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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933683/genetics-and-the-conservation-of-natural-populations-allozymes-to-genomes
#1
Fred W Allendorf
I consider how the study of genetic variation has influenced efforts to conserve natural populations over the last 50 years. Studies with allozymes in the 1970s provided the first estimates of the amount of genetic variation within and between natural populations at multiple loci. These early studies played an important role in developing plans to conserve species. The description of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA in the early 1980s laid the foundation for the field of phylogeography, which provided a deeper look in time of the relationships and connectivity among populations...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933670/gold-i-fluorohalides-theory-and-experiment
#2
Babil Menjón, Miguel Baya, Alberto Pérez-Bitrián, Sonia Martínez-Salvador, José María Casas, Jesús Orduna
The anionic trifluoromethyl-gold(I) derivatives [CF₃AuX]⁻, which have been prepared and isolated as their [PPh₄]⁺ salts in good yield, undergo thermally-induced difluorocarbene extrusion in the gas phase giving rise to the mixed gold(I) fluorohalide complexes [F-Au-X]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I). These triatomic species have been detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) experiments and their properties have been analyzed by DFT methods. The CF₂ extrusion mechanism from the Au-CF₃ moiety serves as a model for the CF₂ insertion into the Au-F bond, since both reactivity channels are connected by the microreversibility principle...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933530/visualization-of-results-from-systems-genetics-studies-in-chromosomal-context
#3
Karen Y Oróstica, Ricardo A Verdugo
This chapter describes methods currently available for visualizing results from systems genetics experiments. Here, we abstract from the statistical methods used for genetic mapping, which are dependent on the specific resource being used, i.e. F2, RILs, or outbred populations among others. We use a public dataset with results from a mouse eQTL experiment for three examples of visualization: genome-wide dot plots of marker-by-gene association, karyotype-like plots, and circos plots. Dot plots give a first overview of the results from eQTL mapping, allowing detecting genome-wide patterns of cis- and trans-genetic association to transcription level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933398/ecmo-for-intractable-status-asthmaticus-following-atracurium
#4
Vittorio Scaravilli, Giacomo Grasselli, Annalisa Benini, Michela Bombino, Daniele Ceriani, Uta Emmig, Alberto Zanella, Nicolò Patroniti, Antonio Pesenti
Intraoperative allergic reactions are rare but serious events associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We report the salvage of intraoperative anaphylaxis leading to extreme hypercapnic respiratory failure by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 38-year-old woman undergoing thyroidectomy developed intractable bronchospasm after administration of atracurium, leading to extreme hypercapnic respiratory failure (PaCO2 > 250 mmHg, pH 6.773). After the failure of conventional medical therapy and ventilatory optimization, the patient was connected to a veno-venous ECMO circuit...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933319/a-metabolic-widget-adjusts-the-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent-fructose-influx-in-pseudomonas-putida
#5
Max Chavarría, Ángel Goñi-Moreno, Víctor de Lorenzo, Pablo I Nikel
Fructose uptake in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida occurs through a canonical phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar transport system (PTS(Fru)). The logic of the genetic circuit that rules its functioning is puzzling: the transcription of the fruBKA operon, encoding all the components of PTS(Fru), can escape the repression exerted by the catabolite repressor/activator protein Cra solely in the presence of intracellular fructose-1-P, an agonist formed only when fructose has been already transported...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933314/tunneling-nanotubes-an-alternate-route-for-propagation-of-the-bystander-effect-following-oncolytic-viral-infection
#6
Justin Ady, Venugopal Thayanithy, Kelly Mojica, Phillip Wong, Joshua Carson, Prassanna Rao, Yuman Fong, Emil Lou
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are ultrafine, filamentous actin-based cytoplasmic extensions which form spontaneously to connect cells at short and long-range distances. We have previously described long-range intercellular communication via TNTs connecting mesothelioma cells in vitro and demonstrated TNTs in intact tumors from patients with mesothelioma. Here, we investigate the ability of TNTs to mediate a viral thymidine kinase based bystander effect after oncolytic viral infection and administration of the nucleoside analog ganciclovir...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933311/contribution-of-cerebellar-loops-to-action-timing
#7
Ramanujan T Raghavan, Vincent Prevosto, Marc A Sommer
Recent studies of sensorimotor processing have benefited from decision-making paradigms that emphasize the selection of appropriate movements. Selecting when to make those responses, or action timing, is important as well. Although the cerebellum is commonly viewed as a controller of movement dynamics, its role in action timing is also firmly supported. Several lines of research have now extended this idea. Anatomical findings have revealed connections between the cerebellum and broader timing circuits, neurophysiological results have suggested mechanisms for timing within its microcircuitry, and theoretical work has indicated how temporal signals are processed through it and decoded by its targets...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933296/modeling-diet-induced-obesity-with-obesity-prone-rats-implications-for-studies-in-females
#8
REVIEW
Erin D Giles, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933294/branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-are-related-with-surrogates-of-disturbed-lipid-metabolism-among-older-men
#9
Urho M Kujala, Markku Peltonen, Merja K Laine, Jaakko Kaprio, Olli J Heinonen, Jouko Sundvall, Johan G Eriksson, Antti Jula, Seppo Sarna, Heikki Kainulainen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Existing studies suggest that decreased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism and thus elevated levels in blood are associated with metabolic disturbances. Based on such information, we have developed a hypothesis how BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to tricarboxylic acid cycle, intramyocellular lipid storage, and oxidation, thus allowing more efficient mitochondrial energy production from lipids as well as providing better metabolic health. We analyzed whether data from aged Finnish men are in line with our mechanistic hypothesis linking BCAA catabolism and metabolic disturbances...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933260/use-of-a-10-22%C3%A2-m-diameter-epb-shield-a-case-study-in-beijing-subway-construction
#10
Xinggao Li, Dajun Yuan, Yuhai Guo, Zhiyong Cai
INTRODUCTION: Beijing subway line 14 includes four stations and approximately 2.8 km of tunnels between the Dongfengbeiqiao and Jingshunlu areas of the city. Due to the surface and underground space limitations of this section, a double-track running tunnel instead of two single-track running tunnels was adopted to connect the two stations. The double-track tunnels were excavated by a 10.22 m diameter earth pressure balance (EPB) shield. It was the first time that an EPB shield more than 10 m in diameter was used in Beijing subway construction...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933243/model-based-extended-quaternion-kalman-filter-to-inertial-orientation-tracking-of-arbitrary-kinematic-chains
#11
Agnieszka Szczęsna, Przemysław Pruszowski
Inertial orientation tracking is still an area of active research, especially in the context of out-door, real-time, human motion capture. Existing systems either propose loosely coupled tracking approaches where each segment is considered independently, taking the resulting drawbacks into account, or tightly coupled solutions that are limited to a fixed chain with few segments. Such solutions have no flexibility to change the skeleton structure, are dedicated to a specific set of joints, and have high computational complexity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933210/educational-needs-of-health-professionals-working-in-rheumatology-in-europe
#12
Theodora P M Vliet Vlieland, Cornelia H M van den Ende, Francoise Alliot-Launois, Catherine Beauvais, Milena Gobbo, Annamaria Iagnocco, Ingrid E Lundberg, Pedro V Munuera-Martínez, Christina H Opava, Yeliz Prior, Anthony Redmond, Hana Smucrova, Dieter Wiek
OBJECTIVE: To explore the availability of postgraduate education for health professionals (HPs) working in rheumatology in Europe, and their perceived educational needs and barriers for participation in current educational offerings. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with national representatives of rheumatology HPs' organisations and an online survey among individual HPs was disseminated through existing European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) networks (10 languages including English)...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933184/coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-expression-is-enhanced-in-pancreas-from-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#13
M Hodik, M Anagandula, J Fuxe, L Krogvold, K Dahl-Jørgensen, H Hyöty, L Sarmiento, G Frisk
OBJECTIVES: One of the theories connecting enterovirus (EV) infection of human islets with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the development of a fertile field in the islets. This implies induction of appropriate proteins for the viral replication such as the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent CAR is expressed in human islets of Langerhans, and what conditions that would change the expression. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for CAR was performed on paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue from patients with T1D (n=9 recent onset T1D, n=4 long-standing T1D), islet autoantibody-positive individuals (n=14) and non-diabetic controls (n=24) individuals...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933139/the-neuromuscular-system-of-pycnophyes-kielensis-kinorhyncha-allomalorhagida-investigated-by-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#14
Andreas Altenburger
BACKGROUND: Kinorhynchs are ecdysozoan animals with a phylogenetic position close to priapulids and loriciferans. To understand the nature of segmentation within Kinorhyncha and to infer a probable ancestry of segmentation within the last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa, the musculature and the nervous system of the allomalorhagid kinorhynch Pycnophyes kielensis were investigated by use of immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. RESULTS: The kinorhynch body plan comprises 11 trunk segments...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933071/stress-mediated-cis-element-transcription-factor-interactions-interconnecting-primary-and-specialized-metabolism-in-planta
#15
REVIEW
S A Sheshadri, M J Nishanth, Bindu Simon
Plant specialized metabolites are being used worldwide as therapeutic agents against several diseases. Since the precursors for specialized metabolites come through primary metabolism, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the detailed connection between primary and specialized metabolism at various levels. Stress regulates the expression of primary and specialized metabolism genes at the transcriptional level via transcription factors binding to specific cis-elements. The presence of varied cis-element signatures upstream to different stress-responsive genes and their transcription factor binding patterns provide a prospective molecular link among diverse metabolic pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933016/task-irrelevant-expectation-violations-in-sequential-manual-actions-evidence-for-a-check-after-surprise-mode-of-visual-attention-and-eye-hand-decoupling
#16
Rebecca M Foerster
When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking), visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM)-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b) that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change) cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932978/gender-specific-re-organization-of-resting-state-networks-in-older-age
#17
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Izabela Przezdzik, Rebecca S Wilson, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#18
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932969/variability-of-neuronal-responses-types-and-functional-significance-in-neuroplasticity-and-neural-darwinism
#19
Alexander V Chervyakov, Dmitry O Sinitsyn, Michael A Piradov
HIGHLIGHTS We suggest classifying variability of neuronal responses as follows: false (associated with a lack of knowledge about the influential factors), "genuine harmful" (noise), "genuine neutral" (synonyms, repeats), and "genuine useful" (the basis of neuroplasticity and learning).The genuine neutral variability is considered in terms of the phenomenon of degeneracy.Of particular importance is the genuine useful variability that is considered as a potential basis for neuroplasticity and learning. This type of variability is considered in terms of the neural Darwinism theory...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932957/emergence-of-selectivity-to-looming-stimuli-in-a-spiking-network-model-of-the-optic-tectum
#20
Eric V Jang, Carolina Ramirez-Vizcarrondo, Carlos D Aizenman, Arseny S Khakhalin
The neural circuits in the optic tectum of Xenopus tadpoles are selectively responsive to looming visual stimuli that resemble objects approaching the animal at a collision trajectory. This selectivity is required for adaptive collision avoidance behavior in this species, but its underlying mechanisms are not known. In particular, it is still unclear how the balance between the recurrent spontaneous network activity and the newly arriving sensory flow is set in this structure, and to what degree this balance is important for collision detection...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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