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Equine reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775846/reproductive-stage-and-sex-steroid-hormone-levels-influence-the-expression-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-msc-markers-in-the-equine-endometrium
#1
B Elisabeth Rink, Juliane Kuhl, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) play key roles in tissue homeostasis. In the cyclic equine endometrium, this may be regulated by changes in serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones. This study was designed to investigate the changes in endometrial expression of MSC markers during reproductive cycles in mares and the influence of sex steroid hormones on endometrial MSC proliferation in vitro. Endometrial biopsies were collected from pony mares at different reproductive stages (estrus; day 5 and 13 after ovulation; seasonal anestrus; 20 h and 7days post-partum; n = 5 per stage) and were analyzed by RT-qPCR...
May 4, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765033/an-epizootic-of-chlamydia-psittaci-equine-reproductive-loss-associated-with-suspected-spillover-from-native-australian-parrots
#2
Cheryl Jenkins, Martina Jelocnik, Melinda L Micallef, Francesca Galea, Alyce Taylor-Brown, Daniel R Bogema, Michael Liu, Brendon O'Rourke, Catherine Chicken, Joan Carrick, Adam Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen capable of spill-over infections to humans. A parrot C. psittaci strain was recently detected in an equine reproductive loss case associated with a subsequent cluster of human C. psittaci infections. In this study, we screened for C. psittaci in cases of equine reproductive loss reported in regional New South Wales, Australia during the 2016 foaling season. C. psittaci specific-PCR screening of foetal and placental tissue samples from cases of equine abortion (n = 161) and foals with compromised health status (n = 38) revealed C...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755409/glial-cells-missing-1-regulates-equine-chorionic-gonadotrophin-beta-subunit-via-binding-to-the-proximal-promoter
#3
Jordan E Read, Victoria Cabrera-Sharp, Phoebe Kitscha, Judith E Cartwright, Peter J King, Robert C Fowkes, Amanda M de Mestre
Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is a placental glycoprotein critical for early equine pregnancy and used therapeutically in a number of species to support reproductive activity. The factors in trophoblast that transcriptionally regulate eCGβ-subunit ( LHB ), the gene which confers the hormones specificity for the receptor, are not known. The aim of this study was to determine if glial cells missing 1 regulates LHB promoter activity. Here, studies of the LHB proximal promoter identified four binding sites for glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) and western blot analysis confirmed GCM1 was expressed in equine chorionic girdle (ChG) and surrounding tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667280/grass-greenness-flush-can-influence-breeding-phenology-and-fertility-in-equatorial-thoroughbred-mares-in-the-absence-of-photoperiod-variation
#4
Juan Carranza, Washington A Yoong, Belén Caño Vergara, Abel Briones, Concha Mateos
Reproductive phenology is an important trait subjected to natural selection. Current horses in America belong to the Palearctic original populations after being introduced by European colonizers. Photoperiod variation is the main environmental factor for the adjustment of reproductive timing in horses, but is absent in equatorial areas. Here we hypothesize that seasonality of green-grass availability may influence breeding phenology in equatorial regions. We used data of 929 services to mares from 2006 to 2011 in a thoroughbred equine exploitation in Ecuador that experienced strong grass seasonality...
April 17, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660500/occurrence-and-seasonal-variation-of-equine-estrogens-equilin-and-equilenin-in-the-river-water-of-japan-implication-with-endocrine-disrupting-potentials-to-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#5
Hiroshi Ishibashi, Masaya Uchida, Keisuke Yoshimoto, Yuta Imamura, Ryoko Yamamoto, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Masahito Kawai, Nobuhiro Ichikawa, Yuji Takao, Nobuaki Tominaga, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Koji Arizono
In this study, we determined the concentration of equine estrogens, such as equilin (Eq) and equilenin (Eqn), in the river water collected from nine research stations in Hokkaido, Japan. The LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that Eq concentrations were 2.7 ± 6.7, 0.22 ± 0.12, and 1.2 ± 0.64 ng/L in Sep 2015, Feb 2016, and Jul 2016, respectively. Eqn had concentration levels similar to those of Eq. Comparison of the concentrations at nine research stations showed that seasonal variation was observed in the detected Eq and Eqn concentration levels...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658099/identification-of-serotoninergic-system-components-in-stallion-sperm
#6
F Jiménez-Trejo, I Coronado-Mares, M Boeta, I González-Santoyo, R Vigueras-Villaseñor, C Arriaga-Canon, L Herrera-Montalvo, M Tapia-Rodríguez
Assisted reproductive techniques have been used on several domestic animals to preserve desirable traits in strains of high genetic and commercial value; however in equines its efficiency rate is relatively low. To increase the conception ratio in stallions, some research groups have used pharmacological treatments which promote sperm hyperactivation in order to increase male's fertility rates. In this way, our previous work suggests that serotonin (5-HT) could be a good pharmacological candidate that facilitates conception rate in domestic horses...
April 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653388/synchronization-treatments-previous-to-natural-breeding-anticipate-and-improve-the-pregnancy-rate-of-postpartum-primiparous-beef-cows
#7
R M Ferreira, T L Conti, R L Gonçalves, L A Souto, J N S Sales, M F Sá Filho, F M Elliff, P S Baruselli
Timed AI has become a potential tool to bypass postpartum acyclicity, yet only a small percentage of the world bovine herd is inseminated. Most females are still subjected to bull mating; therefore, the frequent occurrence of postpartum anestrus may compromise their reproductive efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an approach that allows the early conception of postpartum primiparous beef cows that are exposed to natural breeding (NB). For this purpose, 350 primiparous Nelore cows 35-65 d postpartum were allocated into three groups: Control (no hormonal treatment), TNB (hormonal protocol for timed-NB without equine chorionic gonadotropin; eCG) and TNB + eCG (hormonal protocol for TNB with eCG) groups...
April 4, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618647/identification-of-the-rna-pseudoknot-within-the-3-end-of-prrsv-genome-as-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-to-activate-antiviral-signaling-via-rig-i-and-tlr3
#8
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490063/mimicking-physiological-o2-tension-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-improves-assisted-reproduction-outcomes-in-pig
#9
S García-Martínez, M A Sánchez-Hurtado, H Gutiérrez, F M Sánchez-Margallo, R Romar, R Latorre, P Coy, O López-Albors
STUDY QUESTION: Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? SUMMARY ANSWER: O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455706/review-the-potential-of-seminal-fluid-mediated-paternal-maternal-communication-to-optimise-pregnancy-success
#10
J J Bromfield
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation...
February 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444949/downregulation-of-microrna-eca-mir-128-in-seminal-exosomes-and-enhanced-expression-of-cxcl16-in-the-stallion-reproductive-tract-are-associated-with-long-term-persistence-of-equine-arteritis-virus
#11
Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, Kathleen M Shuck, Peter J Timoney, R Frank Cook, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) can establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and is shed in the semen. Previous studies showed that long-term persistence is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene ( CXCL16S ) and that persistent infection is maintained despite the presence of a local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. In this study, we demonstrated that equine seminal exosomes (SEs) are enriched in a small subset of microRNAs (miRNAs). Most importantly, we demonstrated that long-term EAV persistence is associated with the downregulation of an SE-associated miRNA (eca-mir-128) and with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 in the reproductive tract, a putative target of eca-mir-128...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437259/early-fetal-sexing-in-the-rhinoceros-by-detection-of-male-specific-genes-in-maternal-serum
#12
Monica A Stoops, G Douglas Winget, Christopher J DeChant, Ray L Ball, Terri L Roth
Genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. Here, X and Y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (Diceros bicornis, Certaotherium simum simum, Rhinoceros unicornis, and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). The Y chromosome-specific primer set targeted SRY (Sex-determining region Y), and amplified a 177-bp product following PCR of DNA extracted from males, but not females, of all species...
March 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428703/the-contribution-of-total-and-free-iodothyronines-to-welfare-maintenance-and-management-stress-coping-in-ruminants-and-equines-physiological-ranges-and-reference-values
#13
REVIEW
Adriana Ferlazzo, Cristina Cravana, Esterina Fazio, Pietro Medica
In order to acquire a pattern of thyroid involvement in welfare maintenance in Ruminants and Equines, this review summarizes data concerning the reference values of total and free iodothyronines and their modifications in physiological conditions and in different management conditions (pregnancy, lactation, weaning, growth, isolation, restraint, shearing, confinement and transportation). Thyroidal and extrathyroidal tissues efficiently respond to management practices, giving a differentiated contribution to circulating iodothyronine changes...
February 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413884/epidemiological-investigation-and-analysis-of-the-ns5b-gene-and-protein-variability-of-non-primate-hepacivirus-in-several-horse-cohorts-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil
#14
Andreza Soriano Figueiredo, Elisabeth Lampe, Pedro Pereira Lira Furtado de Albuquerque, Flávia Löwen Levy Chalhoub, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Livia Melo Villar, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira
Among the hepacivirus species recently described, the non-primate hepacivirus/hepacivirus A found in horses and donkeys is closely related to the human hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, the equine is an attractive surrogate large animal model for the study of HCV therapy, pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Despite global efforts, epidemiological and genetic studies have not elucidated the risk factors, virus distribution or genetic variability of the hepacivirus A, which are also important issues for the equine welfare...
April 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409850/efficacy-and-safety-of-pueraria-candollei-var-mirifica-airy-shaw-suvat-niyomdham-for-menopausal-women-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials-and-the-way-forward
#15
Chuenjid Kongkaew, Norman C Scholfield, Teerapon Dhippayom, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Surasak Saokaew, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (Airy Shaw & Suvat.) Niyomdham (commonly termed P. mirifica, PM) growing in upland Thailand has a long history as a postmenopausal rejuvenant therapy for indigenants. Its amelioration of menopause symptoms in clinical trials was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: International and Thai databases were searched from inception to February 2017. Clinical trials investigating effects of PM menopausal or postmenopausal women were included...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352509/molecular-evidence-to-suggest-pigeon-type-chlamydia-psittaci-in-association-with-an-equine-foal-loss
#16
M Jelocnik, C Jenkins, B O'Rourke, J Barnwell, A Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an important avian pathogen with spillover from infected wild and domesticated birds also posing a risk to human health. We recently reported a case of C. psittaci equine placentitis associated with further spillover to humans. Molecular typing of this case revealed it belonged to the 6BC clade of C. psittaci, a globally distributed highly virulent set of strains, typically linked to infection spillover from parrots. Equine chlamydiosis associated with C. psittaci infection has previously been reported elsewhere in countries where parrots are not endemic, however, raising questions over the identity of infecting C...
January 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337162/antiviral-activity-of-k22-against-members-of-the-order-nidovirales
#17
Julie Christiane Françoise Rappe, Adriaan de Wilde, Han Di, Christin Müller, Hanspeter Stalder, Philip V'kovski, Eric Snijder, Margo A Brinton, John Ziebuhr, Nicolas Ruggli, Volker Thiel
Recently, a novel antiviral compound (K22) that inhibits replication of a broad range of animal and human coronaviruses was reported to interfere with viral RNA synthesis by impairing double-membrane vesicle (DMV) formation (Lundin et al., 2014). Here we assessed potential antiviral activities of K22 against a range of viruses representing two (sub)families of the order Nidovirales, the Arteriviridae (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [PRRSV], equine arteritis virus [EAV] and simian hemorrhagic fever virus [SHFV]), and the Torovirinae (equine torovirus [EToV] and White Bream virus [WBV])...
February 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229370/differences-in-signal-peptide-processing-between-gp3-glycoproteins-of-arteriviridae
#18
Minze Zhang, Michael Veit
We reported previously that carbohydrate attachment to an overlapping glycosylation site adjacent to the signal peptide of GP3 from equine arteritis virus (EAV) prevents cleavage. Here we investigated whether this unusual processing scheme is a feature of GP3s of other Arteriviridae, which all contain a glycosylation site at a similar position. Expression of GP3 from type-1 and type-2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and from lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) revealed that the first glycosylation site is used, but has no effect on signal peptide cleavage...
December 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198956/effects-of-staining-method-and-clinician-experience-on-the-evaluation-of-stallion-sperm-morphology
#19
Ruby Yoana Murcia-Robayo, Eleonore Jouanisson, Guy Beauchamp, Mouhamadou Diaw
Evaluation of sperm morphology is part of the assessment of fertility in human and animal reproduction. Analyses can be performed using different techniques, including the use of staining methods In our prospective study, the morphology of equine sperm was evaluated using 3 staining methods Diff-Quik, eosin-nigrosin, and SpermBlue, the latter being a relatively new stain commonly used for human sperm. Our hypotheses were that (1) SpermBlue allows easier assessment of horse sperm morphology and facilitates better identification of sperm abnormalities, and (2) sperm morphology classification differs depending on the evaluator's experience...
January 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196493/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-in-domestic-and-wild-mammals
#20
REVIEW
Daniel F Salamone, Natalia G Canel, María Belén Rodríguez
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a useful technique for clinical applications in the horse-breeding industry. However, both ICSI blastocyst and offspring production continues to be limited for most farm and wild species. This article reviews technical differences of ICSI performance among species, possible biological and methodological reasons for the variable efficiency and potential strategies to improve the outcomes. One of the major applications of ICSI in animal production is the reproduction of high-value specimens...
December 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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