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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776015/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-potentiates-fear-memory-salience-through-functional-modulation-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-activity-states
#1
Aurelie Fitoussi, Jordan Zunder, Huibing Tan, Steven R Laviolette
Chronic or acute exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, has been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects, including dysregulation of emotional processing and associative memory formation. Clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the effects of THC are due to the ability to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity states in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which THC modulates mesolimbic DA function and emotional processing are not well understood...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#2
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763744/characterization-of-electroencephalography-signals-for-estimating-saliency-features-in-videos
#3
Zhen Liang, Yasuyuki Hamada, Shigeyuki Oba, Shin Ishii
Understanding the functions of the visual system has been one of the major targets in neuroscience formany years. However, the relation between spontaneous brain activities and visual saliency in natural stimuli has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we developed an optimized machine learning-based decoding model to explore the possible relationships between the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics and visual saliency. The optimal features were extracted from the EEG signals and saliency map which was computed according to an unsupervised saliency model ( Tavakoli and Laaksonen, 2017)...
May 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762862/stress-and-the-psyche-brain-immune-network-in-psychiatric-diseases-based-on-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-a-concise-review
#4
REVIEW
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760390/olfactory-bulb-acetylcholine-release-dishabituates-odor-responses-and-reinstates-odor-investigation
#5
M Cameron Ogg, Jordan M Ross, Mounir Bendahmane, Max L Fletcher
Habituation and dishabituation modulate the neural resources and behavioral significance allocated to incoming stimuli across the sensory systems. We characterize these processes in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) and uncover a role for OB acetylcholine (ACh) in physiological and behavioral olfactory dishabituation. We use calcium imaging in both awake and anesthetized mice to determine the time course and magnitude of OB glomerular habituation during a prolonged odor presentation. In addition, we develop a novel behavioral investigation paradigm to determine how prolonged odor input affects odor salience...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740595/dynamic-encoding-of-incentive-salience-in-the-ventral-pallidum-dependence-on-the-form-of-the-reward-cue
#6
Allison M Ahrens, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
Some rats are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to a cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with food reward (sign-trackers, STs), but the extent they do so varies as a function of the form of the CS. Other rats respond primarily to the predictive value of a cue (goal-trackers, GTs), regardless of its form. Sign-tracking is associated with greater cue-induced activation of mesolimbic structures than goal-tracking; however, it is unclear how the form of the CS itself influences activity in neural systems involved in incentive salience attribution...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733957/disentangling-reward-anticipation-with-simultaneous-pupillometry-fmri
#7
Max Schneider, Laura Leuchs, Michael Czisch, Philipp G Sämann, Victor I Spoormaker
The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686048/fear-memory-recall-potentiates-opiate-reward-sensitivity-through-dissociable-dopamine-d1-vs-d4-receptor-dependent-memory-mechanisms-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Jing Jing Li, Hanna Szkudlarek, Justine Renard, Roger Hudson, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Disturbances in prefrontal cortical (PFC) dopamine (DA) transmission are well-established features of psychiatric disorders involving pathological memory processing, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid addiction. Transmission through PFC DA D4 receptors (D4R) has been shown to potentiate the emotional salience of normally non-salient emotional memories whereas transmission through PFC DA D1 receptors (D1R) has been demonstrated to selectively block recall of reward or aversion-related associative memories...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670551/-the-two-brothers-reconciling-perceptual-cognitive-and-statistical-models-of-musical-evolution
#10
Steven Jan
While the "units, events and dynamics" of memetic evolution have been abstractly theorized (Lynch, 1998), they have not been applied systematically to real corpora in music. Some researchers, convinced of the validity of cultural evolution in more than the metaphorical sense adopted by much musicology, but perhaps skeptical of some or all of the claims of memetics, have attempted statistically based corpus-analysis techniques of music drawn from molecular biology, and these have offered strong evidence in favor of system-level change over time (Savage, 2017)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669901/biased-generalization-of-salient-traits-drives-the-evolution-of-warning-signals
#11
Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Baharan Kazemi, Alexandra Balogh, Olof Leimar
The importance of receiver biases in shaping the evolution of many signalling systems is widely acknowledged. Here, we show that receiver bias can explain which traits evolve to become warning signals. For warning coloration, a generalization bias for a signalling trait can result from predators learning to discriminate unprofitable from profitable prey. However, because the colour patterns of prey are complex traits with multiple components, it is crucial to understand which of the many aspects of prey appearance evolve into signals...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652628/salience-and-impact-of-health-warning-label-on-cigarette-packs-in-vietnam-findings-from-the-global-adult-tobacco-survey-2015
#12
Nguyen Ngoc Bich, Tran Thu Ngan, Kim Bao Giang, Phan Thi Hai, Doan Thi Thu Huyen, Luong Ngoc Khue, Nguyen Tuan Lam, Hoang Van Minh, Pham Thi Quynh Nga, Nguyen The Quan, Vu Hoang Loan
Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method...
April 13, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616335/behavioral-mechanisms-underlying-the-maternal-disruptive-effect-of-serotonin-5-ht-2a-receptor-activation-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Ruiyong Wu, Collin Davis, Ming Li
Recent evidence indicates that acute activation of 5-HT2A receptors causes a disruption of maternal behavior in rats. However, the behavioral mechanisms underlying such a disruption are not known. We addressed this issue using two behavioral approaches targeting the maternal motivational and emotional processing systems. First, we used the pup-separation technique to increase maternal motivation to see whether pup separation is capable of reducing the maternal disruptive effect of TCB-2 (a high-affinity 5-HT2A agonist) treatment...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587625/the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-reward-circuitry-responses-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
R K Greene, M Spanos, C Alderman, E Walsh, J Bizzell, M G Mosner, J L Kinard, G D Stuber, T Chandrasekhar, L C Politte, L Sikich, G S Dichter
BACKGROUND: Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has been shown to improve social communication functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and, thus, has received considerable interest as a potential ASD therapeutic agent. Although preclinical research indicates that OT modulates the functional output of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system that processes rewards, no clinical brain imaging study to date has examined the effects of OT on this system using a reward processing paradigm...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574197/working-memory-training-mostly-engages-general-purpose-large-scale-networks-for-learning
#15
REVIEW
Juha Salmi, Lars Nyberg, Matti Laine
The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556181/endogenous-oxytocin-release-eliminates-in-group-bias-in-monetary-transfers-with-perspective-taking
#16
Elizabeth T Terris, Laura E Beavin, Jorge A Barraza, Jeff Schloss, Paul J Zak
Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to facilitate trust, empathy and other prosocial behaviors. At the same time, there is evidence that exogenous OT infusion may not result in prosocial behaviors in all contexts, increasing in-group biases in a number of studies. The current investigation seeks to resolve this inconsistency by examining if endogenous OT release is associated with in-group bias. We studied a large group of participants ( N = 399) in existing groups and randomly formed groups. Participants provided two blood samples to measure the change in OT after a group salience task and then made computer-mediated monetary transfer decisions to in-group and out-group members...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549390/ethanol-actions-on-the-ventral-tegmental-area-novel-potential-targets-on-reward-pathway-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Chang You, Bertha Vandegrift, Mark S Brodie
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) evaluates salience of environmental stimuli and provides dopaminergic innervation to many brain areas affected by acute and chronic ethanol exposure. While primarily associated with rewarding and reinforcing stimuli, recent evidence indicates a role for the VTA in aversion as well. Ethanol actions in the VTA may trigger neuroadaptation resulting in reduction of the aversive responses to alcohol and a relative increase in the rewarding responses. In searching for effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, recognition of this imbalance may reveal novel strategies...
March 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541045/hot-speech-and-exploding-bombs-autonomic-arousal-during-emotion-classification-of-prosodic-utterances-and-affective-sounds
#18
Rebecca Jürgens, Julia Fischer, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional expressions provide strong signals in social interactions and can function as emotion inducers in a perceiver. Although speech provides one of the most important channels for human communication, its physiological correlates, such as activations of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) while listening to spoken utterances, have received far less attention than in other domains of emotion processing. Our study aimed at filling this gap by investigating autonomic activation in response to spoken utterances that were embedded into larger semantic contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541042/when-you-become-a-superman-subliminal-exposure-to-death-related-stimuli-enhances-men-s-physical-force
#19
Naoaki Kawakami, Emi Miura, Masayoshi Nagai
Research based on terror management theory (TMT) has consistently found that reminders to individuals about their mortality engender responses aimed at shoring up faith in their cultural belief system. Previous studies have focused on the critical role that the accessibility of death-related thought plays in these effects. Moreover, it has been shown that these effects occur even when death-related stimuli are presented without awareness, suggesting the unconscious effects of mortality salience. Because one pervasive cultural ideal for men is to be strong, we hypothesized that priming death-related stimuli would lead to increasing physical force for men, but not for women...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520911/functional-segregation-loss-over-time-is-moderated-by-apoe-genotype-in-healthy-elderly
#20
Kwun Kei Ng, Yingwei Qiu, June Chi-Yan Lo, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Woon-Puay Koh, Michael Wei-Liang Chee, Juan Zhou
We investigated the influence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) on longitudinal age-related changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) and cognition, in view of mixed cross-sectional findings. One hundred and twenty-two healthy older adults (aged 58-79; 25 APOE-ɛ4 carriers) underwent task-free fMRI scans at baseline. Seventy-eight (16 carriers) had at least one follow-up (every 2 years). Changes in intra- and internetwork FCs among the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN), and salience (SN) networks, as well as cognition, were quantified using linear mixed models...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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