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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#1
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715141/walnut-consumption-increases-activation-of-the-insula-to-highly-desirable-food-cues-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-fmri-study
#2
Olivia M Farr, Dario Tuccinardi, Jagriti Upadhyay, Sabrina M Oussaada, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS: The use of walnuts is recommended for obesity and type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms through which walnuts may improve appetite and/or glycemic control remain largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether short-term walnut consumption could alter the neural control of appetite using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of 10 patients who received, while living in the controlled environment of a clinical research center, either walnuts or placebo (using a validated smoothie delivery system) for 5 days each, separated by a wash-out period of one month...
July 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707154/personality-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-educational-attainment-evidence-from-germany
#3
Renee Ryberg, Shawn Bauldry, Michael A Schultz, Annekatrin Steinhoff, Michael Shanahan
Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents' and child's educational attainment and this mediational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personality characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701940/reduced-pain-sensation-and-reduced-bold-signal-in-parietofrontal-networks-during-religious-prayer
#4
Else-Marie Elmholdt, Joshua Skewes, Martin Dietz, Arne Møller, Martin S Jensen, Andreas Roepstorff, Katja Wiech, Troels S Jensen
Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#5
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined if the diminishing dopamine signal in the nucleus accumbens core has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698810/circadian-rhythms-in-fear-conditioning-an-overview-of-behavioral-brain-system-and-molecular-interactions
#6
REVIEW
Anne Albrecht, Oliver Stork
The formation of fear memories is a powerful and highly evolutionary conserved mechanism that serves the behavioral adaptation to environmental threats. Accordingly, classical fear conditioning paradigms have been employed to investigate fundamental molecular processes of memory formation. Evidence suggests that a circadian regulation mechanism allows for a timestamping of such fear memories and controlling memory salience during both their acquisition and their modification after retrieval. These mechanisms include an expression of molecular clocks in neurons of the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex and their tight interaction with the intracellular signaling pathways that mediate neural plasticity and information storage...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697673/visual-cortex-activation-predicts-visual-preference-evidence-from-britain-and-egypt
#7
Alexis D J Makin, Mai Helmy, Marco Bertamini
The term 'Perceptual goodness' refers to the strength, obviousness or salience of a visual configuration. Recent work has found strong agreement between theoretical, neural and behavioural measures of perceptual goodness across a wide range of different symmetrical visual patterns (Makin et al. 2016). We used these pattern types again to explore the relationship between perceptual goodness and aesthetic preference. A group of 50 UK participants rated the patterns on a 0-100 scale. Preference ratings positively correlated with four overlapping measures of perceptual goodness...
July 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682255/visual-attention-saccadic-models-learn-to-emulate-gaze-patterns-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#8
Olivier Le Meur, Antoine Coutrot, Zhi Liu, Pia Rama, Adrien Le Roch, Andrea Helo
How people look at visual information reveals fundamental information about themselves, their interests and their state of mind. While previous visual attention models output static 2D saliency maps, saccadic models aim to predict not only where observers look at but also how they move their eyes to explore the scene. In this paper, we demonstrate that saccadic models are a flexible framework that can be tailored to emulate observer's viewing tendencies. More specifically, we use fixation data from 101 observers split into five age groups (adults, 8-10 y...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676780/prolonged-interruption-of-cognitive-control-of-conflict-processing-over-human-faces-by-task-irrelevant-emotion-expression
#9
Jinyoung Kim, Min-Suk Kang, Yang Seok Cho, Sang-Hun Lee
As documented by Darwin 150 years ago, emotion expressed in human faces readily draws our attention and promotes sympathetic emotional reactions. How do such reactions to the expression of emotion affect our goal-directed actions? Despite the substantial advance made in the neural mechanisms of both cognitive control and emotional processing, it is not yet known well how these two systems interact. Here, we studied how emotion expressed in human faces influences cognitive control of conflict processing, spatial selective attention and inhibitory control in particular, using the Eriksen flanker paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675131/changes-in-the-policy-environment-for-infant-and-young-child-feeding-in-vietnam-bangladesh-and-ethiopia-and-the-role-of-targeted-advocacy
#10
Jody Harris, Edward A Frongillo, Phuong H Nguyen, Sunny S Kim, Purnima Menon
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. METHODS: Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam...
June 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672158/biphasic-attentional-orienting-triggered-by-invisible-social-signals
#11
Yanliang Sun, Timo Stein, Wenjie Liu, Xiaowei Ding, Qi-Yang Nie
Biological motion (BM) is one of the most important social cues for detecting conspecifics, prey, and predators. We show that unconscious BM processing can reflexively direct spatial attention, and that this effect has a biphasic temporal profile. Participants responded to probes that were preceded by intact or scrambled BM cues rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. With a short inter-stimulus interval (ISI, 100ms) between the invisible BM cues and the probe, responses to probes at the same location as the invisible, nonpredictive BM cue were faster than to probes at the location of the scrambled BM cue...
June 30, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#12
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign-trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal-trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655034/the-relationship-of-health-insurance-and-mortality-is-lack-of-insurance-deadly
#13
Steffie Woolhandler, David U Himmelstein
About 28 million Americans are currently uninsured, and millions more could lose coverage under policy reforms proposed in Congress. At the same time, a growing number of policy leaders have called for going beyond the Affordable Care Act to a single-payer national health insurance system that would cover every American. These policy debates lend particular salience to studies evaluating the health effects of insurance coverage. In 2002, an Institute of Medicine review concluded that lack of insurance increases mortality, but several relevant studies have appeared since that time...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653666/endocannabinoid-regulation-of-reward-and-reinforcement-through-interaction-with-dopamine-and-endogenous-opioid-signaling
#14
J M Wenzel, J F Cheer
The endocannabinoid system (eCB) is implicated in the mediation of both reward and reinforcement. This is evidenced by the ability of exogenous cannabinoid drugs to produce hedonia and maintain self-administration in both human and animal subjects. eCBs similarly facilitate behaviors motivated by reward through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and endogenous opioid systems. Indeed, eCB signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) stimulates activation of midbrain DA cells and promotes DA release in terminal regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650974/resting-state-electrical-brain-activity-and-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia
#15
Sven Vanneste, Jan Ost, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder
The exact mechanism underlying fibromyalgia is unknown, but increased facilitatory modulation and/or dysfunctional descending inhibitory pathway activity are posited as possible mechanisms contributing to sensitization of the central nervous system. The primary goal of this study is to identify a fibromyalgia neural circuit that can account for these abnormalities in central pain. The second goal is to gain a better understanding of the functional connectivity between the default and the executive attention network (salience network plus dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) in fibromyalgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646260/salt-appetite-and-the-influence-of-opioids
#16
Craig M Smith, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the biological importance of sodium and its relative scarcity within many natural environments, 'salt appetite' has evolved whereby dietary salt is highly sought after and palatable when tasted. In addition to peripheral responses, salt depletion is detected within the brain via circumventricular organs and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) neurons to increase salt appetite. Salt appetite is comprised of two main components. One component is the incentive salience or motivation for salt (i...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631183/comprehension-of-idioms-in-turkish-aphasic-participants
#17
Burcu Aydin, Muzaffer Barin, Oktay Yagiz
Brain damaged participants offer an opportunity to evaluate the cognitive and linguistic processes and make assumptions about how the brain works. Cognitive linguists have been investigating the underlying mechanisms of idiom comprehension to unravel the ongoing debate on hemispheric specialization in figurative language comprehension. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the comprehension of idiomatic expressions in left brain damaged (LBD) aphasic, right brain damaged (RBD) and healthy control participants...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630661/intrainsular-connectivity-and-somatosensory-responsiveness-in-young-children-with-asd
#18
Michelle D Failla, Brittany R Peters, Haleh Karbasforoushan, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Brynna H Heflin, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: The human somatosensory system comprises dissociable paths for discriminative and affective touch, reflected in separate peripheral afferent populations and distinct cortical targets. Differences in behavioral and neural responses to affective touch may have an important developmental role in early social experiences, which are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Using probabilistic tractography, we compared the structural integrity of white matter pathways for discriminative and affective touch in young children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630254/reward-selectively-modulates-the-lingering-neural-representation-of-recently-attended-objects-in-natural-scenes
#19
Clayton Hickey, Marius Peelen
Theories of reinforcement learning and approach behaviour suggest that reward can increase the perceptual salience of environmental stimuli, ensuring that potential predictors of outcome are noticed in the future. But outcome commonly follows visual processing of the environment, occurring even when potential reward cues have long disappeared. How can reward feedback retroactively cause now-absent stimuli to become attention-drawing in the future? One possibility is that reward and attention interact to prime lingering visual representations of attended stimuli that sustain through the interval separating stimulus and outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626392/sensing-the-worst-neurophenomenological-perspectives-on-neutral-stimuli-misperception-in-schizophrenia-spectrum
#20
Mariateresa Sestito, Josef Parnas, Carlo Maggini, Vittorio Gallese
While investigating social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, prominent evidence has been found that patients with schizophrenia show a tendency to misclassify neutral stimuli as negatively valenced. Within this population, patients presenting delusions are more prone to this phenomenon. In a previous study, Schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients rated positive, negative and neutral stimuli that were multimodally presented, while assessed with a checklist exploring anomalous subjective experiences and evaluated for positive and negative symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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