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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#1
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912158/visual-responses-in-fef-unlike-v1-primarily-reflect-when-the-visual-context-renders-a-receptive-field-salient
#2
Wilsaan M Joiner, James Cavanaugh, Robert H Wurtz, Bruce G Cumming
When light falls within a neuronal visual receptive field (RF) the resulting activity is referred to as the visual response. Recent work suggests this activity is in response to both the visual stimulation and the abrupt appearance, or salience, of the presentation. Here we present a novel method for distinguishing the two, based on the timing of random and non-random presentations. We examined these contributions in frontal eye field (FEF, N = 51) and as a comparison, an early stage in the primary visual cortex (V1, N = 15) of male monkeys (Macaca mulatta)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910772/semantic-driven-generation-of-hyperlapse-from-360-formula-see-text-video
#3
Wei-Sheng Lai, Yujia Huang, Neel Joshi, Christopher Buehler, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Sing Bing Kang
We present a system for converting a fully panoramic (360[Formula: see text]) video into a normal field-of-view (NFOV) hyperlapse for an optimal viewing experience. Our system exploits visual saliency and semantics to non-uniformly sample in space and time for generating hyperlapses. In addition, users can optionally choose objects of interest for customizing the hyperlapses. We first stabilize an input 360[Formula: see text] video by smoothing the rotation between adjacent frames and then compute regions of interest and saliency scores...
September 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863855/implicit-guidance-of-attention-the-priority-state-space-framework
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca M Todd, Maria G M Manaligod
Visual selective attention is the process by which we tune ourselves to the world so that, of the millions of bits per second transmitted by the retina, the information that is most important to us reaches awareness and directs action. Recently, new areas of attention research have opened up as classic models dividing attention into top-down and bottom-up systems have been challenged. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework, the priority state space (PSS) framework, integrating sources of salience that guide visual attention according to a nested hierarchy of goals...
August 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844717/intranasal-oxytocin-reduces-heart-rate-variability-during-a-mental-arithmetic-task-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#5
Lincoln M Tracy, Stephen J Gibson, Izelle Labuschagne, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J Giummarra
Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to variation in the interval between successive heart beats. Low HRV is an indicator of potential autonomic nervous system dysfunction. People with chronic pain often display autonomic dysregulation, especially in the parasympathetic nervous system. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to increase HRV in non-clinical samples, but its potential impact on HRV in persons with chronic pain is unknown. This study investigated the impact of intranasal oxytocin on HRV in persons with chronic neck and shoulder pain...
August 24, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831072/working-memory-accuracy-for-multiple-targets-is-driven-by-reward-expectation-and-stimulus-contrast-with-different-time-courses
#6
P Christiaan Klink, Danique Jeurissen, Jan Theeuwes, Damiaan Denys, Pieter R Roelfsema
The richness of sensory input dictates that the brain must prioritize and select information for further processing and storage in working memory. Stimulus salience and reward expectations influence this prioritization but their relative contributions and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the quality of working memory for multiple stimuli is determined by priority during encoding and later memory phases. Selective attention could, for instance, act as the primary gating mechanism when stimuli are still visible...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812124/clozapine-chlorpromazine-and-risperidone-dose-dependently-reduce-emotional-hyperthermia-a-biological-marker-of-salience
#7
William W Blessing, Esther M Blessing, Mazher Mohammed, Youichirou Ootsuka
RATIONALE: We recently introduced a new rat model of emotional hyperthermia in which a salient stimulus activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and tail artery constriction. Antipsychotic drugs, both classical and second generation, act to reduce excessive assignment of salience to objects and events in the external environment. The close association between salient occurrences and increases in body temperature suggests that antipsychotic drugs may also reduce emotional hyperthermia...
August 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808026/superior-colliculus-encodes-visual-saliency-before-the-primary-visual-cortex
#8
Brian J White, Janis Y Kan, Ron Levy, Laurent Itti, Douglas P Munoz
Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768906/integration-of-homeostatic-signaling-and-food-reward-processing-in-the-human-brain
#9
Joe J Simon, Anne Wetzel, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767368/model-based-referenceless-quality-metric-of-3d-synthesized-images-using-local-image-description
#10
Ke Gu, Vinit Jakhetiya, Jun-Fei Qiao, Xiaoli Li, Weisi Lin, Daniel Thalmann
New challenges have been brought out along with the emerging of 3D-related technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR). Free viewpoint video (FVV), due to its applications in remote surveillance, remote education, etc, based on the flexible selection of direction and viewpoint, has been perceived as the development direction of next-generation video technologies and has drawn a wide range of researchers' attention. Since FVV images are synthesized via a depth image-based rendering (DIBR) procedure in the "blind" environment (without reference images), a reliable real-time blind quality evaluation and monitoring system is urgently required...
July 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758769/self-affirmation-attenuates-death-thought-accessibility-after-mortality-salience-but-not-among-a-high-post-traumatic-stress-sample
#11
Kenneth E Vail, Adrienne Morgan, Lauren Kahle
OBJECTIVE: According to anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT), people function effectively in the world, in part, by relying on anxiety-buffer systems to protect against death awareness; however, traumatic experiences can overwhelm and disrupt those anxiety-buffer systems, leaving people unprotected from death awareness and at increased risk for the major symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on that idea, it was hypothesized that (a) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are low, self-affirmation (a known worldview/self-esteem based anxiety-buffer) should prevent mortality reminders from causing increased death-thought accessibility (DTA); but that (b) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are high (indicating anxiety-buffer disruption), self-affirmation should fail to prevent mortality reminders from increasing DTA...
July 31, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756554/do-traditional-sheep-breeders-perform-conscious-selection-an-example-from-a-participatory-breeding-program-of-morada-nova-sheep
#12
Janaina Kelli Gomes Arandas, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves, Olivardo Facó, Ernandes Barboza Belchior, Luciana Shiotsuki, Paulo Márcio Barbosa de Arruda Leite, Maria Norma Ribeiro
The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed...
July 30, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754515/maternal-systemic-interleukin-6-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-newborn-amygdala-phenotypes-and-subsequent-behavior-at-2-years-of-age
#13
Alice M Graham, Jerod M Rasmussen, Marc D Rudolph, Christine M Heim, John H Gilmore, Martin Styner, Steven G Potkin, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa, Damien A Fair, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Maternal inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for offspring psychiatric disorders and other adverse long-term health outcomes. The influence of inflammation on the developing fetal brain is hypothesized as one potential mechanism but has not been examined in humans. METHODS: Participants were adult women (N = 86) who were recruited during early pregnancy and whose offspring were born after 34 weeks' gestation. A biological indicator of maternal inflammation (interleukin-6) that has been shown to influence fetal brain development in animal models was quantified serially in early, mid-, and late pregnancy...
June 19, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750207/eye-gaze-and-pupillary-response-in-angelman-syndrome
#14
Michael P Hong, Janna L Guilfoyle, Lindsey N Mooney, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Rebecca C Shaffer, John A Sweeney, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by severe developmental disability, communication impairment, elevated seizure risk, and motor system abnormalities. AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility of social scene eye tracking and pupillometry measures in individuals with AS and to compare the performance of AS participants to individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically developing controls (TDC)...
July 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742089/a-salient-region-detection-model-combining-background-distribution-measure-for-indoor-robots
#15
Na Li, Hui Xu, Zhenhua Wang, Lining Sun, Guodong Chen
Vision system plays an important role in the field of indoor robot. Saliency detection methods, capturing regions that are perceived as important, are used to improve the performance of visual perception system. Most of state-of-the-art methods for saliency detection, performing outstandingly in natural images, cannot work in complicated indoor environment. Therefore, we propose a new method comprised of graph-based RGB-D segmentation, primary saliency measure, background distribution measure, and combination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#16
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Because both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N = 359, 22-36 years, 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715141/walnut-consumption-increases-activation-of-the-insula-to-highly-desirable-food-cues-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-fmri-study
#17
Olivia M Farr, Dario Tuccinardi, Jagriti Upadhyay, Sabrina M Oussaada, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS: The use of walnuts is recommended for obesity and type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms through which walnuts may improve appetite control and/or glycaemic control remain largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether short-term walnut consumption could alter the neural control of appetite using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of 10 patients who received, while living in the controlled environment of a clinical research center, either walnuts or placebo (using a validated smoothie delivery system) for 5 days each, separated by a wash-out period of 1 month...
July 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707154/personality-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-educational-attainment-evidence-from-germany
#18
Renee Ryberg, Shawn Bauldry, Michael A Schultz, Annekatrin Steinhoff, Michael Shanahan
Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents' and child's educational attainment and this mediational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personality characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701940/reduced-pain-sensation-and-reduced-bold-signal-in-parietofrontal-networks-during-religious-prayer
#19
Else-Marie Elmholdt, Joshua Skewes, Martin Dietz, Arne Møller, Martin S Jensen, Andreas Roepstorff, Katja Wiech, Troels S Jensen
Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#20
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined whether the diminishing dopamine signal in the NAcC has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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