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Equine reproduction

Severiano R Silva, Rita Payan-Carreira, Cristina M Guedes, Simão Coelho, Ana Sofia Santos
BACKGROUND: Obesity and emaciation in horses have major detrimental effects on health and morbidity, reproductive failure, work performance or carcass quality. Scoring is a current management tool used to assess and monitor equine body condition due to its simplicity and low cost. However, accurate assessment of obesity remains a challenge, even though a number of approaches have been tested, particularly for research purposes on adiposity. Their merit is usually validated by comparison with standard scoring methods...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Teresa A Burns
Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Elaine M Carnevale
Assisted reproductive techniques that are based on oocyte manipulations have gained acceptance in the equine industry. Methods to collect and handle immature or maturing oocytes have been developed, and systems to ship oocytes now allow for collection in one location and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in another. Subsequently, ICSI-produced embryos can be transferred onsite, shipped to another location, or cryopreserved. Methods for the collection, identification, culture, maturation, and shipment of equine oocytes are reviewed, with an emphasis on procedures from laboratories providing clinical services with documented success...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Anthony N J Claes, Barry A Ball
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for Sertoli cell tumors. Considering that AMH is also an ovarian specific product, intact mares can be differentiated from ovariectomized mares. Peripheral AMH concentrations reflect the follicular population in mares, and therefore, are useful in the assessment of ovarian reserve and reproductive life-span of aged mares...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Mariano Carossino, Alan T Loynachan, N James MacLachlan, Clifton Drew, Kathleen M Shuck, Peter J Timoney, Fabio Del Piero, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids. EAV infection can induce abortion in pregnant mares, fulminant bronchointerstitial pneumonia in foals, and persistent infection in stallions. Here, we developed two RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) assays (conventional and RNAscope(®) ISH) for the detection of viral RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and evaluated and compared their performance with nucleocapsid-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) and virus isolation (VI; gold standard) techniques...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
Briony M McGrath, Christopher J Scott, Peter C Wynn, Jaymie Loy, Scott T Norman
Managing the return to regular cyclicity after the winter anestrous period in the mare has been a challenge for the equine breeding industry. Specifically, efforts have been made to shift or shorten the vernal transition period and to have it followed by a predictable first ovulation at the commencement of the breeding season. Intravenous administration of kisspeptin is known to stimulate an LH response in both reproductively active and inactive mares. This study examined the effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of kisspeptin on mares during vernal transition...
October 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Juliana Dos Santos Kuhner Oliveira, Jeferson Ferreira da Fonseca, Joanna Maria Gonçalves Souza-Fabjan, Luciana Vieira Esteves, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Feres, Carla Aparecida Florentino Rodrigues, Rodolpho de Almeida Torres Filho, Juliana de Oliveira, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
This study evaluated the effect of the protected fatty acid inclusion during estrus synchronization on reproductive parameters. Goats (n = 32) received progestagen sponges for 6 days and 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin and 30 µg d-cloprostenol were given on Day 5. No difference was found among control (C), 1% protected fatty acid inclusion (C + 1%) or 4% protected fatty acid inclusion (C + 4%) groups, respectively, in estrus (100.0, 100.0 or 90.9%), estrus duration (31.6 ± 12.3; 43...
June 16, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
S Arrighi, G Bosi, G Accogli, S Desantis
The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn-winter) and non-mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels...
August 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
L Paixão, L M Velez, B R Santos, C Tusset, S B Lecke, A B Motta, P M Spritzer
Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA)...
August 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Saadat Parhizkar, Latiffah Abdul Latiff, Ali Parsa
OBJECTIVE: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
January 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Paul L Wood, Kirsten Scoggin, Barry A Ball, Mats H Troedsson, Edward L Squires
Using a nontargeted lipidomics analysis of equine sperm and seminal plasma, we were able to characterize a diverse array of individual lipids including ethanolamine and choline ether lipids and seminolipids essential to membrane raft function. We also detected, for the first time in sperm, the presence of (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy-fatty acids (OAHFA) with up to 52 carbon chain lengths, which were localized to the head and not the tail of sperm. The only previous identification of OAHFAs has been in meibomian glands and their sebaceous secretions...
September 15, 2016: Theriogenology
Fernando J Peña, Cristina Ortega Ferrusola, Patricia Martín Muñoz
Flow cytometry is currently recognized as a robust tool for the evaluation of sperm quality and function. However, within equine reproduction, this technique has not reached the sophistication of other areas of biology and medicine. In recent years, more sophisticated flow cytometers have been introduced in andrology laboratories, and the number of tests that can be potentially used in the evaluation of sperm physiology has increased accordingly. In this review, recent advances in the evaluation of stallion spermatozoa will be discussed...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Fabio V Comim, Karina Gutierrez, Alessandra Bridi, Guilherme Bochi, Raisa Chemeris, Melânia L Rigo, Andressa Minussi P Dau, Alfredo S Cezar, Rafael Noal Moresco, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves
Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model...
2016: PloS One
Katrin Hinrichs
A research study is a product of not only a question and its pursuit but also the people, places, and facilities available at the time. My work in equine assisted reproduction has progressed from embryo transfer to oocyte maturation, oocyte transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsy, embryo vitrification, and cloning, as a result of collaborations with an array of remarkable people. This is a summary of some of the stories behind the studies.
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Claudia Klein
Relaxin is a peptide hormone best known for its action during the latter half of pregnancy, in particular for its softening effect on pelvic ligaments that aids in preparation of the birth canal for the impending delivery of the fetus. The source of relaxin during early pregnancy varies across species, with the CL being the main source in a number of species. The main source of relaxin during late equine pregnancy is the placenta. In mares with impaired placental function, circulating relaxin levels decline before abortion...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
A J Conley
Analytical advancements, especially methods using gas or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, have allowed more specific and reliable measurement of multiple steroid hormones in the plasma of mares throughout gestation and the periparturient period. Data such as these will form the central focus of this review. The comprehensive analyses possible with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry illuminate the key physiological and developmental transitions that make equine gestation unique. Weeks 6 to 20 encompass endometrial cup formation and equine chorionic gonadotropic secretion that stimulates primary corpora lutea and induces formation of secondary luteal structures...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Rahel Schrimpf, Maren Gottschalk, Julia Metzger, Gunilla Martinsson, Harald Sieme, Ottmar Distl
BACKGROUND: Stallion fertility is an economically important trait due to the increase of artificial insemination in horses. The availability of whole genome sequence data facilitates identification of rare high-impact variants contributing to stallion fertility. The aim of our study was to genotype rare high-impact variants retrieved from next-generation sequencing (NGS)-data of 11 horses in order to unravel harmful genetic variants in large samples of stallions. METHODS: Gene ontology (GO) terms and search results from public databases were used to obtain a comprehensive list of human und mice genes predicted to participate in the regulation of male reproduction...
2016: BMC Genomics
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