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Enoxaparin and Trauma

Cheri K Walker, Elizabeth A Sandmann, Taylor J Horyna, Mark A Gales
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence regarding increased enoxaparin dosing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in the general trauma patient population. DATA SOURCES: A search of MEDLINE databases (1946 to October 2016) was conducted using the search terms enoxaparin, thromboembolism prophylaxis, venous thromboembolism, trauma, anti-factor Xa, and weight-based dosing. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Search results were limited to English-language studies conducted in humans...
April 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Simon Mantha, Yimei Miao, Jonathan Wills, Rekha Parameswaran, Gerald A Soff
The development of thrombocytopenia in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation for venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is common in cancer patients, but guidelines for management are based on limited past data and have not been validated. In 2011, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) implemented the following guidelines in this setting: administer full dose enoxaparin for a platelet count > 50,000/mcL, half-dose enoxaparin for a platelet count of 25,000-50,000/mcL, and hold anticoagulation for a platelet count < 25,000/mcL...
May 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Tammy R Kopelman, Jarvis W Walters, James N Bogert, Usmaan Basharat, Paola G Pieri, Karole M Davis, Asia N Quan, Sydney J Vail, Melissa A Pressman
INTRODUCTION: Optimal enoxaparin dosing for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis remains elusive. Prior research demonstrated that trauma patients at increased risk for DVT based upon Greenfield's risk assessment profile (RAP) have DVT rates of 10.8% despite prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if goal directed prophylactic enoxaparin dosing to achieve anti-Xa levels of 0.3-0.5IU/ml would decrease DVT rates without increased complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of trauma patients having received prophylactic enoxaparin and appropriately timed anti-Xa levels was performed...
November 3, 2016: Injury
Egidio Imbalzano, Michele Creazzo, Giovanni Trapani, Giuseppina Lizio, Antonino Saitta
American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, 9th edition, 2012, suggest no prophylaxis rather than pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk of isolated lower leg injuries distal to knee requiring leg immobilization. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of drugs commonly used as antithrombotics in surgery and in case of prolonged bed rest and hypomobility. A 35-year-old obese man with no history of health disease (height, 170 cm; weight, 95 kg; and body mass index, 32...
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Julia Coleman, Mustafa Baldawi, David Heidt
BACKGROUND: This research study aims to identify the effect of anticoagulation status on hospital course, complications, and outcomes among geriatric fall trauma patients. METHODS: The study design is a retrospective cohort study, looking at fall trauma among patients aged 60 to 80 years from 2009 to 2013 at a university hospital in the United States. The statistical analysis, conducted with SPSS software with a threshold for statistical significance of P < ...
December 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Rajeev B Ahuja, Priya Bansal, Gaurav S Pradhan, Manju Subberwal
INTRODUCTION: Morbidity and mortality from venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) remains a significant problem for trauma and medical patients and there are established guidelines for prophylaxis in these patients. However, the efficacy and safety of VTE prophylaxis in thermally injured patients continue to be elusive as it has never been studied in a prospective, randomized fashion. Selective use of VTE prophylaxis, for high risk patients, is practiced by some burn units even if objective evidence is lacking for majority of risk factors enunciated in burn patients...
December 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
George A Singer, Gina Riggi, Charles A Karcutskie, Tanaz M Vaghaiwalla, Howard M Lieberman, Enrique Ginzburg, Nicholas Namias, Edward B Lineen
BACKGROUND: Appropriate prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains undefined. This study evaluated an anti-Xa-guided enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis (TPX) protocol on the incidence of VTE in high-risk trauma patients based on Greenfield's Risk Assessment Profile (RAP) score. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a trauma intensive care unit over a 12-month period. Patients were included if they received anti-Xa-guided enoxaparin TPX...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Christopher R Connelly, Philbert Y Van, Kyle D Hart, Scott G Louis, Kelly A Fair, Anfin S Erickson, Elizabeth A Rick, Erika C Simeon, Eileen M Bulger, Saman Arbabi, John B Holcomb, Laura J Moore, Martin A Schreiber
Importance: Prophylactic enoxaparin is used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in surgical and trauma patients. However, VTE remains an important source of morbidity and mortality, potentially exacerbated by antithrombin III or anti-Factor Xa deficiencies and missed enoxaparin doses. Recent data suggest that a difference in reaction time (time to initial fibrin formation) greater than 1 minute between heparinase and standard thrombelastogram (TEG) is associated with a decreased risk of VTE...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Galinos Barmparas, Kevin Chung, Russell Mason, Dorothy A Yim, Navpreet Dhillon, Daniel R Margulies, Bruce L Gewertz, Eric J Ley
Importance: Trauma patients are at high risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). The VTE rate when enoxaparin sodium is dosed by anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) trough level is not well described. Objective: To determine whether targeting a prophylactic anti-Xa trough level by adjusting the enoxaparin dose would reduce the VTE rate in trauma patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-institution, historic vs prospective cohort comparison study at an urban, academic, level I trauma center...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Bishwajit Bhattacharya, Adrian Maung, Kevin Schuster, Kimberly A Davis
BACKGROUND: Trauma centers are seeing an increasing number of geriatric patients that are more susceptible to injuries even from relatively minor insults such as a ground level fall (GLF). As life expectancy increases, people are living in the geriatric age bracket for decades and often use anticoagulation agents for various comorbidities. We hypothesize that this patient population is not homogenous and we investigated the injury patterns and outcomes after GLF as a function of age and anticoagulation use...
September 2016: Injury
Allison E Berndtson, Todd W Costantini, James Lane, Kevin Box, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Empiric enoxaparin dosing is inadequate for most trauma patients, leading to below target initial anti-Xa levels and requiring dose-adjustment for optimal venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. We hypothesize that patient factors affecting initial anti-Xa levels can be identified based on drug pharmacokinetics, allowing creation of a new dosing protocol that will provide a higher percentage of in-target (0.2-0.4 IU/mL) patients at initial anti-Xa level assessment. METHODS: Records of 318 trauma patients were evaluated, and NONMEM and PSN software used to analyze 11 variables for their effects on anti-Xa levels...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Scott A Chapman, Eric D Irwin, Patty Reicks, Gregory J Beilman
BACKGROUND: We report our experience dosing and monitoring enoxaparin with anti-factor Xa activity (anti-FXaA) levels for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in trauma patients (TP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TP receiving standard, non-weight-based dosed enoxaparin administered every 12 h for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with peak anti-FXaA levels measured were prospectively monitored and evaluated and those whose first anti-FXaA levels ≥ or <0.2 IU/mL were compared...
March 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
O T Okoye, R Gelbard, K Inaba, M Esparza, H Belzberg, P Talving, P G Teixeira, L S Chan, D Demetriades
BACKGROUND: The use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for the chemoprophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in trauma patients is supported by Level-1 evidence. Because Enoxaparin was the agent used in the majority of studies for establishing the efficacy of LMWH in VTE, it remains unclear if Dalteparin provides an equivalent effect. OBJECTIVE: To compare Dalteparin to Enoxaparin and investigate their equivalence as VTE prophylaxis in trauma. PATIENTS/SETTING: Trauma patients receiving VTE chemoprophylaxis in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2009 (Enoxaparin) to 2010 (Dalteparin) were included...
April 2014: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Pranab Sinha, Ali-Asgar Najefi, John Hambidge
Neck of femur (NOF) fractures are a major public health concern because of the ageing population and higher incidence of fragility fractures. NOF fractures are associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, and there is a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hip fractures (Ref 1). Therefore thromboprophylaxis is vital. Current NICE guidelines advocate 28 - 35 days of thromboprophylaxis after NOF fractures (Ref 1, 2). It came to our attention that patients post NOF fixation were getting variable prescriptions in regards to their thromboprophylaxis...
2014: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Emma Toman, Alastair Beaven, Moji Balogun, Keith Porter
A young mother presented to a major trauma centre following a road traffic collision. Her admission CT traumagram demonstrated liver and renal lacerations, spinal and pelvic fractures with no abnormalities of the ovarian veins. Her inpatient course was uncomplicated other than a sustained, isolated raised C reactive protein. CT of the abdomen 1 week after injury demonstrated stable solid organ injuries and the additional, unexpected finding of a right ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT). A pragmatic approach was taken towards the management of the OVT given the haemorrhagic risk from her traumatic injuries...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Jack W Rostas, Sidney B Brevard, Naveed Ahmed, John Allen, Derek Thacker, William H Replogle, Richard P Gonzalez, Amin M Frotan, Jon D Simmons
Recent reports confirm that the standard dose of enoxaparin in obese patients is often subtherapeutic, leading to a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism. All patients receiving subcutaneous enoxaparin 30 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were prospectively enrolled in this study. Trough antiXa levels were obtained and any level less than 0.1 IU/mL was considered subtherapeutic and the final dosage requirement was recorded. Body mass index (BMI), abdominal wall thickness, and fluid balance were collected...
September 2015: American Surgeon
Erik J Olson, Jesse Bandle, Richard Y Calvo, Steven R Shackford, Casey E Dunne, Jan-Michael Van Gent, Ashley L Zander, Harminder Sikand, Michael S Bongiovanni, Michael J Sise, C Beth Sise
BACKGROUND: Research comparing enoxaparin with unfractionated heparin (UFH) given every 12 hours for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after trauma overlooks original recommendations that UFH be given every 8 hours. We conducted a prospective, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing UFH every 8 hours and standard enoxaparin every 12 hours. We hypothesized that the incidence of VTE in trauma patients receiving UFH every 8 hours would be no more than 10% higher than that in patients receiving enoxaparin every 12 hours...
December 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Marion Wiegele, Dieter Adelmann, Johannes Gratz, Eva Schaden
INTRODUCTION: Administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing hip surgery. In this context, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II is a complication of rare incidence but sometimes fatal outcome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year old obese patient undergoing antithrombotic therapy with Enoxaparin after hip surgery presented with a painful, swollen leg and thrombocytopenia on day eight after surgery...
2015: SpringerPlus
David A Machado-Aranda, Jill L Jakubus, Wendy L Wahl, Jill R Cherry-Bukowiec, Kathleen B To, Pauline K Park, Krishnan Raghavendran, Lena M Napolitano, Mark R Hemmila
BACKGROUND: The Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program (MTQIP) is a collaborative quality initiative sponsored by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and Blue Care Network (BCBSM/BCN). The MTQIP benchmark reports identified our trauma center as a high outlier for venous thromboembolism (VTE) episodes. This study outlines the performance improvement (PI) process used to reduce the rate of VTE using MTQIP infrastructure. STUDY DESIGN: Trauma patients admitted for > 24 hours, with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 5, were included in this study...
September 2015: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Jade M Nunez, Robert D Becher, Gerald J Rebo, Jason P Farrah, Erika M Borgerding, Joseph J Stirparo, Cynthia Lauer, Patrick Kilgo, Preston R Miller
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death in multisystem trauma patients; the importance of VTE prevention is well recognized. Presently, standard dose enoxaparin (30 mg BID) is used as chemical prophylaxis, regardless of weight or physiologic status. However, evidence suggests decreased bioavailability of enoxaparin in critically ill patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that a weight-based enoxaparin dosing regimen would provide more adequate prophylaxis (as indicated by antifactor Xa levels) for patients in our trauma intensive care unit (TICU)...
June 2015: American Surgeon
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