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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427536/health-risks-of-food-oxidation
#1
Mario Estévez, Zhuqing Li, Olugbenga P Soladoye, Thomas Van-Hecke
The impact of dietary habits on our health is indisputable. Consumer's concern on aging and age-related diseases challenges scientists to underline the potential role of food on the extension and guarantee of lifespan and healthspan. While some dietary components and habits are generally regarded as beneficial for our health, some others are being found to exert potential toxic effects and hence, contribute to the onset of particular health disorders. Among the latter, lipid and protein oxidation products formed during food production, storage, processing, and culinary preparation have been recently identified as potentially harmful to humans...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425851/altered-structure-and-function-of-adipose-tissue-in-long-lived-mice-with-growth-hormone-related-mutations
#2
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Andrzej Bartke
A major focus of biogerontology is elucidating the role(s) of the endocrine system in aging and the accumulation of age-related diseases. Endocrine control of mammalian longevity was first reported in Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) mice, which are long-lived due to a recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Following this report, several other GH-related mutants with altered longevity have been described including long-lived Snell dwarf and growth hormone receptor knockout mice, and short-lived GH overexpressing transgenic mice...
March 21, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409331/igf-1-has-sexually-dimorphic-pleiotropic-and-time-dependent-effects-on-healthspan-pathology-and-lifespan
#3
Nicole M Ashpole, Sreemathi Logan, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Matthew C Mitschelen, Han Yan, Julie A Farley, Erik L Hodges, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar, Sixia Chen, Constantin Georgescu, Gene B Hubbard, Yuji Ikeno, William E Sonntag
Reduced circulating levels of IGF-1 have been proposed as a conserved anti-aging mechanism that contributes to increased lifespan in diverse experimental models. However, IGF-1 has also been shown to be essential for normal development and the maintenance of tissue function late into the lifespan. These disparate findings suggest that IGF-1 may be a pleiotropic modulator of health and aging, as reductions in IGF-1 may be beneficial for one aspect of aging, but detrimental for another. We postulated that the effects of IGF-1 on tissue health and function in advanced age are dependent on the tissue, the sex of the animal, and the age at which IGF-1 is manipulated...
April 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401731/impact-of-early-personal-history-characteristics-on-the-pace-of-aging-implications-for-clinical-trials-of-therapies-to-slow-aging-and-extend-healthspan
#4
Daniel W Belsky, Avshalom Caspi, Harvey J Cohen, William E Kraus, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954)...
April 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401650/caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-differentially-expressed-with-age-are-enriched-for-determinants-of-longevity
#5
George L Sutphin, Grant Backer, Susan Sheehan, Shannon Bean, Caroline Corban, Teresa Liu, Marjolein J Peters, Joyce B J van Meurs, Joanne M Murabito, Andrew D Johnson, Ron Korstanje
We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported...
April 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397803/tomatidine-enhances-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-c-elegans-through-mitophagy-induction-via-the-skn-1-nrf2-pathway
#6
Evandro F Fang, Tyler B Waltz, Henok Kassahun, Qiping Lu, Jesse S Kerr, Marya Morevati, Elayne M Fivenson, Bradley N Wollman, Krisztina Marosi, Mark A Wilson, Wendy B Iser, D Mark Eckley, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Ilya G Goldberg, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Mark P Mattson, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Kevin G Becker
Aging is a major international concern that brings formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Small molecules capable of improving the health of older individuals are being explored. Small molecules that enhance cellular stress resistance are a promising avenue to alleviate declines seen in human aging. Tomatidine, a natural compound abundant in unripe tomatoes, inhibits age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Here we show that tomatidine extends lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, an animal model of aging which shares many major longevity pathways with mammals...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379943/mono-unsaturated-fatty-acids-link-h3k4me3-modifiers-to-c-elegans-lifespan
#7
Shuo Han, Elizabeth A Schroeder, Carlos G Silva-García, Katja Hebestreit, William B Mair, Anne Brunet
Chromatin and metabolic states both influence lifespan, but how they interact in lifespan regulation is largely unknown. The COMPASS chromatin complex, which trimethylates lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me3), regulates lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the mechanism by which H3K4me3 modifiers affect longevity, and whether this mechanism involves metabolic changes, remain unclear. Here we show that a deficiency in H3K4me3 methyltransferase, which extends lifespan, promotes fat accumulation in worms with a specific enrichment of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374166/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-establish-effects-of-short-term-rapamycin-treatment-in-24-middle-aged-companion-dogs
#8
Silvan R Urfer, Tammi L Kaeberlein, Susan Mailheau, Philip J Bergman, Kate E Creevy, Daniel E L Promislow, Matt Kaeberlein
Age is the single greatest risk factor for most causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and their companion animals. As opposed to other model organisms used to study aging, dogs share the human environment, are subject to similar risk factors, receive comparable medical care, and develop many of the same age-related diseases humans do. In this study, 24 middle-aged healthy dogs received either placebo or a non-immunosuppressive dose of rapamycin for 10 weeks. All dogs received clinical and hematological exams before, during, and after the trial and echocardiography before and after the trial...
April 3, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340339/targeted-apoptosis-of-senescent-cells-restores-tissue-homeostasis-in-response-to-chemotoxicity-and-aging
#9
Marjolein P Baar, Renata M C Brandt, Diana A Putavet, Julian D D Klein, Kasper W J Derks, Benjamin R M Bourgeois, Sarah Stryeck, Yvonne Rijksen, Hester van Willigenburg, Danny A Feijtel, Ingrid van der Pluijm, Jeroen Essers, Wiggert A van Cappellen, Wilfred F van IJcken, Adriaan B Houtsmuller, Joris Pothof, Ron W F de Bruin, Tobias Madl, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Judith Campisi, Peter L J de Keizer
The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis can also be restored. Here, we identify FOXO4 as a pivot in senescent cell viability. We designed a FOXO4 peptide that perturbs the FOXO4 interaction with p53...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325885/physiological-frailty-index-pfi-quantitative-in-life-estimate-of-individual-biological-age-in-mice
#10
Marina P Antoch, Michelle Wrobel, Karen K Kuropatwinski, Ilya Gitlin, Katerina I Leonova, Ilia Toshkov, Anatoli S Gleiberman, Alan D Hutson, Olga B Chernova, Andrei V Gudkov
The development of healthspan-extending pharmaceuticals requires quantitative estimation of age-related progressive physiological decline. In humans, individual health status can be quantitatively assessed by means of a frailty index (FI), a parameter which reflects the scale of accumulation of age-related deficits. However, adaptation of this methodology to animal models is a challenging task since it includes multiple subjective parameters. Here we report a development of a quantitative non-invasive procedure to estimate biological age of an individual animal by creating physiological frailty index (PFI)...
March 19, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314502/nutrient-sensing-and-the-oxidative-stress-response
#11
REVIEW
Hanzhi Luo, Hou-Hsien Chiang, Makensie Louw, Albert Susanto, Danica Chen
The simplicity and effectiveness of calorie restriction (CR) in lifespan and healthspan extension have fascinated generations searching for the Fountain of Youth. CR reduces levels of oxidative stress and damage, which have been postulated in the free radical theory of aging as a major cause of aging and diseases of aging. This reduction has long been viewed as a result of passive slowing of metabolism. Recent advances in nutrient sensing have provided molecular insights into the oxidative stress response and suggest that CR triggers an active defense program involving a cascade of molecular regulators to reduce oxidative stress...
March 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299635/geroscience-and-the-trans-nih-geroscience-interest-group-gsig
#12
EDITORIAL
Felipe Sierra, Ron Kohanski
Age is by far the major risk factor for most chronic diseases. This has been common knowledge since time immemorial. Aging encompasses the biological changes most often seen as declines of function and increasing burden of disease. The close linkage of these two has led people to believe that aging, like age, is immutable. It is only recently that research into the basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging has led to potential interventions that increase lifespan and appear to increase healthspan, as well...
February 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280523/resveratrol-attenuates-copper-induced-senescence-by-improving-cellular-proteostasis
#13
Liliana Matos, Alexandra Monteiro Gouveia, Henrique Almeida
Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS) consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258519/sirtuins-a-promising-target-in-slowing-down-the-ageing-process
#14
REVIEW
Wioleta Grabowska, Ewa Sikora, Anna Bielak-Zmijewska
Ageing is a plastic process and can be successfully modulated by some biomedical approaches or pharmaceutics. In this manner it is possible to delay or even prevent some age-related pathologies. There are some defined interventions, which give promising results in animal models or even in human studies, resulting in lifespan elongation or healthspan improvement. One of the most promising targets for anti-ageing approaches are proteins belonging to the sirtuin family. Sirtuins were originally discovered as transcription repressors in yeast, however, nowadays they are known to occur in bacteria and eukaryotes (including mammals)...
March 3, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253986/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-extended-longevity-and-the-roles-in-various-disease-models
#15
D-F Dai, Y-A Chiao, G M Martin, D J Marcinek, N Basisty, E K Quarles, P S Rabinovitch
The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251407/jujube-ziziphus-jujuba-mill-fruit-feeding-extends-lifespan-and-increases-tolerance-to-environmental-stresses-by-regulating-aging-associated-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#16
Saurav Ghimire, Man Su Kim
Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) fruit has been utilized as an adjunct to alleviate medical symptoms including, but not limited to, anorexia, fatigue, anxiety and mild diarrhea for centuries. Despite a growing body of literature revealing jujube fruit's health promoting properties such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant effects (shown with cell-based in vitro platforms), there is a paucity of studies systemically examining its impact on whole organisms or throughout the entire course of life utilizing in vivo model systems...
March 1, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208582/nutrients-in-energy-and-one-carbon-metabolism-learning-from-metformin-users
#17
REVIEW
Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemi Cabre, Jordi Camps, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, which include obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Most of the health problems we face today come from excessive intake of nutrients and drugs mimicking dietary effects and dietary restriction are the most successful manipulations targeting age-related pathways. Phenotypic heterogeneity and individual response to metabolic stressors are closely related food intake. Understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary provision and metabolic consequences in the long term might provide clinical strategies to improve healthspan...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203479/metformin-impairs-spatial-memory-and-visual-acuity-in-old-male-mice
#18
Nopporn Thangthaeng, Margaret Rutledge, Jessica M Wong, Philip H Vann, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Because benefits of metformin extend beyond diabetes to other age-related pathology, and because its effect on gene expression profiles resembles that of caloric restriction, metformin has a potential as an anti-aging intervention and may soon be assessed as an intervention to extend healthspan. However, beneficial actions of metformin in the central nervous system have not been clearly established. The current study examined the effect of chronic oral metformin treatment on motor and cognitive function when initiated in young, middle-aged, or old male mice...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#19
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198412/a-screening-strategy-for-the-discovery-of-drugs-that-reduce-c-ebp%C3%AE-lip-translation-with-potential-calorie-restriction-mimetic-properties
#20
Mohamad A Zaini, Christine Müller, Tobias Ackermann, Jeanette Reinshagen, Gertrud Kortman, Ole Pless, Cornelis F Calkhoven
An important part of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) on healthspan and lifespan is mediated through regulation of protein synthesis that is under control of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As one of its activities, mTORC1 stimulates translation into the metabolic transcription factor CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) isoform Liver-specific Inhibitory Protein (LIP). Regulation of LIP expression strictly depends on a translation re-initiation event that requires a conserved cis-regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the C/EBPβ-mRNA...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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