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Equine reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134689/effectiveness-of-controlled-internal-drug-release-device-treatment-to-alleviate-reproductive-seasonality-in-anestrus-lactating-or-dry-barki-and-rahmani-ewes-during-non-breeding-season
#1
M Y El-Mokadem, Anm Nour El-Din, T A Ramadan, A M Rashad, T A Taha, M A Samak, M H Salem
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112778/clinical-application-of-hysteroscopic-hydrotubation-for-unexplained-infertility-in-the-mare
#2
Y Inoue, M Sekiguchi
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic techniques for oviductal obstruction in the mare are limited. Non-surgical and retrograde flushing may be an attractive alternative to current treatment methods for oviductal blockage. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hysteroscopic selective hydrotubation as a treatment option for presumptive equine oviductal blockage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Ten ml of saline was flushed through the oviducts in 28 standing sedated mares, which had reproductive histories of unexplained subfertility, by inserting a catheter into the uterotubal junction under endoscopic guidance...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055819/dynamics-of-lentiviral-infection-in-vivo-in-the-absence-of-adaptive-immune-responses
#3
Elissa J Schwartz, Naveen K Vaidya, Karin S Dorman, Susan Carpenter, Robert H Mealey
Understanding the dynamics of acute viral infection is crucial for developing strategies to prevent and control infection. In this study, lentiviral dynamics in a host without adaptive immunity were examined in order to determine kinetic parameters of infection and quantify the effect of neutralizing antibodies in preventing infection, using mathematical modeling of data from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Estimated parameters were used to calculate the basic reproductive number and virus doubling time and found that the rate that antibodies neutralized virus was ~18 times greater than the virus clearance rate...
October 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039146/estrogen-based-hormone-therapy-in-women-with-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-a-systematic-review
#4
Nydia Burgos, Dahima Cintron, Paula Latortue-Albino, Valentina Serrano, Rene Rodriguez Gutierrez, Stephanie Faubion, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Patricia J Erwin, Mohammad Hassan Murad
PURPOSE: Sex hormones play a role in bone density, cardiovascular health, and wellbeing throughout reproductive lifespan. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) have lower estrogen levels requiring hormone therapy (HT) to manage symptoms and to protect against adverse long-term health outcomes. Yet, the effectiveness of HT in preventing adverse outcomes has not been systematically assessed. We summarize the evidence regarding effects of HT on bone and cardiovascular health in women with POI...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028843/efficiency-of-different-air-filter-types-for-pig-facilities-at-laboratory-scale
#5
Cindy Wenke, Janina Pospiech, Tobias Reutter, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
Air filtration has been shown to be efficient in reducing pathogen burden in circulating air. We determined at laboratory scale the retention efficiency of different air filter types either composed of a prefilter (EU class G4) and a secondary fiberglass filter (EU class F9) or consisting of a filter mat (EU class M6 and F8-9). Four filter prototypes were tested for their capability to remove aerosol containing equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), bovine enterovirus 1 (BEV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), and Staphylococcus (S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984040/equine-chlamydiosis-an-emerging-infectious-disease-requiring-a-one-health-surveillance-approach
#6
K A Taylor, D Durrheim, J Heller, B O'Rourke, K Hope, T Merritt, P Freeman, C Chicken, J Carrick, J Branley, P Massey
Psittacosis is a rare but potentially fatal zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci, an organism that is typically associated with bird contact. However C. psittaci is capable of infecting other non-avian hosts, such as horses, sheep, cattle and goats. Stud staff and veterinarians have significant exposure to parturient animals and reproductive materials in their routine work. To investigate the zoonotic potential associated with the emergence of C. psittaci as an abortifacient agent in horses, we established a programme of joint human and animal surveillance in a sentinel horse-breeding region in Australia...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971522/half-a-century-of-equine-reproduction-research-and-application-a-veterinary-tour-de-force
#7
REVIEW
Twink W R Allen, S Wilsher
Over the past 50 years, pregnancy rates in Thoroughbred mares have risen from 70 to >90% and foaling rates from 55 to >80%. Some of the significant pharmacological treatments and diagnostic methods which have driven this marked improvement in breeding efficiency are reviewed. They include the application of artificial lighting to hasten the onset of ovulatory oestrous cyclicity in early Spring, rapid steroid hormone assays to aid in determining the stage and normality of the mare's cycle, prostaglandin analogues, synthetic progestagens and Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogues to better control and manipulate her cycle to good effect, transrectal ultrasound scanning to monitor follicle growth, endometrial architecture and ovulation and to allow accurate, early pregnancy diagnosis thereby enabling successful ablation of one of twin conceptuses...
October 3, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921680/measurement-of-urinary-concentrations-of-the-mycotoxins-zearalenone-and-sterigmatocystin-as-biomarkers-of-exposure-in%C3%A2-mares
#8
M Takagi, S Uno, E Kokushi, F Sato, Mmp Wijayagunawardane, J Fink-Gremmels
Mycotoxins may affect animal health, including reproduction. Little is known about the clinical relevance of exposure of horses to contaminated feed. This study aimed at (i) monitoring the levels of the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN), with its metabolites α- and β-zearalenol (α- and β-ZOL), and sterigmatocystin (STC) in urine samples from thoroughbred mares in Japan and (ii) relating these findings to the potential effects on reproductive efficacy of breeding mares. Sixty-three urine samples of breeding mares from 59 breeding farms were used...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920796/successful-laparoscopic-oviductal-artificial-insemination-in-the-clouded-leopard-neofelis-nebulosa-in-thailand
#9
Wanlaya Tipkantha, Paweena Thuwanut, Umaporn Maikeaw, Ampika Thongphakdee, Saifon Yapila, Sumate Kamolnorranath, Boripat Siriaroonrat, Pierre Comizzoli, Kaywalee Chatdarong
Captive breeding of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) is challenging because of mating incompatibility, high incidence of teratospermia in males, and inconsistent ovulation patterns in females. Assisted reproductive techniques, therefore, are necessary to overcome these issues and maintain the genetic diversity in the captive population. The objective was to use laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination (AI) to breed genetically valuable females (n = 4; aged 4.5-5 yr) that were unsuccessfully paired...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917126/effects-of-a-single-administration-of-different-gonadotropins-on-day-7%C3%A2-post-insemination-on-pregnancy-outcomes-of-rabbit-does
#10
N M Hashem, Z R Aboul-Ezz
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single administration of one of three different gonadotropins on Day 7 post-insemination on ovarian activity, progesterone (P4) concentration and pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does. Multiparous, non-lactating, V-line does were artificially inseminated after synchronization and ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 25 IU im) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 0.8  μg buserelin im) 48 h later. On Day 7 post-inseminarion, does were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 40/group)...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846911/testicular-volumetry-and-prediction-of-daily-sperm-output-in-stallions-by-orchidometry-and-two-and-three-dimensional-sonography
#11
S Pricking, H Bollwein, K Spilker, G Martinsson, A Schweizer, S Thomas, H Oldenhof, H Sieme
Accurate determination of the testes volume and prediction of the daily sperm output (DSO) is valuable information for reproductive management of a stallion. The aim of this study was to compare different methods for measuring the testes volume, including caliper, 2D and 3D ultrasound. Special emphasis was on feasibility of 3D volume analysis. First, 22 castrated testes were measured and derived volumes were compared with volumes determined via volume displacement in a graded cylinder with saline solution. Then, during the breeding season, testes sizes of 52 stallions were measured in vivo and analyzed...
August 19, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832429/effects-of-oral-versus-transdermal-menopausal-hormone-treatments-on-self-reported-sleep-domains-and-their-association-with-vasomotor-symptoms-in-recently-menopausal-women-enrolled-in-the-kronos-early-estrogen-prevention-study-keeps
#12
Dahima Cintron, Brian D Lahr, Kent R Bailey, Nanette Santoro, Robin Lloyd, JoAnn E Manson, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Lubna Pal, Hugh S Taylor, Whitney Wharton, Fredrick Naftolin, S Mitchell Harman, Virginia M Miller
OBJECTIVE: This study determined whether two different formulations of hormone therapy (HT): oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE; 0.45 mg/d, n = 209), transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2; 50 μg/d, n = 201) plus cyclic progesterone (Prometrium, 200 mg) or placebo (PBO, n = 243) affected sleep domains in participants of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. METHODS: Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at baseline and during the intervention at 6, 18, 36, and 48 months...
August 21, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814389/equine-arteritis-virus-elicits-a-mucosal-antibody-response-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-persistently-infected-stallions
#13
Mariano Carossino, Bettina Wagner, Alan T Loynachan, R Frank Cook, Igor F Canisso, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Casey L Edwards, Bora Nam, John F Timoney, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands...
October 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803166/advanced-age-in-mares-affects-endometrial-secretion-of-arachidonic-acid-metabolites-during-equine-subclinical-endometritis
#14
Marta J Siemieniuch, Katarzyna Gajos, Roland Kozdrowski, Marcin Nowak
Even if mares continue to breed up to an advanced age, in aging mares reproductive failure is quite common. Subclinical endometritis, which occurs more often in aging mares than in younger counterparts, may cause prolongation or shortening of the inter-estrus period or the corpus luteum lifespan. We hypothesized that during subclinical endometritis the secretion of selected arachidonic acid metabolites may differ in aging mares compared to younger females. To verify this thesis, ex vivo organ cultures of endometrium were established with subsequent measurements of concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-PGF1α and both leukotrienes (LTs), LTB4 and LTC4 in the culture supernatants...
November 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796430/reproductive-careers-of-thoroughbred-broodmares-before-and-after-surgical-correction-of-%C3%A2-360-degree-large-colon-volvulus
#15
E R Leahy, S J Holcombe, E S Hackett, C F Scoggin, R M Embertson
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing broodmare longevity and reproductive efficiency after surgical correction of ≥360 degree large colon volvulus (° LCV). OBJECTIVES: Compare career duration and foals delivered for broodmares before and after ≥360° LCV surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Broodmares registered with The Jockey Club that had surgical correction of ≥360° LCV and survived to hospital discharge at Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2015 were included...
August 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753494/ovarian-steroids-oxytocin-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-modulate-equine-oviduct-function
#16
P Pinto-Bravo, A Galvão, M R Rebordão, A Amaral, D Ramilo, E Silva, A Szóstek-Mioduchowska, G Alexandre-Pires, R Roberto da Costa, D J Skarzynski, G Ferreira-Dias
The oviduct plays important roles in the early reproductive process. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene transcription and protein expression of progesterone receptor (PGR), estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2); oxytocin receptor (OXTR); prostaglandin F2α synthase (AKR1C3), and prostaglandin E2 synthase (Ptges) in mare oviduct in different estrous cycle stages. Estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OXT), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) effect on in vitro PGE2 and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secretion by equine oviduct explants or by oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) were also assessed...
June 24, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753433/effect-of-kisspeptin-10-lh-and-hcg-on-serum-testosterone-concentrations-in-stallions-donkeys-and-mules
#17
Rana Waseem Akhtar, Syed Aftab Hussain Shah, Irfan Zia Qureshi
This study was conducted to determine the response of serum testosterone (T) in male equines (stallions, donkeys and mules) after administering intravenous doses of kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and saline as a control. The animals were divided into four groups of three each: Group I, 3 ml of 0.95% saline; Group II, 50 μg KP-10; Group III, 2500 IU hCG and group IV, 400 μg LH. The administration of KP-10 and hCG to stallions resulted in a significant increase in serum T concentration at 240 min; whereas it was significantly higher at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentrations...
July 21, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741737/effect-of-exogenous-progesterone-administration-on-luteal-sensitivity-to-pgf-during-the-early-development-of-the-corpus-luteum-in-mares-and-cows
#18
A Garcia-Muñoz, X Valldecabres-Torres, J R Newcombe, J Cuervo-Arango, E Garcia-Rosello
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone administration at ovulation and during the early development of the CL, on its future sensitivity to a single administration of PGF2a in mares and cows. Horse Retrospective reproductive data from an equine clinic in the UK during three breeding seasons were used. Mares were divided into: control group, cycles with single ovulations; double ovulation group cycles with asynchronous double ovulations; and PRID group: cycles with single ovulations and treatment with intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR) immediately after the ovulation...
July 25, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735601/impact-of-equine-assisted-reproductive-technologies-standard-embryo-transfer-or-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-icsi-with-in-vitro-culture-and-embryo-transfer-on-placenta-and-foal-morphometry-and-placental-gene-expression
#19
Orlando A Valenzuela, Anne Couturier-Tarrade, Young-Ho Choi, Marie-Christine Aubrière, Justin Ritthaler, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Katrin Hinrichs
Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in vitro embryo culture and embryo transfer (ET) may be associated with alterations in fetal and placental development. In horses, ET has been used for decades. More recently, in vitro embryo production by ICSI and in vitro culture, followed by embryo transfer (ICSI-C) has become an accepted method for clinical foal production. However, no information is available on the effects of ICSI-C or even of standard ET itself on placental and neonatal parameters in horses...
July 24, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721542/molecular-characterization-modeling-in-silico-analysis-of-equine-pituitary-gonadotropin-alpha-subunit-and-docking-interaction-studies-with-ganirelix
#20
Anuradha Bhardwaj, Varij Nayan, Parvati Sharma, Sanjay Kumar, Yash Pal, Jitender Singh
Equine pituitary gonadotropins (eLH, eFSH, eCG) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones with alpha (α) and beta (β) subunits. It is responsible for maintenance of pregnancy in mares during early gestation and fairly valuable for inducing superovulation in animals other than equines. The alpha subunit is common, while beta subunit is species-specific in all glycoprotein hormones. In the present investigation, molecular cloning and in silico characterization including homology modeling and molecular docking analysis of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) alpha subunit was carried out for gaining structural and functional insights into the eCG alpha subunit and its possible interaction with ganirelix, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist...
December 2016: In Silico Pharmacology
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