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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223134/rapid-soil-formation-after-glacial-retreat-shaped-by-spatial-patterns-of-organic-matter-accrual-in-microaggregates
#1
Steffen A Schweizer, Carmen Hoeschen, Steffen Schlüter, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Carsten W Mueller
Global change contributes to the retreat of glaciers at unprecedented rates. The deglaciation facilitates biogeochemical processes on glacial deposits with initiating soil formation as an important driver of evolving ecosystems. The underlying mechanisms of soil formation and the association of soil organic matter (SOM) with mineral particles remain unclear, although further insights are critical to understand carbon sequestration in soils. We investigated the microspatial arrangement of SOM coatings at intact soil microaggregate structures during various stages of ecosystem development from 15 to >700 years after deglaciation in the proglacial environment of the Damma glacier (Switzerland)...
December 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223060/recent-advances-in-lipid-separations-and-structural-elucidation-using-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-ion-mobility-spectrometry-ion-molecule-reactions-and-fragmentation-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Xueyun Zheng, Richard D Smith, Erin S Baker
Lipids are a vital class of molecules that play important and varied roles in biological processes, however, fully understanding these roles is extremely difficult due to the immense number and diversity of possible lipid species. While recent advances in chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry have greatly progressed knowledge about distinct lipid species and functions, effectively separating many lipids still remains problematic. Isomeric lipids have made lipid characterization especially difficult and occur due to subclasses having the same chemical composition, or species having multiple acyl chain connectivities (sn-1, sn-2, or sn-3), double bond positions and orientations (cis or trans), and functional group stereochemistries (R versus S)...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222998/experiences-of-connectivity-and-severance-in-the-wake-of-a-new-motorway-implications-for-health-and-well-being
#3
Amy Nimegeer, Hilary Thomson, Louise Foley, Shona Hilton, Fiona Crawford, David Ogilvie
The construction of new urban roads may cause severance, or the separation of residents from local amenities or social networks. Using qualitative data from a natural experimental study, we examined severance related to a new section of urban motorway constructed through largely deprived residential neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Semi-structured and photo-elicitation interviews were used to better understand severance and connectivity related to the new motorway, and specifically implications for individual and community-level health and well-being through active travel and social connections...
November 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222989/disrupted-circuits-in-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability
#4
REVIEW
Carla Em Golden, Joseph D Buxbaum, Silvia De Rubeis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are caused by a wide range of genetic mutations, a significant fraction of which reside in genes important for synaptic function. Studies have found that sensory, prefrontal, hippocampal, cerebellar, and striatal regions, as well as the circuits that connect them, are perturbed in mouse models of ASD and ID. Dissecting the disruptions in morphology and activity in these neural circuits might help us to understand the shared risk between the two disorders as well as their clinical heterogeneity...
December 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222974/cold-atmospheric-plasma-cap-a-novel-physicochemical-source-induces-neural-differentiation-through-cross-talk-between-the-specific-rons-cascade-and-trk-ras-erk-signaling-pathway
#5
Ja-Young Jang, Young June Hong, Junsup Lim, Jin Sung Choi, Eun Ha Choi, Seongman Kang, Hyangshuk Rhim
Plasma, formed by ionization of gas molecules or atoms, is the most abundant form of matter and consists of highly reactive physicochemical species. In the physics and chemistry fields, plasma has been extensively studied; however, the exact action mechanisms of plasma on biological systems, including cells and humans, are not well known. Recent evidence suggests that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), which refers to plasma used in the biomedical field, may regulate diverse cellular processes, including neural differentiation...
November 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222969/copper-ii-complexes-of-n3o-tripodal-ligands-appended-with-pyrene-and-polyamine-groups-anti-proliferative-and-nuclease-activities
#6
Doti Serre, Sule Erbek, Nathalie Berthet, Xavier Ronot, Véronique Martel-Frachet, Fabrice Thomas
A series of tripodal ligands based on the 2-tert-butyl-4-R-6-phenol was synthesized, where R=aldehyde (HL1), R=putrescine-pyrene (HL2) and R=putrescine (HL3). A dinucleating ligand wherein a putrescine group connects two tripodal moieties was also prepared (H2L4). The corresponding copper complexes (1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively) were prepared and characterized. We determined the phenol's pKas in the range 2.47-3.93. The DNA binding constants were determined at 6×106, 5.5×105 and 2.7×106 for 2, 3 and 4, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222934/design-of-a-secure-remote-management-module-for-a-software-operated-medical-device
#7
Urban Burnik, Štefan Dobravec, Marko Meža
Software-based medical devices need to be maintained throughout their entire life cycle. The efficiency of after-sales maintenance can be improved by managing medical systems remotely. This paper presents how to design the remote access function extensions in order to prevent risks imposed by uncontrolled remote access. A thorough analysis of standards and legislation requirements regarding safe operation and risk management of medical devices is presented. Based on the formal requirements, a multi-layer machine design solution is proposed that eliminates remote connectivity risks by strict separation of regular device functionalities from remote management service, deploys encrypted communication links and uses digital signatures to prevent mishandling of software images...
December 9, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222909/an-emerging-role-of-astrocytes-in-vascular-contributions-to-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#8
REVIEW
Brittani R Price, Christopher M Norris, Pradoldej Sompol, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is understood to be the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is also a frequent co-morbidity with AD. While VCID is widely acknowledged as a key contributor to dementia, the mechanistic underpinnings of VCID remain poorly understood. In this review, we address the potential role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of VCID. The vast majority of the blood vessels in the brain are surrounded by astrocytic end-feet...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222836/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-thermostable-cellobiohydrolase-from-myceliophthora-thermophila
#9
Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Paula Higasi, Mariana Ortiz de Godoy, Rolf A Prade, Igor Polikarpov
Cellobiohydrolases hydrolyze cellulose, a linear polymer with glucose monomers linked exclusively by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages. The widespread hydrogen bonding network tethers individual cellulose polymers forming crystalline cellulose, which prevent the access of hydrolytic enzymes and water molecules. The most abundant enzyme secreted by Myceliophthora thermophila M77 in response to the presence of biomass is the cellobiohydrolase MtCel7A, which is composed by a GH7-catalytic domain (CD), a linker and a CBM1-type carbohydrate binding module...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222835/effective-network-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-subthalamic-nucleus-with-bimodal-positron-emission-tomography-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Hui-Min Chen, Zhi-Qiang Sha, Hui-Zi Ma, Yong He, Tao Feng
AIMS: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has become an effective treatment strategy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the biological mechanism underlying DBS treatment remains poorly understood. METHOD: In this study, we investigated how STN-DBS modulated the brain network using a bimodal positron emission tomography (PET)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset. We first performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 13 PET/SPECT studies concerning STN-DBS effects on resting-state brain activity in Parkinson's disease...
December 8, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222818/task-related-effective-connectivity-reveals-that-the-cortical-rich-club-gates-cortex-wide-communication
#11
Mario Senden, Niels Reuter, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rainer Goebel, Gustavo Deco, Matthieu Gilson
Higher cognition may require the globally coordinated integration of specialized brain regions into functional networks. A collection of structural cortical hubs-referred to as the rich club-has been hypothesized to support task-specific functional integration. In the present paper, we use a whole-cortex model to estimate directed interactions between 68 cortical regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging activity for four different tasks (reflecting different cognitive domains) and resting state. We analyze the state-dependent input and output effective connectivity (EC) of the structural rich club and relate these to whole-cortex dynamics and network reconfigurations...
December 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222816/shyness-and-trajectories-of-functional-network-connectivity-over-early-adolescence
#12
Chad M Sylvester, Diana J Whalen, Andy C Belden, Shana L Sanchez, Joan L Luby, Deanna M Barch
High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7...
December 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222779/micropatterned-geometry-shape-oligodendrocyte-and-microglia-plasticity
#13
Cinzia Volonté, Adele De Ninno, Susanna Amadio
Cellular adhesion is essential in maintaining multicellular structure by connecting cells to each other in vivo and to a biomimetic substrate in vitro. In this context, one of the first steps toward the comprehension, for instance, of oligodendrocyte and microglia adhesion and migrating behavior consists in discriminating the different morphological features that can be acquired when cells are cultured on diverse surface topographies that mimic an in vivo three-dimensional environment. With this in mind, in this chapter, we describe how to exploit the silicon isotropic topography consisting of line-grating geometries and micropillar structures fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane by soft lithography...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222761/coupling-fluxes-enzymes-and-regulation-in-genome-scale-metabolic-models
#14
Paul A Jensen
Genome-scale models have expanded beyond their metabolic origins. Multiple modeling frameworks are required to combine metabolism with enzymatic networks, transcription, translation, and regulation. Mathematical programming offers a powerful set of tools for tackling these "multi-modality" models, although special attention must be paid to the connections between modeling types. This chapter reviews common methods for combining metabolic and discrete logical models into a single mathematical programming framework...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222755/integrated-host-pathogen-metabolic-reconstructions
#15
Anu Raghunathan, Neema Jamshidi
The science and art of Genome scale metabolic network reconstructions have been explicitly documented in the literature for organisms across all the three kingdoms of life. Constraints-based models derived from such reconstructions have been used to assess metabolic phenotypes of their complex connections to genotype accurately. The problem of infectious disease is complex due to the multifactorial response of the host to the pathogen. Systems biology approaches and modeling allow one to study, understand, and predict emergent properties of such complex responses...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222674/effect-of-rehabilitation-exercise-durations-on-the-dynamic-bone-repair-process-by-coupling-polymer-scaffold-degradation-and-bone-formation
#16
Quan Shi, Qiang Chen, Nicola Pugno, Zhi-Yong Li
Implantation of biodegradable scaffold is considered as a promising method to treat bone disorders, but knowledge of the dynamic bone repair process is extremely limited. In this study, based on the representative volume cell of a periodic scaffold, the influence of rehabilitation exercise duration per day on the bone repair was investigated by a computational framework. The framework coupled scaffold degradation and bone remodeling. The scaffold degradation was described by a function of stochastic hydrolysis independent of mechanical stimulation, and the bone formation was remodeled by a function of the mechanical stimulation, i...
December 8, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222673/ureteric-entrapment-in-sacroiliac-joint-causing-hydroureter-and-ipsilateral-kidney-hypertrophy
#17
Yurie Otsuru, Chuichi Kondo, Shohei Hara, Hideo Takahashi, Kenjiro Matsuno
A unilateral megaureter was found in an elderly female cadaver during routine dissection. The left proximal ureter, which was thick and convolute, descended and entered into the pelvic cavity, where the distal ureter was attached to the posterior pelvic wall at the inlet level. Removal of connective tissue surrounding the attached region revealed ureteric entrapment in the sacroiliac joint. The ipsilateral kidney, from which the megaureter originated, showed no pelvicalyceal dilatation. In contrast, the left kidney was enlarged, weighing 24% more than the right kidney...
December 8, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222630/-there-s-so-much-to-it-the-ways-physiotherapy-students-and-recent-graduates-experience-practice
#18
S Barradell, T Peseta, S Barrie
Health science courses aim to prepare students for the demands of their chosen profession by learning ways appropriate to that profession and the contexts they will work and live in. Expectations of what students should learn become re-contextualised and translated into entry-level curriculum, with students operating as a connection between what is intended and enacted in curriculum, and required in the real world. Drawing on phenomenology, this paper explores how students understand practice-the collective, purposeful knowing, doing and being of a community-in entry-level physiotherapy programs...
December 8, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222571/the-potential-of-past-tense-marking-in-oral-reading-as-a-clinical-marker-of-specific-language-impairment-in-school-age-children
#19
Krystal L Werfel, Alison Eisel Hendricks, C Melanie Schuele
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold. The first aim was to explore differences in profiles of past tense marking in oral reading of school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). The second aim was to explore the potential of past tense marking in oral reading as a clinical marker of SLI in school-age children. Method: This study examined oral readings of connected text to describe the frequency and type of reading errors on regular and irregular past tense verbs for 21 children with SLI as compared to 30 children with typical language in Grades 2 and 3...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222527/the-chemokines-cxcl12-and-cxcl14-differentially-regulate-connective-tissue-markers-during-limb-development
#20
Sonya Nassari, Cédrine Blavet, Marie-Ange Bonnin, Sigmar Stricker, Delphine Duprez, Claire Fournier-Thibault
Connective tissues (CT) support and connect organs together. Understanding the formation of CT is important, as CT deregulation leads to fibrosis. The identification of CT specific markers has contributed to a better understanding of CT function during development. In developing limbs, Osr1 transcription factor is involved in the differentiation of irregular CT while the transcription factor Scx labels tendon. In this study, we show that the CXCL12 and CXCL14 chemokines display distinct expression pattern in limb CT during chick development...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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