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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332229/sociability-modifies-dogs-sensitivity-to-biological-motion-of-different-social-relevance
#1
Yuko Ishikawa, Daniel Mills, Alexander Willmott, David Mullineaux, Kun Guo
Preferential attention to living creatures is believed to be an intrinsic capacity of the visual system of several species, with perception of biological motion often studied and, in humans, it correlates with social cognitive performance. Although domestic dogs are exceptionally attentive to human social cues, it is unknown whether their sociability is associated with sensitivity to conspecific and heterospecific biological motion cues of different social relevance. We recorded video clips of point-light displays depicting a human or dog walking in either frontal or lateral view...
January 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327332/salience-from-multiple-feature-contrast-evidence-from-saccade-trajectories
#2
Luke Tudge, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
We used eye tracking to quantify the extent to which combinations of salient contrasts (orientation, luminance, and movement) influence a central salience map that guides eye movements. We found that luminance combined additively with orientation and movement, suggesting that the salience system processes luminance somewhat independently of the two other features. On the other hand, orientation and movement together influenced salience underadditively, suggesting that these two features are processed nonindependently...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324419/visual-saliency-detection-using-spatiotemporal-decomposition
#3
Saumik Bhattacharya, K Subramanian Venkatesh, Sumana Gupta
We propose a novel technique for detection of visual saliency in dynamic video based on video decomposition. The decomposition obtains the sparse features in a particular orientation by exploiting the spatiotemporal discontinuities present in a video cube. A weighted sum of the sparse features along three orthogonal directions determines the salient regions in the video cubes. The weights computed using the frame correlation along three directions are based on the characteristic of human visual system that identifies the sparsest feature as the most salient feature in a video...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#4
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300840/reconfiguration-of-cortical-networks-in-mdd-uncovered-by-multiscale-community-detection-with-fmri
#5
Ye He, Sol Lim, Santo Fortunato, Olaf Sporns, Lei Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Peng Xie, Xi-Nian Zuo
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is known to be associated with altered interactions between distributed brain regions. How these regional changes relate to the reorganization of cortical functional systems, and their modulation by antidepressant medication, is relatively unexplored. To identify changes in the community structure of cortical functional networks in MDD, we performed a multiscale community detection algorithm on resting-state functional connectivity networks of unmedicated MDD (uMDD) patients (n = 46), medicated MDD (mMDD) patients (n = 38), and healthy controls (n = 50), which yielded a spectrum of multiscale community partitions...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284747/motor-dexterity-and-strength-depend-upon-integrity-of-the-attention-control-system
#6
Paul Rinne, Mursyida Hassan, Cristina Fernandes, Erika Han, Emma Hennessy, Adam Waldman, Pankaj Sharma, David Soto, Robert Leech, Paresh A Malhotra, Paul Bentley
Attention control (or executive control) is a higher cognitive function involved in response selection and inhibition, through close interactions with the motor system. Here, we tested whether influences of attention control are also seen on lower level motor functions of dexterity and strength-by examining relationships between attention control and motor performance in healthy-aged and hemiparetic-stroke subjects (n = 93 and 167, respectively). Subjects undertook simple-tracking, precision-hold, and maximum force-generation tasks, with each hand...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259022/intersubject-synchronisation-analysis-of-brain-activity-associated-with-the-instant-effects-of-acupuncture-an-fmri-study
#7
Lingmin Jin, Jinbo Sun, Ziliang Xu, Xuejuan Yang, Peng Liu, Wei Qin
OBJECTIVE: To use a promising analytical method, namely intersubject synchronisation (ISS), to evaluate the brain activity associated with the instant effects of acupuncture and compare the findings with traditional general linear model (GLM) methods. METHODS: 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Block-designed manual acupuncture stimuli were delivered at SP6, and de qi sensations were measured after acupuncture stimulation. All subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning during the acupuncture stimuli...
December 19, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249951/diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-reveals-disrupted-white-matter-structural-connectivity-network-in-healthy-adults-with-insomnia-symptoms
#8
Feng-Mei Lu, Jing Dai, Tania A Couto, Chun-Hong Liu, Heng Chen, Shun-Li Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Chang-Le Tie, Hua-Fu Chen, Man-Xi He, Yu-Tao Xiang, Zhen Yuan
Neuroimaging studies have revealed that insomnia is characterized by aberrant neuronal connectivity in specific brain regions, but the topological disruptions in the white matter (WM) structural connectivity networks remain largely unknown in insomnia. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to construct the WM structural networks and graph theory analysis to detect alterations of the brain structural networks. The study participants comprised 30 healthy subjects with insomnia symptoms (IS) and 62 healthy subjects without IS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247796/theta-burst-modulation-of-mid-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-affects-salience-coding-in-the-human-ventral-tegmental-area
#9
Martin Ulrich, Sabrina Lorenz, Markus W Spitzer, Leon Steigleder, Thomas Kammer, Georg Grön
In the context of hedonic (over-)eating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a core part of the dopaminergic reward system plays a central role in coding incentive salience of high-caloric food. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether transcranial magnetic theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the right mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (mid-VLPFC) can induce modulation of calorie-sensitive brain activation in the VTA. The prefrontal location for TBS had been predetermined by seed-based resting-state fMRI with a functionally defined portion of the VTA serving as seed region obtained from an independent second fMRI experiment...
December 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247717/higher-order-thalamic-nuclei-resting-network-connectivity-in-early-schizophrenia-and-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Jacob Penner, Elizabeth A Osuch, Betsy Schaefer, Jean Théberge, Richard W J Neufeld, Ravi S Menon, Nagalingam Rajakumar, James A Bourne, Peter C Williamson
The pulvinar and the mediodorsal (MDN) nuclei of the thalamus are higher order nuclei which have been implicated in directed effort and corollary discharge systems. We used seed-based resting fMRI to examine functional connectivity to bilateral pulvinar and MDN in 24 schizophrenic patients (SZ), 24 major depressive disorder patients (MDD), and 24 age-matched healthy controls. SZ had less connectivity than controls between the left pulvinar and precuneus, left ventral-lateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and superior and medial-frontal regions, between the right pulvinar and right frontal pole, and greater connectivity between the right MDN and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)...
December 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247487/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-as-pacemaker-of-attention-a-developmental-mechanism-of-derailed-attentional-function-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Nico Bast, Luise Poustka, Christine M Freitag
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished visual engagement to environmental stimuli. Aberrant attentional function provides an explanation by reduced phasic alerting and orienting to exogenous stimuli. We review aberrant attentional function (alerting, orienting, and attentional control) in children with ASD as studied by neurocognitive and neurophysiological tasks as well as magnetic resonance imaging studies. The locus coeruleus - norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is outlined as a pacemaker of attentional function...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242104/structural-network-differences-in-chronic-muskuloskeletal-pain-beyond-fractional-anisotropy
#12
James H Bishop, Marina Shpaner, Antoni Kubicki, Sarah Clements, Richard Watts, Magdalena R Naylor
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a condition that influences central nervous system structure. In this study, we combined novel structural neuroimaging techniques, using well-validated software packages including FSL, Mrtrix3, and DSI Studio, to characterize brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain participants (n = 74), compared to age-matched pain-free controls (n = 31). In participants with chronic pain, we identified significantly higher volume in subcortical GM structures using voxel-based morphometry (FSLVBM)...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241395/oxytocin-regulates-social-approach
#13
Daniela Cohen, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The physical space individuals share is known as interpersonal space. As social creatures, people tend to approach others actively and explore the environment around them, opting for different space preferences with different people. In the current study, we sought to examine the role of oxytocin (OT) in regulating active social interpersonal space preferences. Contrary to previous studies that reported a preference for increased space following intranasal OT, we predicted that following OT administration individuals would exhibit increased active approach towards a protagonist...
December 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#14
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
December 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220361/pre-stimulus-pupil-dilation-and-the-preparatory-control-of-attention
#15
Jessica L Irons, Minjeong Jeon, Andrew B Leber
Task preparation involves multiple component processes, including a general evaluative process that signals the need for adjustments in control, and the engagement of task-specific control settings. Here we examined the dynamics of these different mechanisms in preparing the attentional control system for visual search. We explored preparatory activity using pupil dilation, a well-established measure of task demands and effortful processing. In an initial exploratory experiment, participants were cued at the start of each trial to search for either a salient color singleton target (an easy search task) or a low-salience shape singleton target (a difficult search task)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220319/poi-summarization-by-aesthetics-evaluation-from-crowd-source-social-media
#16
Xueming Qian, Cheng Li, Ke Lan, Xingsong Hou, Zhetao Li, Junwei Han
Place-of-Interest (POI) summarization by aesthetics evaluation can recommend a set of POI images to the user and it is significant in image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a system that summarizes a collection of POI images regarding both aesthetics and diversity of the distribution of cameras. First, we generate visual albums by a coarse-to-fine POI clustering approach and then generate 3D models for each album by the collected images from social media. Second, based on the 3D to 2D projection relationship, we select candidate photos in terms of the proposed crowd source saliency model...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#17
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196960/synergizing-community-based-forest-monitoring-with-remote-sensing-a-path-to-an-effective-redd-%C3%A2-mrv-system
#18
M S R Murthy, Hammad Gilani, Bhaskar Singh Karky, Eklabya Sharma, Marieke Sandker, Upama Ashish Koju, Shiva Khanal, Mohan Poudel
BACKGROUND: The reliable monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and removals from the forest sector is an important part of the efforts on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Forest-dependent local communities are engaged to contribute to MRV through community-based monitoring systems. The efficiency of such monitoring systems could be improved through the rational integration of the studies at permanent plots with the geospatial technologies...
December 1, 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183827/complex-environmental-rearing-enhances-social-salience-and-affects-hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-crhr-1-crhr2-expression-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#19
Amanda C Kentner, Erika Lima, Mattia M Migliore, Junyoung Shin, Stephanie Scalia
Methods for understanding the neurocircuitry of ethologically relevant behaviors have advanced substantially; however renovations to standard animal laboratory housing, in the form of enhanced enrichment, have lagged behind. This is despite evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) reduces stress, stereotypy, and promotes healthy species typical behaviors. While many scientists express interest for increased EE as a standard for animal caging systems, there are concerns that its effects on brain, behavior, and cognition are not well characterized...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177920/examining-the-durability-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-awareness-and-health-beliefs-among-medically-underserved-patients-baseline-to-12%C3%A2-months-post-intervention
#20
Shannon M Christy, Steven K Sutton, Clement K Gwede, Enmanuel A Chavarria, Stacy N Davis, Rania Abdulla, Ida Schultz, Richard Roetzheim, David Shibata, Cathy D Meade
The current study examines changes in awareness and health beliefs from baseline to 12 months post-intervention following receipt of one of two colorectal cancer (CRC) educational interventions that aimed to promote CRC screening among a racially and ethnically diverse and medically underserved population. Participants (N = 270) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to increase CRC screening and completed both baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments. Participants were aged 50-75, at average CRC risk, not up-to-date with CRC screening guidelines, and receiving care at one of three community-based clinics...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
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