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ventricular-vascular coupling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852591/ventricular-vascular-coupling-in-marfan-and-non-marfan-aortopathies
#1
Farina Loeper, Jantine Oosterhof, Mark van den Dorpel, Denise van der Linde, Yaxin Lu, Elizabeth Robertson, Brett Hambly, Richmond Jeremy
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) and familial non-syndromal thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (ns-TAAD) are genetic aortopathies causing aortic dilatation with increased aortic stiffness. Left ventricular (LV) contractility and ventricular-vascular coupling index (VVI) were compared between MFS and ns-TAAD and determinants of VVI were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with MFS (M 57, F 47) and ns-TAAD (M 72, F 39) were studied by echocardiography and compared with controls (M 77, F 71)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851839/diagnosis-treatment-and-clinical-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-the-contemporary-era-a-review
#2
Bradley A Maron, Nazzareno Galiè
Importance: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by severe remodeling of the distal pulmonary arteries, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular dysfunction that promotes heart failure. Once regarded as largely untreatable, evidence-based decision making now guides clinical management of PAH and improves outcomes. However, misconceptions regarding the approach to PAH in the modern era are common and associated with substandard clinical care. Observations: The clinical profile of PAH has changed substantially since its original description...
November 16, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807283/cardiac-repair-in-guinea-pigs-with-human-engineered-heart-tissue-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Florian Weinberger, Kaja Breckwoldt, Simon Pecha, Allen Kelly, Birgit Geertz, Jutta Starbatty, Timur Yorgan, Kai-Hung Cheng, Katrin Lessmann, Tomas Stolen, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, Godfrey Smith, Hermann Reichenspurner, Arne Hansen, Thomas Eschenhagen
Myocardial injury results in a loss of contractile tissue mass that, in the absence of efficient regeneration, is essentially irreversible. Transplantation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes has beneficial but variable effects. We created human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) strips from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and hiPSC-derived endothelial cells. The hEHTs were transplanted onto large defects (22% of the left ventricular wall, 35% decline in left ventricular function) of guinea pig hearts 7 days after cryoinjury, and the results were compared with those obtained with human endothelial cell patches (hEETs) or cell-free patches...
November 2, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802840/mir-374-promotes-myocardial-hypertrophy-by-negatively-regulating-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1-signaling
#4
Jong Sub Lee, Lee Song, Jei Hyoung Park, Jin Ock Kim, Chunghee Cho, Do Han Kim
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential cytokine that has functions in the formation of new blood vessels and regression of cardiac hypertrophy. VEGF/VEGF-receptor-1(VEGFR1) signaling plays a key role in the regression of cardiac hypertrophy, whereas VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling leads to cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we identified the prohypertrophic role of miR-374 using neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Our results showed that overexpression of miR-374 activated G protein-coupled receptor-mediated prohypertrophic pathways by the inhibition of VEGFR1-dependent regression pathways...
November 2, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753855/hw-01-3-cardiac-and-vascular-mri-in-hypertension-evaluation
#5
Sang-Chol Lee
Chronic hypertension can result in deleterious effects on various vascular organs including the heart and vessels. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has the unique advantage of the ability to assess ventricular volumes and function, valvular abnormalities, vascular pathology, myocardial perfusion and tissue characterization with high accuracy and reproducibility and also avoid the risk of radiation. As this is the case, CMR seems to be an ideal method for comprehensive assessment of patients with systemic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753845/ed-02-2-the-effect-of-aortic-remodeling-on-central-blood-pressure-and-arterioventricular-coupling
#6
James Sharman
With every cardiac contraction, a pressure wave is generated and propagated within the central large arteries. The characteristic shape of proximal aortic pressure waves (central blood pressure) has been shown to contain prognostic information on cardiovascular risk that is independent from conventional upper arm blood pressure, yet the mechanisms explaining differences in central blood pressure wave shape remain controversial. Uncertainty in this field requires resolution if central blood pressure is to be a target of hypertension management...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744267/ventricular-vascular-dynamics-in-pediatric-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#7
Satoshi Masutani, Seiko Kuwata, Clara Kurishima, Yoichi Iwamoto, Hirofumi Saiki, Masaya Sugimoto, Hirotaka Ishido, Hideaki Senzaki
OBJECTIVE: The details of the ventricular-vascular dynamics of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in children remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that pediatric HFpEF patients have ventricular systolic, diastolic, and arterial stiffening at rest as well as impaired reserve function associated with coronary supply/demand imbalance. METHODS: We studied the ventricular pressure-area relationship in 22 pediatric HFpEF patients and 22 control subjects before and after dobutamine infusion and during abdominal compression...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743468/a-monolithic-3d-0d-coupled-closed-loop-model-of-the-heart-and-the-vascular-system-experiment-based-parameter-estimation-for-patient-specific-cardiac-mechanics
#8
M Hirschvogel, M Bassilious, L Jagschies, S M Wildhirt, M W Gee
A model for patient-specific cardiac mechanics simulation is introduced, incorporating a 3-dimensional finite element model of the ventricular part of the heart which is coupled to a reduced-order 0-dimensional closed-loop vascular system, heart valve and atrial chamber model.The ventricles are modeled by a nonlinear orthotropic passive material law. The electrical activation is mimicked by a prescribed parametrized active stress acting along a generic muscle fiber orientation. Our activation function is constructed such that the start of ventricular contraction and relaxation as well as the active stress curve's slope are parameterized...
October 15, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659574/elimination-of-transcoarctation-pressure-gradients-has-no-impact-on-left-ventricular-function-or-aortic-shear-stress-after-intervention-in-patients-with-mild-coarctation
#9
Zahra Keshavarz-Motamed, Farhad Rikhtegar Nezami, Ramon A Partida, Kenta Nakamura, Pedro Vinícius Staziaki, Eyal Ben-Assa, Brian Ghoshhajra, Ami B Bhatt, Elazer R Edelman
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the impact of transcatheter intervention on left ventricular function and aortic hemodynamics in patients with mild coarctation of the aorta (COA). BACKGROUND: The optimal method and timing of transcatheter intervention for COA remains unclear, especially when the severity of COA is mild (peak-to-peak transcoarctation pressure gradient <20 mm Hg). Debate rages regarding the risk/benefit ratio of intervention versus long-term effects of persistent minimal gradient in this heterogeneous population with differing blood pressures, ventricular function, and peripheral perfusion...
September 26, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643092/hw-01-3-cardiac-and-vascular-mri-in-hypertension-evaluation
#10
Sang-Chol Lee
Chronic hypertension can result in deleterious effects on various vascular organs including the heart and vessels. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has the unique advantage of the ability to assess ventricular volumes and function, valvular abnormalities, vascular pathology, myocardial perfusion and tissue characterization with high accuracy and reproducibility and also avoid the risk of radiation. As this is the case, CMR seems to be an ideal method for comprehensive assessment of patients with systemic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643005/ed-02-2-the-effect-of-aortic-remodeling-on-central-blood-pressure-and-arterioventricular-coupling
#11
James Sharman
With every cardiac contraction, a pressure wave is generated and propagated within the central large arteries. The characteristic shape of proximal aortic pressure waves (central blood pressure) has been shown to contain prognostic information on cardiovascular risk that is independent from conventional upper arm blood pressure, yet the mechanisms explaining differences in central blood pressure wave shape remain controversial. Uncertainty in this field requires resolution if central blood pressure is to be a target of hypertension management...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638019/the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-pathogenesis-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Ilan S Wittstein
Takotsubo syndrome is a unique clinical condition of acute heart failure and reversible left ventricular dysfunction frequently precipitated by sudden emotional or physical stress. There is growing evidence that exaggerated sympathetic stimulation is central to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Precisely how catecholamines mediate myocardial stunning in takotsubo syndrome remains incompletely understood; but possible mechanisms include epicardial spasm, microvascular dysfunction, direct adrenergic-receptor-mediated myocyte injury, and systemic vascular effects that alter ventricular-arterial coupling...
October 2016: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630133/thoracic-epidural-anesthesia-reduces-right-ventricular-systolic-function-with-maintained-ventricular-pulmonary-coupling
#13
Jeroen Wink, Rob B P de Wilde, Patrick F Wouters, Eveline L A van Dorp, Bernadette Th Veering, Michel I M Versteegh, Leon P H J Aarts, Paul Steendijk
BACKGROUND: Blockade of cardiac sympathetic fibers by thoracic epidural anesthesia may affect right ventricular function and interfere with the coupling between right ventricular function and right ventricular afterload. Our main objectives were to study the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on right ventricular function and ventricular-pulmonary coupling. METHODS: In 10 patients scheduled for lung resection, right ventricular function and its response to increased afterload, induced by temporary, unilateral clamping of the pulmonary artery, was tested before and after induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia using combined pressure-conductance catheters...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566296/reduced-haemodynamic-coupling-and-exercise-are-associated-with-vascular-stiffening-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Alessandro Bellofiore, Eric Dinges, Robert Naeije, Hamorabi Mkrdichian, Lauren Beussink-Nelson, Melissa Bailey, Michael J Cuttica, Ranya Sweis, James R Runo, Jon G Keevil, Christopher J Francois, Sanjiv J Shah, Naomi C Chesler
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary arterial (PA) functional responses to exercise are important yet poorly understood features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study combined invasive catheterisation with echocardiography to assess RV afterload, RV function and ventricular-vascular coupling in subjects with PAH. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects with PAH were prospectively recruited to undergo right heart catheterisation and Doppler echocardiography at rest and during incremental exercise, and cardiac MRI at rest...
August 26, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491388/lung-specific-rna-interference-of-coupling-factor-6-a-novel-peptide-attenuates-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#15
Jie Yin, Shuling You, Nannan Li, Shouhai Jiao, Hesheng Hu, Mei Xue, Ye Wang, Wenjuan Cheng, Ju Liu, Min Xu, Suhua Yan, Xiaolu Li
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. However, the exact regulatory mechanism of PAH is unknown. Although coupling factor 6 (CF6) is known to function as a repressor, its role in PAH has not been explored. Here, we investigated the involvement of endogenous CF6 in the development of PAH. METHODS: PAH was induced with monocrotaline (MCT), as demonstrated by significant increases in pulmonary artery pressure and vessel wall thickness...
2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473939/right-ventricular-end-diastolic-stiffness-heralds-right-ventricular-failure-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Mohamed Alaa, Mahmoud Abdellatif, Marta Tavares-Silva, José Oliveira-Pinto, Lucas Lopes, Sara Leite, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, André P Lourenço
Recent studies suggest right ventricular (RV) stiffness is important in pulmonary hypertension (PH) prognosis. Smaller stroke volume (SV) variation after a certain RV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) respiratory variation as assessed by spectral transfer function (STF) may identify RV stiffness. Our aim was to evaluate RV stiffness in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH progression and to validate STF gain between EDP and SV as marker of stiffness. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats randomly injected with 60 mg/kg MCT or vehicle were divided into three groups (n = 12 each) according to cardiac index (CI): controls (Ctrl), preserved CI (MCT pCI), and reduced CI (MCT rCI)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298155/hemodynamic-analysis-of-outflow-grafting-positions-of-a-ventricular-assist-device-using-closed-loop-multiscale-cfd-simulations-preliminary-results
#17
Michael Neidlin, Chiara Corsini, Simon J Sonntag, Sebastian Schulte-Eistrup, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Giancarlo Pennati, Tim A S Kaufmann
Subclavian arteries are a possible alternate location for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow grafts due to easier surgical access and application in high risk patients. As vascular blood flow mechanics strongly influence the clinical outcome, insights into the hemodynamics during LVAD support can be used to evaluate different grafting locations. In this study, the feasibility of left and right subclavian artery (SA) grafting was investigated for the HeartWare HVAD with a numerical multiscale model...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257123/insights-into-cardiac-alterations-after-pre-eclampsia-an-echocardiographic-study
#18
Rossana Orabona, Enrico Vizzardi, Edoardo Sciatti, Ivano Bonadei, Adriana Valcamonico, Marco Metra, Tiziana Frusca
OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with persistent abnormalities in cardiac findings, known to be important in cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification. Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) allows an objective quantification of myocardial deformation overcoming many of the limitations of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and provides insights into aspects of left ventricular (LV) function that were exclusively analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. Early-onset (EO) and late...
June 3, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211886/adenosine-relaxation-in-isolated-rat-aortic-rings-and-possible-roles-of-smooth-muscle-kv-channels-katp-channels-and-a2a-receptors
#19
Aryadi Arsyad, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: An area of ongoing controversy is the role adenosine to regulate vascular tone in conduit vessels that regulate compliance, and the role of nitric oxide (NO), potassium channels and receptor subtypes involved. The aim of our study was to investigate adenosine relaxation in rat thoracic aortic rings, and the effect of inhibitors of NO, prostanoids, Kv, KATP channels, and A2a and A2b receptors. METHODS: Aortic rings were freshly harvested from adult male Sprague Dawley rats and equilibrated in an organ bath containing oxygenated, modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, 11 mM glucose, pH 7...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195751/the-diagnostic-challenge-of-group-2-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Robert Naeije, Michele D'Alto
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to left heart diseases associated with an increased pulmonary venous pressure is the second of a total of five groups recognized in the classification of PH. Group 2 PH is the commonest form of PH, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of group 2 PH relies on a clinical probability assessment in which echocardiography plays a major role, eventually followed by the invasive measurements of a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥25mmHg and a wedged PAP (PAWP) >15mmHg...
July 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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