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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352509/molecular-evidence-to-suggest-pigeon-type-chlamydia-psittaci-in-association-with-an-equine-foal-loss
#1
M Jelocnik, C Jenkins, B O'Rourke, J Barnwell, A Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an important avian pathogen with spillover from infected wild and domesticated birds also posing a risk to human health. We recently reported a case of C. psittaci equine placentitis associated with further spillover to humans. Molecular typing of this case revealed it belonged to the 6BC clade of C. psittaci, a globally distributed highly virulent set of strains, typically linked to infection spillover from parrots. Equine chlamydiosis associated with C. psittaci infection has previously been reported elsewhere in countries where parrots are not endemic, however, raising questions over the identity of infecting C...
January 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337162/antiviral-activity-of-k22-against-members-of-the-order-nidovirales
#2
Julie Christiane Françoise Rappe, Adriaan de Wilde, Han Di, Christin Müller, Hanspeter Stalder, Philip V'kovski, Eric Snijder, Margo A Brinton, John Ziebuhr, Nicolas Ruggli, Volker Thiel
Recently, a novel antiviral compound (K22) that inhibits replication of a broad range of animal and human coronaviruses was reported to interfere with viral RNA synthesis by impairing double-membrane vesicle (DMV) formation (Lundin et al., 2014). Here we assessed potential antiviral activities of K22 against a range of viruses representing two (sub)families of the order Nidovirales, the Arteriviridae (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [PRRSV], equine arteritis virus [EAV] and simian hemorrhagic fever virus [SHFV]), and the Torovirinae (equine torovirus [EToV] and White Bream virus [WBV])...
January 11, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229370/differences-in-signal-peptide-processing-between-gp3-glycoproteins-of-arteriviridae
#3
Minze Zhang, Michael Veit
We reported previously that carbohydrate attachment to an overlapping glycosylation site adjacent to the signal peptide of GP3 from equine arteritis virus (EAV) prevents cleavage. Here we investigated whether this unusual processing scheme is a feature of GP3s of other Arteriviridae, which all contain a glycosylation site at a similar position. Expression of GP3 from type-1 and type-2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and from lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) revealed that the first glycosylation site is used, but has no effect on signal peptide cleavage...
December 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198956/effects-of-staining-method-and-clinician-experience-on-the-evaluation-of-stallion-sperm-morphology
#4
Ruby Yoana Murcia-Robayo, Eleonore Jouanisson, Guy Beauchamp, Mouhamadou Diaw
Evaluation of sperm morphology is part of the assessment of fertility in human and animal reproduction. Analyses can be performed using different techniques, including the use of staining methods In our prospective study, the morphology of equine sperm was evaluated using 3 staining methods Diff-Quik, eosin-nigrosin, and SpermBlue, the latter being a relatively new stain commonly used for human sperm. Our hypotheses were that (1) SpermBlue allows easier assessment of horse sperm morphology and facilitates better identification of sperm abnormalities, and (2) sperm morphology classification differs depending on the evaluator's experience...
November 29, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196493/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-in-domestic-and-wild-mammals
#5
Daniel Felipe Salamone, Natalia G Canel, Maria Belén Rodriguez
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a useful technique for clinical applications in the horse breeding industry. However, both ICSI blastocyst and offspring production continues to be limited for most farm and wild species. This article reviews technical differences of ICSI performance among species, possible biological and methodological reasons for the variable efficiency and potential strategies to improve the outcomes. One of the major applications of ICSI in animal production is the reproduction of high value specimens...
December 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172072/reproductive-effects-of-arteriviruses-equine-arteritis-virus-and-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infections
#6
REVIEW
Udeni Br Balasuriya, Mariano Carossino
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are the most economically important members of the family Arteriviridae. EAV and PRRSV cause reproductive and respiratory disease in equids and swine, respectively and constitute a significant economic burden to equine and swine industries around the world. Furthermore, they both cause abortion in pregnant animals and establish persistent infection in their natural hosts, which fosters viral shedding in semen leading to sexual transmission...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153167/a-100-year-review-reproductive-technologies-in-dairy-science
#7
S G Moore, J F Hasler
Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146097/descriptive-study-of-current-therapeutic-practices-clinical-reproductive-findings-and-incidence-of-pregnancy-loss-in-intensively-managed-thoroughbred-mares
#8
B V Rose, M Firth, B Morris, J M Roach, D C Wathes, K L P Verheyen, A M de Mestre
Therapeutic practices in equine reproductive medicine have dramatically evolved over the last 20 years but current usage is not described. The aims of this study were to provide a description of medication use and clinical findings of reproductive examinations alongside measures of reproductive efficiency in thoroughbreds. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons. Mare and stallion details, information on veterinary interventions and findings of reproductive ultrasound scans were collected using questionnaires and entered into a custom-designed Microsoft Access database...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134689/effectiveness-of-controlled-internal-drug-release-device-treatment-to-alleviate-reproductive-seasonality-in-anestrus-lactating-or-dry-barki-and-rahmani-ewes-during-non-breeding-season
#9
M Y El-Mokadem, Anm Nour El-Din, T A Ramadan, A M Rashad, T A Taha, M A Samak, M H Salem
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112778/clinical-application-of-hysteroscopic-hydrotubation-for-unexplained-infertility-in-the-mare
#10
Y Inoue, M Sekiguchi
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic techniques for oviductal obstruction in the mare are limited. Non-surgical and retrograde flushing may be an attractive alternative to current treatment methods for oviductal blockage. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hysteroscopic selective hydrotubation as a treatment option for presumptive equine oviductal blockage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Ten ml of saline was flushed through the oviducts in 28 standing sedated mares, which had reproductive histories of unexplained subfertility, by inserting a catheter into the uterotubal junction under endoscopic guidance...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055819/dynamics-of-lentiviral-infection-in-vivo-in-the-absence-of-adaptive-immune-responses
#11
Elissa J Schwartz, Naveen K Vaidya, Karin S Dorman, Susan Carpenter, Robert H Mealey
Understanding the dynamics of acute viral infection is crucial for developing strategies to prevent and control infection. In this study, lentiviral dynamics in a host without adaptive immunity were examined in order to determine kinetic parameters of infection and quantify the effect of neutralizing antibodies in preventing infection, using mathematical modeling of data from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Estimated parameters were used to calculate the basic reproductive number and virus doubling time and found that the rate that antibodies neutralized virus was ~18 times greater than the virus clearance rate...
October 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039146/estrogen-based-hormone-therapy-in-women-with-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-a-systematic-review
#12
Nydia Burgos, Dahima Cintron, Paula Latortue-Albino, Valentina Serrano, Rene Rodriguez Gutierrez, Stephanie Faubion, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Patricia J Erwin, Mohammad Hassan Murad
PURPOSE: Sex hormones play a role in bone density, cardiovascular health, and wellbeing throughout reproductive lifespan. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) have lower estrogen levels requiring hormone therapy (HT) to manage symptoms and to protect against adverse long-term health outcomes. Yet, the effectiveness of HT in preventing adverse outcomes has not been systematically assessed. We summarize the evidence regarding effects of HT on bone and cardiovascular health in women with POI...
December 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028843/efficiency-of-different-air-filter-types-for-pig-facilities-at-laboratory-scale
#13
Cindy Wenke, Janina Pospiech, Tobias Reutter, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
Air filtration has been shown to be efficient in reducing pathogen burden in circulating air. We determined at laboratory scale the retention efficiency of different air filter types either composed of a prefilter (EU class G4) and a secondary fiberglass filter (EU class F9) or consisting of a filter mat (EU class M6 and F8-9). Four filter prototypes were tested for their capability to remove aerosol containing equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), bovine enterovirus 1 (BEV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), and Staphylococcus (S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984040/equine-chlamydiosis-an-emerging-infectious-disease-requiring-a-one-health-surveillance-approach
#14
K A Taylor, D Durrheim, J Heller, B O'Rourke, K Hope, T Merritt, P Freeman, C Chicken, J Carrick, J Branley, P Massey
Psittacosis is a rare but potentially fatal zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci, an organism that is typically associated with bird contact. However C. psittaci is capable of infecting other non-avian hosts, such as horses, sheep, cattle and goats. Stud staff and veterinarians have significant exposure to parturient animals and reproductive materials in their routine work. To investigate the zoonotic potential associated with the emergence of C. psittaci as an abortifacient agent in horses, we established a programme of joint human and animal surveillance in a sentinel horse-breeding region in Australia...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971522/half-a-century-of-equine-reproduction-research-and-application-a%C3%A2-veterinary-tour-de-force
#15
REVIEW
W R Allen, S Wilsher
Over the past 50 years, per season pregnancy rate in Thoroughbred mares have risen from 70 to >90% and foaling rates from 55 to >80%. Some of the significant pharmacological treatments and diagnostic methods which have driven this marked improvement in breeding efficiency are reviewed. They include the application of artificial lighting to hasten the onset of ovulatory oestrous cyclicity in early Spring, rapid steroid hormone assays to aid in determining the stage and normality of the mare's cycle, prostaglandin analogues, synthetic progestagens and Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogues to better control and manipulate her cycle to good effect, transrectal ultrasound scanning to monitor follicle growth, endometrial architecture and ovulation and to allow accurate, early pregnancy diagnosis thereby enabling successful ablation of one of twin conceptuses...
January 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921680/measurement-of-urinary-concentrations-of-the-mycotoxins-zearalenone-and-sterigmatocystin-as-biomarkers-of-exposure-in%C3%A2-mares
#16
M Takagi, S Uno, E Kokushi, F Sato, Mmp Wijayagunawardane, J Fink-Gremmels
Mycotoxins may affect animal health, including reproduction. Little is known about the clinical relevance of exposure of horses to contaminated feed. This study aimed at (i) monitoring the levels of the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN), with its metabolites α- and β-zearalenol (α- and β-ZOL), and sterigmatocystin (STC) in urine samples from thoroughbred mares in Japan and (ii) relating these findings to the potential effects on reproductive efficacy of breeding mares. Sixty-three urine samples of breeding mares from 59 breeding farms were used...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920796/successful-laparoscopic-oviductal-artificial-insemination-in-the-clouded-leopard-neofelis-nebulosa-in-thailand
#17
Wanlaya Tipkantha, Paweena Thuwanut, Umaporn Maikeaw, Ampika Thongphakdee, Saifon Yapila, Sumate Kamolnorranath, Boripat Siriaroonrat, Pierre Comizzoli, Kaywalee Chatdarong
Captive breeding of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) is challenging because of mating incompatibility, high incidence of teratospermia in males, and inconsistent ovulation patterns in females. Assisted reproductive techniques, therefore, are necessary to overcome these issues and maintain the genetic diversity in the captive population. The objective was to use laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination (AI) to breed genetically valuable females (n = 4; aged 4.5-5 yr) that were unsuccessfully paired...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917126/effects-of-a-single-administration-of-different-gonadotropins-on-day-7%C3%A2-post-insemination-on-pregnancy-outcomes-of-rabbit-does
#18
N M Hashem, Z R Aboul-Ezz
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single administration of one of three different gonadotropins on Day 7 post-insemination on ovarian activity, progesterone (P4) concentration and pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does. Multiparous, non-lactating, V-line does were artificially inseminated after synchronization and ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 25 IU im) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 0.8  μg buserelin im) 48 h later. On Day 7 post-inseminarion, does were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 40/group)...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846911/testicular-volumetry-and-prediction-of-daily-sperm-output-in-stallions-by-orchidometry-and-two-and-three-dimensional-sonography
#19
S Pricking, H Bollwein, K Spilker, G Martinsson, A Schweizer, S Thomas, H Oldenhof, H Sieme
Accurate determination of the testes volume and prediction of the daily sperm output (DSO) is valuable information for reproductive management of a stallion. The aim of this study was to compare different methods for measuring the testes volume, including caliper, 2D and 3D ultrasound. Special emphasis was on feasibility of 3D volume analysis. First, 22 castrated testes were measured and derived volumes were compared with volumes determined via volume displacement in a graded cylinder with saline solution. Then, during the breeding season, testes sizes of 52 stallions were measured in vivo and analyzed...
August 19, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832429/effects-of-oral-versus-transdermal-menopausal-hormone-treatments-on-self-reported-sleep-domains-and-their-association-with-vasomotor-symptoms-in-recently-menopausal-women-enrolled-in-the-kronos-early-estrogen-prevention-study-keeps
#20
Dahima Cintron, Brian D Lahr, Kent R Bailey, Nanette Santoro, Robin Lloyd, JoAnn E Manson, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Lubna Pal, Hugh S Taylor, Whitney Wharton, Fredrick Naftolin, S Mitchell Harman, Virginia M Miller
OBJECTIVE: This study determined whether two different formulations of hormone therapy (HT): oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE; 0.45 mg/d, n = 209), transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2; 50 μg/d, n = 201) plus cyclic progesterone (Prometrium, 200 mg) or placebo (PBO, n = 243) affected sleep domains in participants of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. METHODS: Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at baseline and during the intervention at 6, 18, 36, and 48 months...
August 21, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
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