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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#1
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#2
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#3
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077345/tips-and-traps-lessons-from-codesigning-a-clinician-e-monitoring-tool-for-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#4
Frederick Sundram, Susan J Hawken, Karolina Stasiak, Mathijs Fg Lucassen, Theresa Fleming, Matthew Shepherd, Andrea Greenwood, Raechel Osborne, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) is an acceptable and promising treatment modality for adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression. Many cCBT programs are standalone packages with no way for clinicians to monitor progress or outcomes. We sought to develop an electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) tool in consultation with clinicians and adolescents to allow clinicians to monitor mood, risk, and treatment adherence of adolescents completing a cCBT program called SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts)...
January 11, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072451/the-impact-of-salience-and-visual-working-memory-on-the-monitoring-and-control-of-saccadic-behavior-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#5
Matthew D Weaver, Clayton Hickey, Wieske van Zoest
In a concurrent eye-tracking and EEG study, we investigated the impact of salience on the monitoring and control of eye movement behavior and the role of visual working memory (VWM) capacity in mediating this effect. Participants made eye movements to a unique line-segment target embedded in a search display also containing a unique distractor. Target and distractor salience was manipulated by varying degree of orientation offset from a homogenous background. VWM capacity was measured using a change-detection task...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054814/entrainment-to-an-auditory-signal-is-attention-involved
#6
Richard Kunert, Suzanne R Jongman
Many natural auditory signals, including music and language, change periodically. The effect of such auditory rhythms on the brain is unclear however. One widely held view, dynamic attending theory, proposes that the attentional system entrains to the rhythm and increases attention at moments of rhythmic salience. In support, 2 experiments reported here show reduced response times to visual letter strings shown at auditory rhythm peaks, compared with rhythm troughs. However, we argue that an account invoking the entrainment of general attention should further predict rhythm entrainment to also influence memory for visual stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#7
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039779/reaction-times-in-visual-search-can-be-explained-by-a-simple-model-of-neural-synchronization
#8
Yakov Kazanovich, Roman Borisyuk
We present an oscillatory neural network model that can account for reaction times in visual search experiments. The model consists of a central oscillator that represents the central executive of the attention system and a number of peripheral oscillators that represent objects in the display. The oscillators are described as generalized Kuramoto type oscillators with adapted parameters. An object is considered as being included in the focus of attention if the oscillator associated with this object is in-phase with the central oscillator...
December 10, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039373/a-model-of-the-superior-colliculus-predicts-fixation-locations-during-scene-viewing-and-visual-search
#9
Hossein Adeli, Françoise Vitu, Gregory J Zelinsky
: Modern computational models of attention predict fixations using saliency maps and target maps, which prioritize locations for fixation based on feature contrast and target goals, respectively. But while many such models are biologically plausible, none have looked to the oculomotor system for design constraints or parameter specification. Conversely, while most models of saccade programming are tightly coupled to underlying neurophysiology, none have been tested using real-world stimuli and tasks...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018339/conceptual-spaces-of-the-immune-system
#10
Walter Fierz
The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors' geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017966/obese-individuals-with-more-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-or-prediabetes-demonstrate-decreased-activation-of-reward-related-brain-centers-in-response-to-food-cues-in-both-the-fed-and-fasting-states-a-preliminary-fmri-study
#11
O M Farr, C S Mantzoros
It remains unknown whether obese individuals with more components of the metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes demonstrate altered activation of brain centers in response to food cues. We examined obese prediabetics (n=26) vs obese nondiabetics (n=11) using fMRI. We also performed regression analyses on the basis of the number of MetS components per subject. Obese individuals with prediabetes have decreased activation of the reward-related putamen in the fasting state and decreased activation of the salience- and reward-related insula after eating...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991182/salience-network-connectivity-modulates-skin-conductance-responses-in-predicting-arousal-experience
#12
Chenjie Xia, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Karen S Quigley, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Bradford C Dickerson
Individual differences in arousal experience have been linked to differences in resting-state salience network connectivity strength. In this study, we investigated how adding task-related skin conductance responses (SCR), a measure of sympathetic autonomic nervous system activity, can predict additional variance in arousal experience. Thirty-nine young adults rated their subjective experience of arousal to emotionally evocative images while SCRs were measured. They also underwent a separate resting-state fMRI scan...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977239/liking-wanting-and-the-incentive-sensitization-theory-of-addiction
#13
Kent C Berridge, Terry E Robinson
Rewards are both "liked" and "wanted," and those 2 words seem almost interchangeable. However, the brain circuitry that mediates the psychological process of "wanting" a particular reward is dissociable from circuitry that mediates the degree to which it is "liked." Incentive salience or "wanting," a form of motivation, is generated by large and robust neural systems that include mesolimbic dopamine. By comparison, "liking," or the actual pleasurable impact of reward consumption, is mediated by smaller and fragile neural systems, and is not dependent on dopamine...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959921/temporal-dynamics-and-developmental-maturation-of-salience-default-and-central-executive-network-interactions-revealed-by-variational-bayes-hidden-markov-modeling
#14
Srikanth Ryali, Kaustubh Supekar, Tianwen Chen, John Kochalka, Weidong Cai, Jonathan Nicholas, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Vinod Menon
Little is currently known about dynamic brain networks involved in high-level cognition and their ontological basis. Here we develop a novel Variational Bayesian Hidden Markov Model (VB-HMM) to investigate dynamic temporal properties of interactions between salience (SN), default mode (DMN), and central executive (CEN) networks-three brain systems that play a critical role in human cognition. In contrast to conventional models, VB-HMM revealed multiple short-lived states characterized by rapid switching and transient connectivity between SN, CEN, and DMN...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917013/birthing-nativity-and-maternal-depression-australia-and-the-united-states
#15
Melissa L Martinson, Marta Tienda
This study analyzes two birth cohort surveys, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n=3944) and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n=7700), to examine variation in maternal depression by nativity, duration of residence, age at migration, and English proficiency in Australia and the United States. Both countries have long immigrant traditions and a common language. The results demonstrate that US immigrant mothers are significantly less depressed than native-born mothers, but maternal depression does not differ by nativity in Australia...
2016: International Migration Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910120/at-the-margins-of-biomedicine-the-ambiguous-position-of-registered-medical-practitioners-in-rural-indian-healthcare
#16
Papreen Nahar, Nanda Kishore Kannuri, Sitamma Mikkilineni, G V S Murthy, Peter Phillimore
This analysis challenges a tendency in public health and the social sciences to associate India's medical pluralism with a distinction between biomedicine, as a homogeneous entity, and its non-biomedical 'others'. We argue that this overdrawn dichotomy obscures the important part played by 'informal' biomedical practice, an issue with salience well beyond India. Based on a qualitative study in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, we focus on a figure little discussed in the academic literature - the Registered Medical Practitioner (RMP) - who occupies a niche in the medical market-place as an informal exponent of biomedical treatment...
December 2, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#17
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897673/soap-opera-self-as-object-and-agent-in-prioritizing-attention
#18
Grace Truong, Rebecca M Todd
A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that multiple sources of salience tune attentional sets toward aspects of the environment, including affectively and motivationally significant categories of stimuli such as angry faces and reward-associated target locations. Recent evidence further indicates that objects that have gained personal significance through ownership can elicit similar attentional prioritization. Here we discuss current research on sources of attentional prioritization that shape our awareness of the visual world from moment to moment and the underlying neural systems and contextualize what is known about attentional prioritization of our possessions within that research...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895606/being-in-a-romantic-relationship-is-associated-with-reduced-gray-matter-density-in-striatum-and-increased-subjective-happiness
#19
Hiroaki Kawamichi, Sho K Sugawara, Yuki H Hamano, Kai Makita, Masahiro Matsunaga, Hiroki C Tanabe, Yuichi Ogino, Shigeru Saito, Norihiro Sadato
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894969/the-types-and-aspects-of-front-of-pack-food-labelling-schemes-preferred-by-adults-and-children
#20
Simone Pettigrew, Zenobia Talati, Caroline Miller, Helen Dixon, Bridget Kelly, Kylie Ball
There is strong interest in front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) as a potential mechanism for improving diets, and therefore health, at the population level. The present study examined Australian consumers' preferences for different types and attributes of FoPLs to provide additional insights into optimal methods of presenting nutrition information on the front of food packets. Much research to date has focused on two main types of FoPLs - those expressing daily intake values for specific nutrients and those utilising 'traffic light' colour coding...
February 1, 2017: Appetite
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