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Alexey Rayevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Michael Tukalo
The accuracy of protein synthesis is provided by the editing functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), a mechanism that eliminates misactivated amino acids or mischarged tRNAs. Despite research efforts, some molecular bases of these mechanisms are still unclear. The post-transfer editing pathway of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) carried out in a special insertion domain (the Connective Polypeptide 1 or CP1), as editing domain. Recently, it was shown by in vivo studies and was supported by mutagenesis, and the kinetics approaches that the CP1 domain of LeuRS has discriminatory power for different substrates...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Albert Lladó, Adrià Tort-Merino, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Neus Falgàs, Mircea Balasa, Beatriz Bosch, Magda Castellví, Jaume Olives, Anna Antonell, Michael Hornberger
Recent studies suggest that hippocampus has different cortical connectivity and functionality along its longitudinal axis. We sought to elucidate the possible different pattern of atrophy in longitudinal axis of hippocampus between Amyloid/Tau pathology and TDP-43-pathies. Seventy-three presenile subjects were included: Amyloid/Tau group (33 Alzheimer's disease with confirmed cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers), probable TDP-43 group (7 semantic variant progressive primary aphasia, 5 GRN and 2 C9orf72 mutation carriers) and 26 healthy controls...
June 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Joham Choque-Velasquez, Franklin Miranda-Solis, Roberto Colasanti, Luis Angel Ccahuantico-Choquevilca, Juha Hernesniemi
OBJECTIVE: In the last decades endoscopic techniques have been increasingly used in neurosurgery as they may offer a valuable close-up view of the working area through a minimally invasive surgical corridor. Herein, we present an inexpensive and efficient endoscopic surgical model using a borescope, which was used for a "modified pure endoscopic approach" to the pineal region. METHODS: A borescope video camera was connected to a 16 inches personal computer monitor...
June 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shijing Wu, Lantian Gao, Changshui Chen, Jun Li, Sailing He
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate the stability of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the prefrontal cortex. In a longitudinal study for investigating the stability of RSFC with time, we recruited 6 healthy adult subjects to undergo a 10-min resting state fNIRS scan once per day for 7 consecutive days. In a cross-sectional study, 62 healthy subjects underwent a single 10-min RSFC measurement. Three regions-of-interest (ROIs) were studied, the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
June 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yi Deng, Karen S Y Hung, Simon S Y Lui, William W H Chui, Joe C W Lee, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Henry K F Mak, Pak C Sham, Raymond C K Chan, Eric F C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has been characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain disconnectivity. However, whether disrupted integrity of white matter tracts in schizophrenia can potentially serve as individual discriminative biomarkers remains unclear. METHODS: A random forest algorithm was applied to tractography-based diffusion properties obtained from a cohort of 65 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 60 healthy individuals to investigate the machine-learning discriminative power of white matter disconnectivity...
June 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Anna Kokla, Charles W Melnyk
Parasitic plants are widespread pathogens that infect numerous plant species and cause devastating agricultural losses. They efficiently withdraw water, nutrients and sugars from their hosts by fusing tissues and connecting their vasculature to the host vasculature. This ability to parasitize is found in a wide range of species and has evolved at least eleven independent times, suggesting a recurring and flexible developmental strategy. Despite multiple independent origins, a common feature to parasitism is the formation of an invasive organ termed the haustorium...
June 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Tracey Bucknall, Danielle Hitch
A more sophisticated understanding of the unpredictable, disorderly and unstable aspects of healthcare organisations is developing in the knowledge translation (KT) literature. In an article published in this journal, Kitson et al introduced a new model for KT in healthcare based on complexity theory. The Knowledge Translation Complexity Network Model (KTCNM) provides a fresh perspective by making the complexity inherent in complex systems overt. The model encourages a whole system view and focuses on the interdependent relationships between actions, interactions and actors...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Duska Dragun, Aurélie Philippe
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) is a classical G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR) displaying complex structure consisting of 7-transmembrane helices connected by intracellular and extracellular loops. Beside Angiotensin II binding within transmembrane sites and mechanically induced ligand free activation, AT1 R can be also activated by agonistic autoantibodies (AT1 R-Ab) recognizing conformational epitopes contained in the second extracellular loop. Direct pathophysiologic involvement of AT1 R-Abs is well established in several autoimmune contexts and organ transplantation (1)...
June 23, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Robert Ekblom, Birte Brechlin, Jens Persson, Linnéa Smeds, Malin Johansson, Jessica Magnusson, Øystein Flagstad, Hans Ellegren
Genetic approaches have proved valuable to the study and conservation of endangered populations, especially for monitoring programs, and there is potential for further developments in this direction by extending analyses to the genomic level. We assembled the genome of the wolverine (Gulo gulo), a mustelid that in Scandinavia has recently recovered from a significant population decline, and obtained a 2.42 Gb draft sequence representing >85% of the genome and including >21,000 protein-coding genes. We then performed whole-genome re-sequencing of 10 Scandinavian wolverines and found that genetic diversity was among the lowest detected in a red-listed population (mean genome-wide nucleotide diversity of 0...
June 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Tabea Kamp, Bettina Sorger, Caroline Benjamins, Lars Hausfeld, Rainer Goebel
BACKGROUND: Linking individual task performance to preceding, regional brain activation is an ongoing goal of neuroscientific research. Recently, it could be shown that the activation and connectivity within large-scale brain networks prior to task onset influence performance levels. More specifically, prestimulus default mode network (DMN) effects have been linked to performance levels in sensory near-threshold tasks, as well as cognitive tasks. However, it still remains uncertain how the DMN state preceding cognitive tasks affects performance levels when the period between task trials is long and flexible, allowing participants to engage in different cognitive states...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
H Sundh, A Gräns, J Brijs, E Sandblom, M Axelsson, C Berg, K Sundell
The aim of the current work was to elucidate if there is a connection between stress-induced decrease in coeliacomesenteric artery blood flow (i.e. gastrointestinal blood flow; GBF) and disruption of the intestinal primary barrier in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Upon initiation of a 15 min acute chasing stress, the GBF decreased instantly by c. 92%. The GBF then slowly increased and reached c. 28% of resting values at the end of the stress protocol. After the stress was ceased, the GBF slowly increased and returned to resting values within c...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Albert Wabnegger, Anne Schienle
Previous research indicated that the cerebellum is involved in psychopathologies with body-focused repetitive behaviors. The present study investigated whether patients with a diagnosis of skin-picking disorder (SPD) also show altered cerebellar structure and function. Structural as well as functional MRI data from 30 SPD patients and 31 controls were analyzed. The fMRI approach compared cerebellar activity and connectivity between the two groups during scratching and caressing of a small skin area on the arm...
June 22, 2018: Cerebellum
Zhaotian Zhang, Shaochong Zhang
PURPOSE: To introduce novel and easy techniques for 27-gauge silicone oil (SO) infusion and removal. METHODS: Consecutive patients treated with 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) plus SO infusion (Infusion Group) and scheduled to have SO removal (Removal Group) were prospectively included, respectively. Patients in Infusion Group underwent 27-gauge PPV plus SO infusion. SO infusion was performed with a 24-gauge intravenous catheter connected with the SO syringe...
June 22, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Rikiya Yamashita, Mizuho Nishio, Richard Kinh Gian Do, Kaori Togashi
Convolutional neural network (CNN), a class of artificial neural networks that has become dominant in various computer vision tasks, is attracting interest across a variety of domains, including radiology. CNN is designed to automatically and adaptively learn spatial hierarchies of features through backpropagation by using multiple building blocks, such as convolution layers, pooling layers, and fully connected layers. This review article offers a perspective on the basic concepts of CNN and its application to various radiological tasks, and discusses its challenges and future directions in the field of radiology...
June 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Zhishan Hu, Juan Zhang, Tania Alexandra Couto, Shiyang Xu, Ping Luan, Zhen Yuan
In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to examine the brain activation and connectivity in occipitotemporal cortex during Chinese character recognition (CCR). Eighteen healthy participants were recruited to perform a well-designed task with three categories of stimuli (real characters, pseudo characters, and checkerboards). By inspecting the brain activation difference and its relationship with behavioral data, the left laterality during CCR was clearly identified in the Brodmann area (BA) 18 and 19...
June 22, 2018: Brain Topography
Dmitry Y Borzunov, Alexander L Shastov
INTRODUCTION: Ilizarov bone transport for large bone defect is challenging and may end in distraction osteogenesis failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten forearm and seven tibial defect cases with failed regeneration due to ischaemia during bone transport were studied retrospectively. Mean forearm and tibial defects were 5.5 ± 0.8 and 7.6 ± 1 cm respectively, or 22.3 ± 3.6 and 20 ± 2.3% as compared with healthy segments. Most patients had numerous previous operations (2...
June 23, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Christian Karlsen, Elisabeth Ytteborg, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Vibeke Høst, Sigurd Handeland, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Aleksei Krasnov
Atlantic salmon farming operates with high production intensities where skin integrity is recognized as a central factor and indicator for animal health and welfare. In the described trial, the skin development and its immune status in healthy Atlantic salmon reared in two different systems, a traditional open net-pen system and a semi-closed containment system, were investigated. Freshwater smolts were compared to post-smolts after 1 and 4 months in seawater. Growth performance, when adjusted for temperature, was equal between the systems...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Hagai Diamandi, Yosef London, Gil Bashan, Arik Bergman, Avi Zadok
Opto-mechanical oscillators that generate coherent acoustic waves are drawing much interest, in both fundamental research and applications. Narrowband oscillations can be obtained through the introduction of feedback to the acoustic wave. Most previous realizations of this concept, sometimes referred to as "phonon lasers", relied on radiation pressure and moving boundary effects in micro- or nano-structured media. Demonstrations in bulk crystals required cryogenic temperatures. In this work, stimulated emission of highly-coherent acoustic waves is achieved in a commercially-available multi-core fiber, at room temperature...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge E Ramos, Gretta T Pecl, Natalie A Moltschaniwskyj, Jayson M Semmens, Carla A Souza, Jan M Strugnell
Shifts in species distribution, or 'range shifts', are one of the most commonly documented responses to ocean warming, with important consequences for the function and structure of ecosystems, and for socio-economic activities. Understanding the genetic signatures of range shifts can help build our knowledge of the capacity of species to establish and persist in colonised areas. Here, seven microsatellite loci were used to examine the population connectivity, genetic structure and diversity of Octopus tetricus, which has extended its distribution several hundred kilometres polewards associated with the southwards extension of the warm East Australian Current along south-eastern Australia...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elvira Infante, Alessia Castagnino, Robin Ferrari, Pedro Monteiro, Sonia Agüera-González, Perrine Paul-Gilloteaux, Mélanie J Domingues, Paolo Maiuri, Matthew Raab, Catherine M Shanahan, Alexandre Baffet, Matthieu Piel, Edgar R Gomes, Philippe Chavrier
Cancer cells' ability to migrate through constricting pores in the tissue matrix is limited by nuclear stiffness. MT1-MMP contributes to metastasis by widening matrix pores, facilitating confined migration. Here, we show that modulation of matrix pore size or of lamin A expression known to modulate nuclear stiffness directly impinges on levels of MT1-MMP-mediated pericellular collagenolysis by cancer cells. A component of this adaptive response is the centrosome-centered distribution of MT1-MMP intracellular storage compartments ahead of the nucleus...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
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