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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522983/a-dynamical-model-of-pitch-memory-provides-an-improved-basis-for-implied-harmony-estimation
#1
Ji Chul Kim
Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505355/uncovering-the-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-cognitive-affective-and-conative-theory-of-mind-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-neural-systems-perspective
#2
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of brain injury on gray-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN, and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493536/functional-hypergraph-uncovers-novel-covariant-structures-over-neurodevelopment
#3
Shi Gu, Muzhi Yang, John D Medaglia, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett
Brain development during adolescence is marked by substantial changes in brain structure and function, leading to a stable network topology in adulthood. However, most prior work has examined the data through the lens of brain areas connected to one another in large-scale functional networks. Here, we apply a recently developed hypergraph approach that treats network connections (edges) rather than brain regions as the unit of interest, allowing us to describe functional network topology from a fundamentally different perspective...
May 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490283/companion-animal-death
#4
Allison M J Reisbig, McArthur Hafen, Adryanna A Siqueira Drake, Destiny Girard, Zachary B Breunig
Human-animal relationships are increasingly incorporated into families as a normal part of family life. Despite this, relationships with animals are often viewed as inferior to human relationships. This becomes problematic during times of loss and grief when members of a grieving companion animal owner's support system do not understand the salience of the relationship with the animal. Veterinary and other helping professionals need basic information about the experience of companion animal loss in order to help support and normalize the experiences of grieving companion animal owners...
June 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483102/use-of-buprenorphine-in-treatment-of-refractory-depression-a-review-of-current-literature
#5
REVIEW
Cornel N Stanciu, Oliver M Glass, Thomas M Penders
OBJECTIVE: Current treatment strategies for depressive disorders have limited efficacy, leaving many patients unimproved or with significant residual symptoms. The development of additional treatments represent a significant unmet need for providers. Several lines of evidence suggest that the opioid system may be involved in regulation of mood and incentives salience. Intervention based on modifying central opioid receptors may represent a novel approach to treatment of depressive disorders among those unresponsive to accepted treatments...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473644/moment-to-moment-bold-signal-variability-reflects-regional-changes-in-neural-flexibility-across-the-lifespan
#6
Jason S Nomi, Taylor S Bolt, Chiemeka Ezie, Lucina Q Uddin, Aaron S Heller
Variability of neuronal responses is thought to underlie flexible and optimal brain function. Because previous work investigating BOLD signal variability has been conducted within task-based fMRI contexts on adults and older individuals, very little is currently known regarding regional changes in spontaneous BOLD signal variability in the human brain across the lifespan. The current study utilized resting state fMRI data from a large sample of male and female human participants covering a wide age range (6-85 years) across two different fMRI acquisition parameters (TR = 0...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465538/how-doctors-diagnose-diseases-and-prescribe-treatments-an-fmri-study-of-diagnostic-salience
#7
Marcio Melo, Gustavo D F Gusso, Marcelo Levites, Edson Amaro, Eduardo Massad, Paulo A Lotufo, Peter Zeidman, Cathy J Price, Karl J Friston
Understanding the brain mechanisms involved in diagnostic reasoning may contribute to the development of methods that reduce errors in medical practice. In this study we identified similar brain systems for diagnosing diseases, prescribing treatments, and naming animals and objects using written information as stimuli. Employing time resolved modeling of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses enabled time resolved (400 milliseconds epochs) analyses. With this approach it was possible to study neural processes during successive stages of decision making...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450463/what-does-patient-feedback-reveal-about-the-nhs-a-mixed-methods-study-of-comments-posted-to-the-nhs-choices-online-service
#8
Gavin Brookes, Paul Baker
OBJECTIVE: To examine the key themes of positive and negative feedback in patients' online feedback on NHS (National Health Service) services in England and to understand the specific issues within these themes and how they drive positive and negative evaluation. DESIGN: Computer-assisted quantitative and qualitative studies of 228 113 comments (28 971 142 words) of online feedback posted to the NHS Choices website. Comments containing the most frequent positive and negative evaluative words are qualitatively examined to determine the key drivers of positive and negative feedback...
April 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#9
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434591/oxytocin-and-vasopressin-neural-networks-implications-for-social-behavioral-diversity-and-translational-neuroscience
#10
REVIEW
Zachary V Johnson, Larry J Young
Oxytocin- and vasopressin-related systems are present in invertebrate and vertebrate bilaterian animals, including humans, and exhibit conserved neuroanatomical and functional properties. In vertebrates, these systems innervate conserved neural networks that regulate social learning and behavior, including conspecific recognition, social attachment, and parental behavior. Individual and species-level variation in central organization of oxytocin and vasopressin systems has been linked to individual and species variation in social learning and behavior...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410524/cognitive-control-in-young-heavy-drinkers-an-erp-study
#11
Ingmar H A Franken, Maartje Luijten, Frederik M van der Veen, Jan W van Strien
Substance use disorders have been frequently linked to an impaired cognitive control system. Whether this impaired control is also present in young adults who heavily drink alcohol is still subject to debate. The present study investigated possible impairments in cognitive control in heavy drinkers using behavioral and electrophysiological (EEG) measures. We studied behavioral performance on an inhibitory control and an error-processing task, using a GoNogo task and an Eriksen Flanker task respectively, while ERPs (Nogo-N2/P3 and ERN/Pe) were measured in a group of heavy alcohol drinkers (n=48) and a healthy control group of light drinkers (n=49)...
June 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402414/inter-sectoral-transfer-of-the-food-for-life-settings-framework-in-england
#12
Selena Gray, Matthew Jones, Robin Means, Judy Orme, Hannah Pitt, Debra Salmon
Organisational settings such as schools, workplaces and hospitals are well recognised as key environments for health promotion. Whilst there is extensive literature on specific types of settings, little empirical research has investigated the transfer of frameworks between sectors. This study analyses Food for Life, an England-wide healthy and sustainable food programme that evolved in schools and is being adapted for children's centres, universities, care homes, and hospital settings. Following a case study design, we interviewed 85 stakeholders in nine settings...
April 11, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#13
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381491/characterizing-the-effects-of-feature-salience-and-top-down-attention-in-the-early-visual-system
#14
Sonia Poltoratski, Sam Ling, Devin McCormack, Frank Tong
The visual system employs a sophisticated balance of attentional mechanisms: salient stimuli are prioritized for visual processing, yet observers can also ignore such stimuli when their goals require directing attention elsewhere. A powerful determinant of visual salience is local feature contrast: if a local region differs from its immediate surround along one or more feature dimensions, it will appear more salient. Here, we used high-resolution fMRI at 7T to characterize the modulatory effects of bottom-up salience and top-down voluntary attention within multiple sites along the early visual pathway, including visual areas V1-V4 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338741/tolerating-dissimilar-other-when-primed-with-death-neural-evidence-of-self-control-engaged-by-interdependent-people-in-japan
#15
Kuniaki Yanagisawa, Emiko S Kashima, Hiroki Moriya, Keita Masui, Kaichiro Furutani, Hiroshi Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Ura, Michio Nomura
Mortality salience (MS) has been shown to lead to derogation of others with dissimilar worldviews, yet recent research has shown that Asian-Americans who presumably adopt an interdependent self-construal (SC) tend to reveal greater tolerance after MS induction. In the present study, we demonstrated that Japanese individuals who are high on interdependent SC indeed show greater tolerance toward worldview-threatening other in the MS (vs control) condition, thus replicating the prior research. Extending this research, we also found that interdependent people's tolerance toward worldview-threatening other was mediated by increased activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in the MS condition...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#16
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel GarcĂ­a-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272117/altered-functional-connectivity-in-sickle-cell-disease-exists-at-rest-and-during-acute-pain-challenge
#17
William T Zempsky, Michael C Stevens, James P Santanelli, Alexandra M Gaynor, Sabin Khadka
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic pain disorder in which abnormally shaped red blood cells obstruct microcirculation causing ischemia and pain. The lack of SCD responsiveness to analgesics has led many to propose that nociceptive neural systems engaged when detecting pain become sensitized, resulting in an enhancement of pain response. METHODS: SCD patients and healthy controls were exposed to a painful stimuli of varying intensity using a pressure algometer and underwent several neuroimaging tasks...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267626/bayesian-switching-factor-analysis-for-estimating-time-varying-functional-connectivity-in-fmri
#18
Jalil Taghia, Srikanth Ryali, Tianwen Chen, Kaustubh Supekar, Weidong Cai, Vinod Menon
There is growing interest in understanding the dynamical properties of functional interactions between distributed brain regions. However, robust estimation of temporal dynamics from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data remains challenging due to limitations in extant multivariate methods for modeling time-varying functional interactions between multiple brain areas. Here, we develop a Bayesian generative model for fMRI time-series within the framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs). The model is a dynamic variant of the static factor analysis model (Ghahramani and Beal, 2000)...
March 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267590/unsupervised-ensemble-ranking-of-terms-in-electronic-health-record-notes-based-on-their-importance-to-patients
#19
Jinying Chen, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Allowing patients to access their own electronic health record (EHR) notes through online patient portals has the potential to improve patient-centered care. However, EHR notes contain abundant medical jargon that can be difficult for patients to comprehend. One way to help patients is to reduce information overload and help them focus on medical terms that matter most to them. Targeted education can then be developed to improve patient EHR comprehension and the quality of care...
April 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262418/exploring-adaptations-to-climate-change-with-stakeholders-a-participatory-method-to-design-grassland-based-farming-systems
#20
Marion Sautier, Mathilde Piquet, Michel Duru, Roger Martin-Clouaire
Research is expected to produce knowledge, methods and tools to enhance stakeholders' adaptive capacity by helping them to anticipate and cope with the effects of climate change at their own level. Farmers face substantial challenges from climate change, from changes in the average temperatures and the precipitation regime to an increased variability of weather conditions and the frequency of extreme events. Such changes can have dramatic consequences for many types of agricultural production systems such as grassland-based livestock systems for which climate change influences the seasonality and productivity of fodder production...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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