Read by QxMD icon Read

Standard Dose

Qiyue Xia, Hongxia Li, Ying Liu, Kai Xiao
Despite the increasing biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), their toxicological effects need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of commercially available AuNPs with varying size (5 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm) were assessed using a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. In the comet assay, 20 nm and 50 nm AuNPs did not induce obvious DNA damage in HepG2 cells at the tested concentrations, whereas 5 nm NPs induced a dose-dependent increment in DNA damage after 24 h exposure...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Motahare Soufi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Parham Geramifar, Arman Rahmim
PURPOSE: Determination of intra-tumor high-uptake area using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important consideration for dose painting in radiation treatment applications. The aim of our study was to develop a framework towards automated segmentation and labeling of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumors in clinical lung [(18)F]FDG-PET with the capability of intra-tumor high-uptake region delineation. PROCEDURES: We utilized and extended a fuzzy random walk PET tumor segmentation algorithm to delineate intra-tumor high-uptake areas...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Eliane Brito Cortez Lima, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Lucas Nascimento Meneses, Yuri Freitas E Silva Pereira, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Rayanne Brito de Freitas, Nycole Brito Cortez Lima, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Mark R Gilbert, Stephanie L Pugh, Ken Aldape, A Gregory Sorensen, Tom Mikkelsen, Marta Penas-Prado, Felix Bokstein, Young Kwok, R Jeffrey Lee, Minesh Mehta
Angiogenesis, a hallmark of glioblastoma, can potentially be targeted by inhibiting the VEGF pathway using bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of these regimens in the cooperative group setting. Eligibility included age ≥18, recurrent or progressive GBM after standard chemoradiation. Treatment was intravenous bevacizumab 10 mg/kg and either irinotecan (CPT) 125 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks or temozolomide (TMZ) 75-100 mg/m(2) day 1-21 of 28 day cycle...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Margaret L Ong, Isabell B Purdy, Orly L Levit, Daniel T Robinson, Tristan Grogan, Martiniano Flores, Kara L Calkins
BACKGROUND: In some studies, the dose of intravenous soybean oil (SO) has been associated with a decreased incidence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The effect of lipid sparing on neurodevelopment (ND) and growth remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of SO dose on ND and growth over the first 2 years of age in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-site prospective follow-up study. Neonates with a gestational age ≤29 weeks were randomized to low-dose (LOW) or standard-dose (CON) SO...
October 21, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kunyong Xu, Velina Tzankova, Cody Li, Sanjay Sharma
OBJECTIVES: To assess (i) the adverse reactions (ARs) associated with intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA); (ii) the relationship between a known history of IVFA-associated AR and ARs on the subsequent IVFA test; and (iii) the dose-response relationship between intravenous sodium fluorescein (NaFl) injection and ARs associated with IVFA. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2247 patients with 3381 consecutive IVFAs between May 2013 and April 2014...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Angela L Perez, Monty Liong, Kevin Plotkin, Keith P Rickabaugh, Dennis J Paustenbach
This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight phthalate plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Total daily intake of DUP was calculated from DUP measured in wipe samples from vehicle seats from six automobiles. Four of the vehicles exhibited atypical visible surface residue on the seats. Two vehicles with no visible surface residue were sampled as a comparison. DUP was the predominant organic compound identified in each of the wipes from all seats...
October 18, 2016: Chemosphere
Sarah Fernandes Teixeira, Ricardo Alexandre de Azevedo, Arthur Carvalho Silva, Rodolpho Campos Braga, Salomão Dória Jorge, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto, Carolina Horta Andrade, Adilson Kleber Ferreira
Even with all improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, lung cancer remains as the most lethal and prevalent cancer in the world. Therefore, new therapeutic drugs and new strategies of drug combination are necessary to provide treatments that are more efficient. Currently, standard therapy regimen for lung cancer includes platinum drugs, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin. Besides of the better toxicity profile of oxaliplatin when compared with cisplatin, peripheral neuropathy remains as a limitation of oxaliplatin dose...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eileen Hoskin, Analia Veitz-Keenan
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There were no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials which compared the relief of pain with systemic antibiotics and analgesics against placebo and analgesics in the preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. The primary interest was pain control with an antibiotic or without one in the presence of analgesics...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Yin J Wong
Data sourcesThe Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on the Cochrane Library.Study selectionAll Cochrane reviews of RCTs between 1999 to 2015, conducted in adults examining the adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics used for acute post-operative pain were considered.Data extraction and synthesisStudies were searched, reviewed and assessed independently by two reviewers and standard data items extracted. Methodological quality was assessed using criteria adapted from AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews)...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Sylvia Spivakovsky, Yael Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases. Reference lists of identified articles were checked and experts in the field and relevant pharmaceutical companies were contacted.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including parallel and crossover, carried out in any setting on any patient population with radiation-induced salivary dysfunction using parasympathomimetics drugs.Data extraction and synthesisThe two authors independently assessed for inclusion, established the risk of bias and abstracted data...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Peter T Theunissen, Sonia Beken, Bruce Beyer, William J Breslin, Gregg D Cappon, Connie L Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Y Hui, Thomas B Knudsen, Susan B Laffan, Susan L Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney, Christine L Siezen, Dinesh J Stanislaus, Jane Stewart, Kary E Thompson, Belen Tornesi, Jan Willem Van der Laan, Gerhard F Weinbauer, Sandra Wood, Aldert H Piersma
A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental lowest adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n = 283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Christoph Funk, Adrian Roth
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern for drug developers, regulators and clinicians. It is triggered by drug and xenobiotic insults leading to liver impairment or damage, in the worst-case liver failure. In contrast to acute "intrinsic" hepatotoxicity, DILI typically manifests in a very small subset of the population under treatment with no clear dose relationship and inconsistent temporal patterns and is therefore termed an idiosyncratic event. Involved are multifactorial, compound-dependent mechanisms and host-specific factors, making the prediction in preclinical test systems very challenging...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
David Fällmar, Johan Lilja, Lena Kilander, Torsten Danfors, Mark Lubberink, Elna-Marie Larsson, Jens Sörensen
The dosage of (18)F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original)...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Man-Chiu Poon, Adrienne Lee
Prophylaxis is considered optimal care for hemophilia patients to prevent bleeding and to preserve joint function thereby improving quality of life (QoL). The evidence for prophylaxis is irrefutable and is the standard of care in developed nations. Prophylaxis can be further individualized to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. Individualization is best accomplished taking into account the bleeding phenotype, physical activity/lifestyle, joint status, and pharmacokinetic handling of specific clotting factor concentrates, all of which vary among individuals...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Marc Jansen, Sophie Em Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Dannis G Van Vuurden, Marc Huisman, Danielle J Vugts, Otto S Hoekstra, Guus A M S van Dongen, Gert-Jan Jl Kaspers
: Predictive tools to guide therapy in children with brain tumors are urgently needed. We introduced molecular imaging to facilitate this. We investigated whether bevacizumab can reach the tumor in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) by measuring the tumor uptake of zirconium-89((89)Zr)-labeled bevacizumab by PET. In addition we evaluated the safety of the procedure in children and determined the optimal timing of imaging. METHODS: Patients received 0...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
B Behnke, O Hupe, R Behrens
Conversion coefficients (CCs) are an essential vehicle in radiation protection for the determination of the dose (rate) of a given radiation field. According to the current draft of the revision of international standard ISO 4037, an X-ray field is a reference field if the CCs of the field match the tabulated ISO values within 2%. Deviations of the high-voltage (HV) tube-potential from its nominal value influence the resulting spectra and change the corresponding CCs. This work investigates the maximum allowable deviation of the HV from its nominal value such that the requirements of ISO 4037 remain fulfilled...
October 20, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
S Kanda, K Goto, H Shiraishi, E Kubo, A Tanaka, H Utsumi, K Sunami, S Kitazono, H Mizugaki, H Horinouchi, Y Fujiwara, H Nokihara, N Yamamoto, H Hozumi, T Tamura
BACKGROUND: The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Ni Lin, Tiantian Liu, Lin Lin, Sheng Lin, Qingce Zang, Jiuming He, Zeper Abliz, Chao Li, Aiping Wang, Hongtao Jin
The standard of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) existed in dextrose injection as an inevitable by-product during high-temperature setrilization has been included in pharmacopoeias considering its hazardous effects on human health. We found that the concentrations of 5-HMF in some traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) far exceeded its limit in dextrose injection. Besides, we detected 5, 5'-Oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural) (OMBF) in those TCMIs containing high concentrations of 5-HMF. We investigated the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of 5-HMF and OMBF at three dose levels using the reporter antigen popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA), which allows the straightforward examination and mechanistic study of immunotoxicity of low molecular weight compounds...
October 17, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jinyang Shen, Xiaolin Yang, Zhaoqing Meng, Changrun Guo
BACKGROUND: High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. PURPOSE: The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. METHODS: Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"