regions, important for high-order cognitive processes. This study aimed to map the rich club organization in 17 young patients with moderate to severe TBI (15.71 ± 1.75 years) in the chronic stage of recovery and 17 age- and gender-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion weighted imaging data to construct the edges of the structural connectomes using number of streamlines as edge weight...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Xiongying Chen, Zhifang Zhang, Qiumei Zhang, Wan Zhao, Jinguo Zhai, Min Chen, Boqi Du, Xiaoxiang Deng, Feng Ji, Chuanyue Wang, Yu-Tao Xiang, Hongjie Wu, Qi Dong, Chuansheng Chen, Jun Li
ZNF804A rs1344706 (A/C) was the first SNP that reached genome-wide significance for schizophrenia. Recent studies have linked rs1344706 to functional connectivity among specific brain regions. However, no study thus far has examined the role of this SNP in the entire functional connectome. In this study, we used degree centrality to test the role of rs1344706 in the whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectome during the resting state. 52 schizophrenia patients and 128 healthy controls were included in the final analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Grigori Yourganov, Julius Fridriksson, Brielle Stark, Christopher Rorden
We examined the effect of lesion on the resting-state functional connectivity in chronic post-stroke patients. We found many instances of strong correlations in BOLD signal measured at different locations within the lesion, making it hard to distinguish from the connectivity between intact and strongly connected regions. Regression of the mean cerebro-spinal fluid signal did not alleviate this problem. The connectomes computed by exclusion of lesioned voxels were not good predictors of the behavioral measures...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Masaya Misaki, Raquel Phillips, Vadim Zotev, Chung-Ki Wong, Brent E Wurfel, Frank Krueger, Matthew Feldner, Jerzy Bodurka
Altered resting-state functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests neuropathology of the disorder. While seed-based fMRI connectivity analysis is often used for the studies, such analysis requires defining a seed location a priori , which restricts search scope and could bias findings toward presupposed areas. Recently, a comprehensive exploratory voxel-wise connectivity analysis, the connectome-wide association approach, has been introduced using multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) for resting-state functional connectivity analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Steven H Baete, Jingyun Chen, Ying-Chia Lin, Xiuyuan Wang, Ricardo Otazo, Fernando E Boada
A novel approach is presented for group statistical analysis of diffusion weighted MRI datasets through voxelwise Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF). Recent advances in MRI acquisition make it possible to use high quality diffusion weighted protocols (multi-shell, large number of gradient directions) for routine in vivo study of white matter architecture. The dimensionality of these data sets is however often reduced to simplify statistical analysis. While these approaches may detect large group differences, they do not fully capitalize on all acquired image volumes...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Alessio Basti, Vittorio Pizzella, Federico Chella, Gian Luca Romani, Guido Nolte, Laura Marzetti
The phase slope index (PSI) is a method to disclose the direction of frequency-specific neural interactions from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) time series. A fundamental property of PSI is that of vanishing for linear mixing of independent neural sources. This property allows PSI to cope with the artificial instantaneous connectivity among MEG sensors or brain sources induced by the field spread. Nevertheless, PSI is limited by being a bivariate estimator of directionality as opposite to the multidimensional nature of brain activity as revealed by MEG...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Devran Ugurlu, Zeynep Firat, Uğur Türe, Gozde Unal
Accurate digital representation of major white matter bundles in the brain is an important goal in neuroscience image computing since the representations can be used for surgical planning, intra-patient longitudinal analysis and inter-subject population connectivity studies. Reconstructing desired fiber bundles generally involves manual selection of regions of interest by an expert, which is subject to user bias and fatigue, hence an automation is desirable. To that end, we first present a novel anatomical representation based on Neighborhood Resolved Fiber Orientation Distributions (NRFOD) along the fibers...
February 27, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Hengyi Cao, Sarah C McEwen, Jennifer K Forsyth, Dylan G Gee, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Ricardo E Carrión, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Alan Anticevic, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating connectomic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the generalizability of functional connectomic measures across sites and sessions. Our results revealed overall fair to excellent reliability for a majority of measures during both rest and tasks, in particular for those quantifying connectivity strength, network segregation and network integration...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
François-Xavier Ferracci, Hugues Duffau
Radical glioma resection improves overall survival, both in low-grade and high-grade glial tumors. However, preservation of the quality of life is also crucial. Areas covered: Due to the diffuse feature of gliomas, which invade the central nervous system, and due to considerable variations of brain organization among patients, an individual cerebral mapping is mandatory to solve the classical dilemma between the oncological and functional issues. Because functional neuroimaging is not reliable enough, intraoperative electrical stimulation, especially in awake patients benefiting from a real-time cognitive monitoring, is the best way to increase the extent of resection while sparing eloquent neural networks...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Giuseppina Caiazzo, Michele Fratello, Federica Di Nardo, Francesca Trojsi, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Fabrizio Esposito
PURPOSE: Advances in computational network analysis have enabled the characterization of topological properties of human brain networks (connectomics) from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI structural measurements. In this study, the effect of changing the diffusion weighting (b value) and sampling (number of gradient directions) was investigated in ten healthy volunteers, with specific focus on graph theoretical network metrics used to characterize the human connectome...
March 8, 2018: Neuroradiology
Zhaowen Liu, Jie Zhang, Xiaohua Xie, Edmund T Rolls, Jiangzhou Sun, Kai Zhang, Zeyu Jiao, Qunlin Chen, Junying Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Jianfeng Feng
Creative thinking plays a vital role in almost all aspects of human life. However, little is known about the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying creative thinking. Based on a cross-validation based predictive framework, we searched from the whole-brain connectome (34,716 functional connectivities) and whole genome data (309,996 SNPs) in two datasets (all collected by Southwest University, Chongqing) consisting of altogether 236 subjects, for a better understanding of the brain and genetic underpinning of creativity...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Priscilla Salas, Vall Vinaithirthan, Erin Newman-Smith, Matthew J Kourakis, William C Smith
The swimming tadpole larva of Ciona has one of the simplest central nervous systems known, with only 177 neurons. Despite its simplicity, the Ciona CNS shares common structure with the CNS of its close chordate relatives, the vertebrates. The recent completion of a larval Ciona CNS connectome creates enormous potential for detailed understanding of chordate CNS function, yet our understanding of Ciona larval behavior is incomplete. We show here that Ciona larvae have a surprisingly rich and dynamic set of visual responses, including a looming-object escape behavior characterized by erratic circular swims, as well as negative phototaxis characterized by sustained directional swims...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nicolas Honnorat, Christos Davatzikos
The introduction of graph theory in neuroimaging has provided invaluable tools for the study of brain connectivity. These methods require the definition of a graph, which is typically derived by estimating the effective connectivity between brain regions through the optimization of an ill-posed inverse problem. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of methods extracting sparse connectivity graphs. The present paper aims at highlighting the benefits of an alternative approach. We investigate low-rank L2 regularized matrices recently introduced under the denomination of Riccati regularized precision matrices...
June 2017: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
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