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Equine reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886076/pathogens-inactivated-by-low-energy-electron-irradiation-maintain-antigenic-properties-and-induce-protective-immune-responses
#1
Jasmin Fertey, Lea Bayer, Thomas Grunwald, Alexandra Pohl, Jana Beckmann, Gaby Gotzmann, Javier Portillo Casado, Jessy Schönfelder, Frank-Holm Rögner, Christiane Wetzel, Martin Thoma, Susanne M Bailer, Ekkehard Hiller, Steffen Rupp, Sebastian Ulbert
Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866059/glucocorticoid-metabolism-in-equine-follicles-and-oocytes
#2
D Scarlet, N Ille, R Ertl, B G Alves, G D A Gastal, S O Paiva, M O Gastal, E L Gastal, C Aurich
The objective of this study was to determine whether (1) systemic and intrafollicular cortisol concentrations in horses are directly related and (2) supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids affect in vitro maturation (IVM) rates of oocytes. Specifically, we studied the (1) changes in the intrafollicular cortisol and progesterone in context with granulosa cell gene expression during maturation of equine follicles (from 5-9 mm, 10-14 mm, 15-19 mm, 20-24 mm, and ≥25 mm in diameter) and (2) effects of cortisol supplementation on IVM rates and gene expression of equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)...
October 29, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853717/amiata-donkey-milk-chain-animal-health-evaluation-and-milk-quality
#3
Giuseppe Ragona, Franco Corrias, Martina Benedetti, Maria Paladini, Federica Salari, Lolanda Altomonte, Mina Martini
This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1)...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842717/mhc-correlated-preferences-in-diestrous-female-horses-equus-caballus
#4
D Burger, C Meuwly, E Marti, H Sieme, M Oberthür, J Janda, S Meinecke-Tillmann, C Wedekind
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been shown to influence communication in many vertebrates, possibly with context-specific MHC-correlated reactions. Here we test for MHC-linked female preferences in the polygynous horse (Equus caballus) by repeatedly exposing 19 mares to a group of seven sexually experienced stallions. Each mare was tested four times during two consecutive reproductive cycles, twice during estrus and twice during diestrus. Male plasma testosterone concentrations were determined from weekly blood samples, and equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I and II alleles were determined serologically at the end of the experiments...
September 20, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836047/a-study-of-leptospirosis-in-south-african-horses-and-associated-risk-factors
#5
V Simbizi, M N Saulez, A Potts, C Lötter, B Gummow
Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. In South Africa, the epidemiology of the disease in horses is not well documented. A serosurvey to determine what serovars were present in horses from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces and to get an estimate of the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was carried out from January 2013 until April 2014 with the assistance of four large equine hospitals located in these provinces...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810215/development-of-a-peripheral-nerve-stimulator-guided-technique-for-equine-pudendal-nerve-blockade
#6
K Gallacher, L C Santos, L Campoy, A J Bezuidenhout, R O Gilbert
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a procedure for equine pudendal nerve block using a peripheral nerve locator. In the first experiment, six ponies were used to determine the relationship between elicited muscle contractions (anal, perineal or both) and nerves serving the perineal region (pudendal, caudorectal and perineal nerves) when methylene blue dye was injected using the electrolocation technique. This experiment showed that the pudendal nerve was approached effectively when both anal and perineal twitch were elicited during electrolocation...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810037/endometritis-diagnostic-tools-for-infectious-endometritis
#7
REVIEW
Ryan A Ferris
Infectious endometritis is among the leading causes of subfertility in the mare. However, the best way to reliably diagnose these cases of infectious endometritis can be confusing to the veterinary practitioner. The goal of this article is to describe how to perform various sample collection techniques, what analyses can be performed on these samples, and how to interpret the results of these analysis. Additionally, future technologies will be presented that are not currently used in equine reproduction practice...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810035/hormone-therapy-in-clinical-equine-practice
#8
REVIEW
Patrick M McCue
A wide variety of hormone therapies are used in clinical practice in the reproductive management of horses. The goal of this article is to review therapeutic options for a variety of clinical indications.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795409/structural-biology-of-the-arterivirus-nsp11-endoribonucleases
#9
Manfeng Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Zengqin Deng, Zhenhang Chen, Yang Liu, Yina Gao, Wei Wu, Zhongzhou Chen
: Endoribonuclease (NendoU) is unique and conserved as a major genetic marker in nidoviruses that infect vertebrate hosts. Arterivirus non-structural protein (nsp) 11 was shown to have NendoU activity and play essential roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we report three crystal structures of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) nsp11 mutants. The structures of arterivirus nsp11 contain two conserved compact domains: N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766984/correlations-between-cresty-neck-scores-and-post-mortem-nape-fat-measurements-in-horses-obtained-after-photographic-image-analysis
#10
Severiano R Silva, Rita Payan-Carreira, Cristina M Guedes, Simão Coelho, Ana Sofia Santos
BACKGROUND: Obesity and emaciation in horses have major detrimental effects on health and morbidity, reproductive failure, work performance or carcass quality. Scoring is a current management tool used to assess and monitor equine body condition due to its simplicity and low cost. However, accurate assessment of obesity remains a challenge, even though a number of approaches have been tested, particularly for research purposes on adiposity. Their merit is usually validated by comparison with standard scoring methods...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746003/expression-and-localization-of-cysteine-rich-secretory-protein-3-crisp-3-in-the-prepubertal-and-postpubertal-male-horse
#11
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726992/advances-in-diagnostics-and-therapeutic-techniques-in-breeding-behavior-disorders-in-stallions
#12
REVIEW
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726988/effects-of-common-equine-endocrine-diseases-on-reproduction
#13
REVIEW
Teresa A Burns
Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726987/advances-in-collection-transport-and-maturation-of-equine-oocytes-for-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#14
REVIEW
Elaine M Carnevale
Assisted reproductive techniques that are based on oocyte manipulations have gained acceptance in the equine industry. Methods to collect and handle immature or maturing oocytes have been developed, and systems to ship oocytes now allow for collection in one location and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in another. Subsequently, ICSI-produced embryos can be transferred onsite, shipped to another location, or cryopreserved. Methods for the collection, identification, culture, maturation, and shipment of equine oocytes are reviewed, with an emphasis on procedures from laboratories providing clinical services with documented success...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726984/biological-functions-and-clinical-applications-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-stallions-and-mares
#15
REVIEW
Anthony N J Claes, Barry A Ball
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for Sertoli cell tumors. Considering that AMH is also an ovarian specific product, intact mares can be differentiated from ovariectomized mares. Peripheral AMH concentrations reflect the follicular population in mares, and therefore, are useful in the assessment of ovarian reserve and reproductive life-span of aged mares...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625611/the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-the-reproductive-system
#16
REVIEW
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541817/detection-of-equine-arteritis-virus-by-two-chromogenic-rna-in-situ-hybridization-assays-conventional-and-rnascope-%C3%A2-and-assessment-of-their-performance-in-tissues-from-aborted-equine-fetuses
#17
Mariano Carossino, Alan T Loynachan, N James MacLachlan, Clifton Drew, Kathleen M Shuck, Peter J Timoney, Fabio Del Piero, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids. EAV infection can induce abortion in pregnant mares, fulminant bronchointerstitial pneumonia in foals, and persistent infection in stallions. Here, we developed two RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) assays (conventional and RNAscope(®) ISH) for the detection of viral RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and evaluated and compared their performance with nucleocapsid-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) and virus isolation (VI; gold standard) techniques...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349136/kisspeptin-stimulates-lh-secretion-but-not-ovulation-in-mares-during-vernal-transition
#18
Briony M McGrath, Christopher J Scott, Peter C Wynn, Jaymie Loy, Scott T Norman
Managing the return to regular cyclicity after the winter anestrous period in the mare has been a challenge for the equine breeding industry. Specifically, efforts have been made to shift or shorten the vernal transition period and to have it followed by a predictable first ovulation at the commencement of the breeding season. Intravenous administration of kisspeptin is known to stimulate an LH response in both reproductively active and inactive mares. This study examined the effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of kisspeptin on mares during vernal transition...
October 1, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312927/protected-fatty-acid-supplementation-during-estrus-synchronization-treatment-on-reproductive-parameters-of-dairy-goats
#19
Juliana Dos Santos Kuhner Oliveira, Jeferson Ferreira da Fonseca, Joanna Maria Gonçalves Souza-Fabjan, Luciana Vieira Esteves, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Feres, Carla Aparecida Florentino Rodrigues, Rodolpho de Almeida Torres Filho, Juliana de Oliveira, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
This study evaluated the effect of the protected fatty acid inclusion during estrus synchronization on reproductive parameters. Goats (n = 32) received progestagen sponges for 6 days and 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin and 30 µg d-cloprostenol were given on Day 5. No difference was found among control (C), 1% protected fatty acid inclusion (C + 1%) or 4% protected fatty acid inclusion (C + 4%) groups, respectively, in estrus (100.0, 100.0 or 90.9%), estrus duration (31.6 ± 12.3; 43...
June 16, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260501/seasonal-and-ageing-depending-changes-of-aquaporins-1-and-9-expression-in-the-genital-tract-of-buffalo-bulls-bubalus-bubalis
#20
S Arrighi, G Bosi, G Accogli, S Desantis
The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn-winter) and non-mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels...
August 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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