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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338741/tolerating-dissimilar-other-when-primed-with-death-neural-evidence-of-self-control-engaged-by-interdependent-people-in-japan
#1
Kuniaki Yanagisawa, Emiko S Kashima, Hiroki Moriya, Keita Masui, Kaichiro Furutani, Hiroshi Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Ura, Michio Nomura
Mortality salience (MS) has been shown to lead to derogation of others with dissimilar worldviews, yet recent research has shown that Asian-Americans who presumably adopt an interdependent self-construal (SC) tend to reveal greater tolerance after MS induction. In the present study, we demonstrated that Japanese individuals who are high on interdependent SC indeed show greater tolerance toward worldview-threatening other in the MS (vs control) condition, thus replicating the prior research. Extending this research, we also found that interdependent people's tolerance toward worldview-threatening other was mediated by increased activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in the MS condition...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#2
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel García-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272117/altered-functional-connectivity-in-sickle-cell-disease-exists-at-rest-and-during-acute-pain-challenge
#3
William T Zempsky, Michael C Stevens, James P Santanelli, Alexandra M Gaynor, Sabin Khadka
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic pain disorder in which abnormally shaped red blood cells obstruct microcirculation causing ischemia and pain. The lack of SCD responsiveness to analgesics has led many to propose that nociceptive neural systems engaged when detecting pain become sensitized, resulting in an enhancement of pain response. METHODS: SCD patients and healthy controls were exposed to a painful stimuli of varying intensity using a pressure algometer and underwent several neuroimaging tasks...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267626/bayesian-switching-factor-analysis-for-estimating-time-varying-functional-connectivity-in-fmri
#4
Jalil Taghia, Srikanth Ryali, Tianwen Chen, Kaustubh Supekar, Weidong Cai, Vinod Menon
There is growing interest in understanding the dynamical properties of functional interactions between distributed brain regions. However, robust estimation of temporal dynamics from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data remains challenging due to limitations in extant multivariate methods for modeling time-varying functional interactions between multiple brain areas. Here, we develop a Bayesian generative model for fMRI time-series within the framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs). The model is a dynamic variant of the static factor analysis model (Ghahramani and Beal, 2000)...
March 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267590/unsupervised-ensemble-ranking-of-terms-in-electronic-health-record-notes-based-on-their-importance-to-patients
#5
Jinying Chen, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Allowing patients to access their own electronic health record (EHR) notes through online patient portals has the potential to improve patient-centered care. However, EHR notes contain abundant medical jargon that can be difficult for patients to comprehend. One way to help patients is to reduce information overload and help them focus on medical terms that matter most to them. Targeted education can then be developed to improve patient EHR comprehension and the quality of care...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262418/exploring-adaptations-to-climate-change-with-stakeholders-a-participatory-method-to-design-grassland-based-farming-systems
#6
Marion Sautier, Mathilde Piquet, Michel Duru, Roger Martin-Clouaire
Research is expected to produce knowledge, methods and tools to enhance stakeholders' adaptive capacity by helping them to anticipate and cope with the effects of climate change at their own level. Farmers face substantial challenges from climate change, from changes in the average temperatures and the precipitation regime to an increased variability of weather conditions and the frequency of extreme events. Such changes can have dramatic consequences for many types of agricultural production systems such as grassland-based livestock systems for which climate change influences the seasonality and productivity of fodder production...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262266/ptsd-in-court-ii-risk-factors-endophenotypes-and-biological-underpinnings-in-ptsd
#7
REVIEW
Gerald Young
The second article in the series of three for the journal on "PTSD in Court" especially concerns the biological bases that have been found to be associated with PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). The cohering concepts in this section relate to risk factors; candidate genes; polygenetics; "gene×environment" interactions; epigenetics; endophenotypes; biomarkers; and connective networks both structurally and functionally (in terms of intrinsic connectivity networks, ICNs, including the DMN, SN, and CEN; that is, default mode, salience, and central executive networks, respectively)...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230396/detecting-target-changes-in-multiple-object-tracking-with-peripheral-vision-more-pronounced-eccentricity-effects-for-changes-in-form-than-in-motion
#8
Christian Vater, Ralf Kredel, Ernst-Joachim Hossner
In the current study, dual-task performance is examined with multiple-object tracking as a primary task and target-change detection as a secondary task. The to-be-detected target changes in conditions of either change type (form vs. motion; Experiment 1) or change salience (stop vs. slowdown; Experiment 2), with changes occurring at either near (5°-10°) or far (15°-20°) eccentricities (Experiments 1 and 2). The aim of the study was to test whether changes can be detected solely with peripheral vision. By controlling for saccades and computing gaze distances, we could show that participants used peripheral vision to monitor the targets and, additionally, to perceive changes at both near and far eccentricities...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196657/dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-altered-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathan Miller, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang
Mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with prolonged dysfunction of reward circuitry, including motivation and salience, which suggests alterations of dopamine (DA) processing within the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAC). Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury, we found that stimulus-evoked DA release is distinct in the core and shell of the NAC, with the shell being less responsive to tonic stimulation and more sensitive to the number of pulses when phasic stimulation is applied...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#10
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193692/goal-directed-and-habit-like-modulations-of-stimulus-processing-during-reinforcement-learning
#11
David Luque, Tom Beesley, Richard Morris, Bradley N Jack, Oren Griffiths, Thomas Whitford, Mike E Le Pelley
Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized, even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an 'attentional habit'. Recording event-related potentials in humans during a reinforcement learning task, we show strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Resistance to outcome devaluation (the defining feature of a habit) was shown by the stimulus-locked P1 component, reflecting activity in the extrastriate visual cortex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#12
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174127/altered-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-influence-of-childhood-adhd
#13
Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Chul Jung
OBJECTIVE: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by abnormal executive control, leading to loss of control over excessive gaming. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders in IGD, involving delayed development of the executive control system, which could predispose individuals to gaming addiction. We investigated the influence of childhood ADHD on neural network features of IGD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis was performed on 44 young, male IGD subjects with and without childhood ADHD and 19 age-matched, healthy male controls...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167350/thalamic-cholinergic-innervation-makes-a-specific-bottom-up-contribution-to-signal-detection-evidence-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-defined-cholinergic-losses
#14
Kamin Kim, Martijn L T M Müller, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig
Successful behavior depends on the ability to detect and respond to relevant cues, especially under challenging conditions. This essential component of attention has been hypothesized to be mediated by multiple neuromodulator systems, but the contributions of individual systems (e.g., cholinergic, dopaminergic) have remained unclear. The present study addresses this issue by leveraging individual variation in regionally-specific cholinergic denervation in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, while controlling for variation in dopaminergic denervation...
February 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160660/altered-default-mode-fronto-parietal-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-with-internet-addiction
#15
Lubin Wang, Hui Shen, Yu Lei, Ling-Li Zeng, Fenglin Cao, Linyan Su, Zheng Yang, Shuqiao Yao, Dewen Hu
Internet addiction (IA) is a condition characterized by loss of control over Internet use, leading to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to identify IA-related changes in specific brain regions and connections. However, whether and how the interactions within and between the large-scale brain networks are disrupted in individuals with IA remain largely unexplored. Using group independent component analysis, we extracted five intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from the resting-state fMRI data of 26 adolescents with IA and 43 controls, including the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), left and right fronto-parietal network (FPN), and salience network (SN)...
January 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135963/procedure-and-information-displays-in-advanced-nuclear-control-rooms-experimental-evaluation-of-an-integrated-design
#16
Yue Chen, Qin Gao, Fei Song, Zhizhong Li, Yufan Wang
In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records...
January 30, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134808/from-belly-to-brain-targeting-the-ghrelin-receptor-in-appetite-and-food-intake-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Ken Howick, Brendan T Griffin, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108415/how-does-mindfulness-modulate-self-regulation-in-pre-adolescent-children-an-integrative-neurocognitive-review
#18
REVIEW
Rebekah Jane Kaunhoven, Dusana Dorjee
Pre-adolescence is a key developmental period in which complex intrinsic volitional methods of self-regulation are acquired as a result of rapid maturation within the brain networks underlying the self-regulatory processes of attention control and emotion regulation. Fostering adaptive self-regulation skills during this stage of development has strong implications for physical health, emotional and socio-economic outcomes during adulthood. There is a growing interest in mindfulness-based programmes for pre-adolescents with initial findings suggesting self-regulation improvements, however, neurodevelopmental studies on mindfulness with pre-adolescents are scarce...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#19
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#20
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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