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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645155/features-of-genomic-organization-in-a-nucleotide-resolution-molecular-model-of-the-escherichia-coli-chromosome
#1
William C Hacker, Shuxiang Li, Adrian H Elcock
We describe structural models of the Escherichia coli chromosome in which the positions of all 4.6 million nucleotides of each DNA strand are resolved. Models consistent with two basic chromosomal orientations, differing in their positioning of the origin of replication, have been constructed. In both types of model, the chromosome is partitioned into plectoneme-abundant and plectoneme-free regions, with plectoneme lengths and branching patterns matching experimental distributions, and with spatial distributions of highly-transcribed chromosomal regions matching recent experimental measurements of the distribution of RNA polymerases...
June 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645141/does-the-seed-bank-contribute-to-the-build-up-of-a-genetic-extinction-debt-in-the-grassland-perennial-campanula-rotundifolia
#2
Jan Plue, Katrien Vandepitte, Olivier Honnay, Sara A O Cousins
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation threatens global biodiversity. Many plant species persist in habitat fragments via persistent life cycle stages such as seed banks, generating a species extinction debt. Here, seed banks are hypothesized to cause a temporal delay in the expected loss of genetic variation, which can be referred to as a genetic extinction debt, as a possible mechanism behind species extinction debts. Methods: Fragmented grassland populations of Campanula rotundifolia were examined for evidence of a genetic extinction debt, investigating if the seed bank contributed to the extinction debt build-up...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645125/-epidemiology-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-current-concepts%C3%A2-of-outpatient-care-in-germany
#3
Lars Tönges, Reinhard Ehret, Michael Lorrain, Peter Riederer, Martina Müngersdorf
The ambulatory care of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Germany has been established for a long time. As the prevalence of Parkinson's disease continues to increase, the outpatient neurological sector is becoming more and more important and needs to adapt itself to current needs. This includes an optimization of the care structures for Parkinson's patients as well as adequate concepts for the execution of differentiated diagnostics and therapy. For many patients care is provided by non-specialized neurological practices or general practitioners, without exchange of views with neurologists or a specialized university outpatient clinic for movement disorders...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645041/behavioral-and-neural-concordance-in-parent-child-dyadic-sleep-patterns
#4
Tae-Ho Lee, Michelle E Miernicki, Eva H Telzer
Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents' sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents' sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents' sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent Mage=42...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645040/longitudinal-effects-of-religious-involvement-on-religious-coping-and-health-behaviors-in-a-national-sample-of-african-americans
#5
Cheryl L Holt, David L Roth, Jin Huang, Crystal L Park, Eddie M Clark
Many studies have examined associations between religious involvement and health, linking various dimensions of religion with a range of physical health outcomes and often hypothesizing influences on health behaviors. However, far fewer studies have examined explanatory mechanisms of the religion-health connection, and most have overwhelmingly relied on cross-sectional analyses. Given the relatively high levels of religious involvement among African Americans and the important role that religious coping styles may play in health, the present study tested a longitudinal model of religious coping as a potential mediator of a multidimensional religious involvement construct (beliefs; behaviors) on multiple health behaviors (e...
June 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645025/decreased-functional-connectivity-and-disrupted-neural-network-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-affective-disorders-a-resting-state-fnirs-study
#6
Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Jiangxue Li, Hongjun Peng, Tingting Cai, Xinge Li, Shijing Wu, Wei Cao, Sailing He
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. METHODS: 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644996/neural-correlates-of-psychotic-like-experiences-during-spiritual-trance-state
#7
Alessandra Ghinato Mainieri, Julio Fernando Prieto Peres, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Klaus Mathiak, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
Recent studies indicate high levels of psychotic experiences in the general population. Here, we report a functional imaging study with 8 mentally healthy spiritual mediums and 8 matched controls. The mediums entered a mediumistic-trance state using a standardized manner by closing their eyes and actively seeking to ignore external and internal stimuli to achieve a 'state of emptiness'; in a control condition, they were instructed to re-enact the same mediumistic experience that they had during the mediumistic-trance condition but in a non-trance state (imaginative-trance)...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644840/linking-structure-and-activity-in-nonlinear-spiking-networks
#8
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Krešimir Josić, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael A Buice
Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644791/culture-and-moral-distress-what-s-the-connection-and-why-does-it-matter
#9
Nancy Berlinger, Annalise Berlinger
Culture is learned behavior shared among members of a group and from generation to generation within that group. In health care work, references to "culture" may also function as code for ethical uncertainty or moral distress concerning patients, families, or populations. This paper analyzes how culture can be a factor in patient-care situations that produce moral distress. It discusses three common, problematic situations in which assumptions about culture may mask more complex problems concerning family dynamics, structural barriers to health care access, or implicit bias...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644675/origin-of-noncubic-scaling-law-in-disordered-granular-packing
#10
Chengjie Xia, Jindong Li, Binquan Kou, Yixin Cao, Zhifeng Li, Xianghui Xiao, Yanan Fu, Tiqiao Xiao, Liang Hong, Jie Zhang, Walter Kob, Yujie Wang
Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected noncubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which led to the speculation of the presence of fractal glass order. Using x-ray tomography we identify here a similar noncubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within the first nearest neighbor shell, and, therefore, is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644466/characterization-of-a-selenocysteine-ligated-p450-compound-i-reveals-direct-link-between-electron-donation-and-reactivity
#11
Elizabeth L Onderko, Alexey Silakov, Timothy H Yosca, Michael T Green
Strong electron-donation from the axial thiolate ligand of cytochrome P450 has been proposed to increase the reactivity of compound I with respect to C-H bond activation. However, it has proven difficult to test this hypothesis, and a direct link between reactivity and electron donation has yet to be established. To make this connection, we have prepared a selenolate-ligated cytochrome P450 compound I intermediate. This isoelectronic perturbation allows for direct comparisons with the wild-type enzyme. Selenium incorporation was achieved using a cysteine auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644430/the-clinical-landscape-for-sma-in-a-new-therapeutic-era
#12
REVIEW
K Talbot, E F Tizzano
Despite significant advances in basic research, the treatment of degenerative diseases of the nervous system remains one of the greatest challenges for translational medicine. The childhood onset motor neuron disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been viewed as one of the more tractable targets for molecular therapy, due to a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic basis of the disease. In SMA, inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene can be partially compensated for by limited expression of SMN protein from a variable number of copies of the SMN2 gene, which provides both a molecular explanation for phenotypic severity and a target for therapy...
June 23, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644392/development-of-bone-targeting-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Molly Stapleton, Kazuki Sawamoto, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz, William G Mackenzie, Robert W Mason, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
The skeletal system, comprising bones, ligaments, cartilage and their connective tissues, is critical for the structure and support of the body. Diseases that affect the skeletal system can be difficult to treat, mainly because of the avascular cartilage region. Targeting drugs to the site of action can not only increase efficacy but also reduce toxicity. Bone-targeting drugs are designed with either of two general targeting moieties, aimed at the entire skeletal system or a specific cell type. Most bone-targeting drugs utilize an affinity to hydroxyapatite, a major component of the bone matrix that includes a high concentration of positively-charged Ca(2+)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644306/the-associations-of-height-for-age-weight-for-age-and-weight-for-height-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Jeremy M Schraw, Ann T Henson, Michael E Scheurer, Michele R Forman
Height at diagnosis has been analyzed in connection with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most prior studies have compared cases to national reference data derived from previous birth cohorts. Our objective was to determine the association of height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at time of diagnosis with the odds ratio (OR) of ALL in a case-control study (N=498) with a contemporaneous population of age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched controls. We hypothesized that cases would have greater mean HAZ at time of diagnosis/interview, after adjustment for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644201/insular-epilepsy-semiology-and-noninvasive-investigations
#15
Sami Obaid, Younes Zerouali, Dang Khoa Nguyen
In this review, authors discuss the semiology and noninvasive investigations of insular epilepsy, an underrecognized type of epilepsy, which may mimic other focal epilepsies. In line with the various functions of the insula and its widespread network of connections, insular epilepsy may feature a variety of early ictal manifestations from somatosensory, visceral, olfactory, gustatory, or vestibular manifestations. Depending on propagation pathways, insular seizures may also include altered consciousness, dystonic posturing, complex motor behaviors, and even autonomic features...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644199/structure-and-function-of-the-human-insula
#16
Lucina Q Uddin, Jason S Nomi, Benjamin Hébert-Seropian, Jimmy Ghaziri, Olivier Boucher
The insular cortex, or "Island of Reil," is hidden deep within the lateral sulcus of the brain. Subdivisions within the insula have been identified on the basis of cytoarchitectonics, sulcal landmarks, and connectivity. Depending on the parcellation technique used, the insula can be divided into anywhere between 2 and 13 distinct subdivisions. The insula subserves a wide variety of functions in humans ranging from sensory and affective processing to high-level cognition. Here, we provide a concise summary of known structural and functional features of the human insular cortex with a focus on lesion case studies and recent neuroimaging evidence for considerable functional heterogeneity of this brain region...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644069/concomitant-idiopathic-hypertrophic-spinal-pachymeningitis-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-a-patient-coincidence-or-a-triggering-mechanism
#17
Farouk Olubajo, Tatyana Yermakova, J Robin Highley, Vasileios Arzoglou
Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP), a rare diffuse inflammatory thickening of the dura mater, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are known entities but they have never been reported as concomitant diagnoses. To their knowledge, the authors present the first reported case in the international literature with supportive evidence for both IHSP (based on MRI, intraoperative, and histological findings) and GBS (based on history, clinical examination, and electrophysiological findings). They review the literature on IHSP and the diagnostic criteria for GBS, with the view of identifying a possible causative connection...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644011/development-of-silver-nanoparticles-decorated-emulsion-templated-hierarchically-porous-poly-1-vinylimidazole-beads-for-water-treatment
#18
Muhammad Ahmad Mudassir, Syed Zajif Hussain, Asma Rehman, Wasif Zaheer, Syeda Tasmia Asma, Asim Jilani, Mohammad Aslam, Haifei Zhang, Tariq Mahmood Ansari, Irshad Hussain
Water, the driver of nature, has always been polluted by the blind hurling of highly toxic contaminants, but human-friendly science continuously been presenting better avenues to help solve these challenging issues. In this connection, the present study introduces novel nanocomposites comprised of emulsion-templated hierarchically porous poly(1-vinylimidazole) beads loaded with the silver nanoparticles generated via an in-situ approach. These nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, TGA, BET and FESEM...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643808/parkinson-disease-deep-brain-stimulation-making-the-right-connections
#19
Charlotte Ridler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643802/optogenetic-rewiring-of-thalamocortical-circuits-to-restore-function-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#20
Kelly A Tennant, Stephanie L Taylor, Emily R White, Craig E Brown
To regain sensorimotor functions after stroke, surviving neural circuits must reorganize and form new connections. Although the thalamus is critical for processing and relaying sensory information to the cortex, little is known about how stroke affects the structure and function of these connections, or whether a therapeutic approach targeting these circuits can improve recovery. Here we reveal with in vivo calcium imaging that stroke in somatosensory cortex dampens the excitability of surviving thalamocortical circuits...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
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