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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938476/fetal-and-maternal-genetic-variants-influencing-neonatal-vitamin-d-status
#1
Ketil Størdal, Karl Mårild, German Tapia, Margareta Haugen, Arieh S Cohen, Benedicte A Lie, Lars C Stene
Objective: Several genetic polymorphisms determine vitamin D status. We aimed to estimate the strength of association of established 25-hydroyxvitamin D (25OHD) associated variants in the mother and in the fetus, with 25OHD concentration in newborn umbilical cord plasma. Methods: We randomly selected 578 mother and child dyads from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa). 25OHD was assayed in maternal samples taken shortly after delivery and in cord samples...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938427/calreticulin-is-involved-in-invasion-of-human-extravillous-trophoblasts-through-functional-regulation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-1
#2
Madoka Yamamoto, Midori Ikezaki, Saori Toujima, Naoyuki Iwahashi, Mika Mizoguchi, Sakiko Nanjo, Sawako Minami, Yoshito Ihara, Kazuhiko Ino
Calreticulin (CRT), a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a variety of roles in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, immunity, and cancer biology. It has been reported that CRT is expressed in the human placenta, although its function in placental development is poorly understood. Appropriate invasion of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) into the maternal decidua is necessary for successful pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression and functional role of CRT in EVTs by utilizing the human EVT cell line HTR8/SVneo, in which CRT gene expression was knocked down...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938125/selective-immuno-modulatory-effect-of-prolactin-upon-pro-inflammatory-response-in-human-fetal-membranes
#3
Pilar Flores-Espinosa, Eduardo Preciado-Martínez, Araceli Mejía-Salvador, Gabriela Sedano-González, Luisa Bermejo-Martínez, Adalberto Parra-Covarruvias, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo Vega-Sánchez, Isabel Méndez, Braulio Quesada-Reyna, Andrea Olmos-Ortiz, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina
During pregnancy, prolactin (PRL) is a neuro-immuno-cytokine that contributes actively to the crosstalk between the immune and endocrine systems and, thus, to the creation of an immune-privileged milieu. This work aims to analyze the capacity of PRL to modulate the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory markers associated with labor. Studies were conducted using human fetal membranes at term mounted in a model of two independent chambers. The choriodecidual region was stimulated with 500-ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the amnion and choriodecidual region were co-simulated with different concentrations of PRL that can arise during pregnancy: 250, 500, 1000, and 4000ng/mL...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938051/pregnancy-disorders-in-africa-and-the-obstetric-dilemma
#4
Annettee Nakimuli, Ashley Moffett
The high neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with the extremes of birth weight is referred to as the obstetric dilemma. Pre-eclampsia and other conditions that lead to low birth weight are considered as the Great Obstetrical Syndromes (GOS). At the other extreme is high birth weight resulting in obstructed labour. Fetal weight largely depends on placental function and defective placentation is a common feature of the GOS. There is evidence that the local uterine immune system (KIR and HLA-C) regulates placentation, with racial differences noted...
December 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937410/cerebral-oxygenation-of-premature-lambs-supported-by-an-artificial-placenta
#5
Ahmed M El-Sabbagh, Brian W Gray, Andrew W Shaffer, Benjamin S Bryner, Joseph T Church, Jennifer S McLeod, Sara Zakem, Elena M Perkins, Renée A Shellhaas, John D E Barks, Alvaro Rojas-Peña, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
An artificial placenta (AP) using venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) could represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of extremely premature infants. However, AP support could potentially alter cerebral oxygen delivery. We assessed cerebral perfusion in fetal lambs on AP support using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and carotid arterial flow (CAF). Fourteen premature lambs at EGA 130 days (term = 145) underwent cannulation of the right jugular vein and umbilical vein with initiation of VV-ECLS...
September 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935707/the-eutheria-specific-mir-290-mir-371-cluster-modulates-placental-growth-and-maternal-fetal-transport
#6
Alireza Paikari, Cassandra Belair, Danial Saw, Robert Blelloch
A family of vertebrate-specific microRNAs called the ESCC microRNAs arises from two genetic loci in mammals, the miR-290/miR-371 and miR-302 loci. While the miR-302 locus is found broadly among vertebrates, the miR-290/miR-371 locus is unique to eutheria (placental mammals), suggesting a role in placental development. Here, we evaluate that role. A knockin reporter for the mouse miR-290 cluster gene is expressed throughout the embryo until gastrulation at which time it becomes specifically expressed in extraembryonic tissues and the germline...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935154/inducible-knockout-of-syncytin-a-gene-leads-to-an-extensive-placental-vasculature-deficiency-implications-for-preeclampsia
#7
Shan Qiao, Fengchao Wang, Haibin Chen, Shi-Wen Jiang
Syncytin-1, a human endogenous retroviral envelope gene (HERVW1), is specifically expressed in placental trophoblasts and mediates the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts through a fusogenic activity. Syncytin-1 expression deficiency has been repeatedly observed in preeclamptic/IUGR placentas. Previous gene knockout studies indicated that in mice, complete syncytin-A null mouse embryos died in utero between 11.5 and 13.5days of gestation. However, the complete knockout model could not fully recapitulate the mid- to third-trimester, time-specific syncytin-1 deficiency in preeclampsia patients...
September 18, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935125/maternal-circulating-adipokine-profile-and-insulin-resistance-in-women-at-high-risk-of-developing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Kym J Guelfi, Ming Jing Ong, Shaofu Li, Karen E Wallman, Dorota A Doherty, Paul A Fournier, John P Newnham, Jeffrey A Keelan
BACKGROUND: Cytokines produced by adipose and placental tissues (adipokines) have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). There is, however, limited research regarding the relationship between advancing pregnancy, maternal adipokine profile, insulin resistance and the development of GDM. Furthermore, no studies have investigated these parameters in women with a history of GDM who are at the highest risk of recurrence. This study examined the circulating concentrations of a number of adipokines associated with insulin resistance at two points in pregnancy, and determined whether they were altered in women who developed GDM...
August 24, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935117/the-role-of-krab-zfps-in-transposable-element-repression-and-mammalian-evolution
#9
REVIEW
Peng Yang, Yixuan Wang, Todd S Macfarlan
Kruppel-associated box zinc-finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) make up the largest family of transcription factors in humans. These proteins emerged in the last common ancestor of coelacanth and tetrapods, and have expanded and diversified in the mammalian lineage. Although their mechanism of transcriptional repression has been well studied for over a decade, the DNA-binding activities and the biological functions of these proteins have been largely unexplored. Recent large-scale ChIP-seq studies and loss-of-function experiments have revealed that KRAB-ZFPs play a major role in the recognition and transcriptional silencing of transposable elements (TEs), consistent with an 'arms race model' of KRAB-ZFP evolution against invading TEs...
September 18, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934813/postpartum-retained-products-of-conception-a-novel-approach-to-follow-up-and-early-diagnosis
#10
Noam Smorgick, Ayala Krakov, Ron Maymon, Moshe Betser, Josef Tovbin, Moty Pansky
Purpose To investigate whether ultrasound follow-up for the detection of postpartum retained products of conception (RPOC) in women considered at risk for this condition may allow for early diagnosis. Methods Parturients at risk for RPOC underwent an ultrasound exam on the second postpartum day. Based on the ultrasound findings, women were either: (1) discharged to routine postpartum care in cases of normal scans, (2) invited for follow-up in cases of abnormal scans. We retrospectively analyzed the rates of women requiring uterine evacuation due to persistent abnormal scans...
September 21, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934438/placental-but-not-peripheral-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-malaria-in-infancy
#11
Sarah Boudová, Titus Divala, Randy Mungwira, Patricia Mawindo, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
Pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum infection impacts the health of mothers and newborns, but little is known about the effects of these infections on infant susceptibility to malaria. We followed 473 mother-infant pairs during pregnancy and through 2 years of age. We observed that children born to mothers with placental malaria, but not those born to mothers with peripheral infection without evidence of placental sequestration, had increased risk of malaria during the first year of life compared with children born to mothers with no malaria during pregnancy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934378/investigating-difficult-nodes-in-the-placental-mammal-tree-with-expanded-taxon-sampling-and-thousands-of-ultraconserved-elements
#12
Jacob A Esselstyn, Carl H Oliveros, Mark T Swanson, Brant C Faircloth
The phylogeny of eutherian mammals contains some of the most recalcitrant nodes in the tetrapod tree of life. We combined comprehensive taxon and character sampling to explore three of the most debated interordinal relationships among placental mammals. We performed in silico extraction of ultraconserved element loci from 72 published genomes and invitro enrichment and sequencing of ultraconserved elements from 28 additional mammals, resulting in alignments of 3,787 loci. We analyzed these data using concatenated and multispecies coalescent phylogenetic approaches, topological tests, and exploration of support among individual loci to identify the root of Eutheria and the sister groups of tree shrews (Scandentia) and horses (Perissodactyla)...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#13
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933788/angptl4-mediates-the-protective-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-activators-in-the-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#14
Lei Liu, Xu Zhuang, Meng Jiang, Fei Guan, Qin Fu, Jianhua Lin
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be a therapeutic target for preeclampsia (PE). Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a multifunctional secretory protein involved in regulating lipid metabolism and angiogenesis in various tissues. However, the expression of PPARγ and ANGPTL4 and their interaction in PE remain elusive. Here we showed that PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone upregulated the expression and secretion of ANGPTL4 in a dose-dependent manner in HTR8/SVneo cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and placental explants...
September 21, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932201/the-placental-microbiota-is-altered-among-subjects-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-pilot-study
#15
Jia Zheng, Xinhua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Lili Mao, Miao Yu, Jianping Xu, Tong Wang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has significant implications for the future health of the mother and child. However, the associations between human placental microbiota and GDM are poorly understood. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of GDM and further define whether or not certain placental microbiota taxon correlates with specific clinical characteristics. Placenta were collected from GDM women and women with normal pregnancies (n = 10, in each group) consecutively recruited at Peking Union Medical College Hospital...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931587/maternal-choline-supplementation-modulates-placental-nutrient-transport-and-metabolism-in-late-gestation-of-mouse-pregnancy
#16
Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Zhen Wang, Xinyin Jiang, Jason S Hutzler, Hallie R Klein, J Thomas Brenna, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Background: Fetal growth is dependent on placental nutrient supply, which is influenced by placental perfusion and transporter abundance. Previous research indicates that adequate choline nutrition during pregnancy improves placental vascular development, supporting the hypothesis that choline may affect placental nutrient transport.Objective: The present study sought to determine the impact of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental nutrient transporter abundance and nutrient metabolism during late gestation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930668/aspects-of-sexual-precocity-and-morphometry-of-uterus-placenta-and-embryos-fetuses-in-piau-breed-and-commercial-line-gilts
#17
José Carlos Montes, Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Breno Soares Camilo, Hugo Hideki Shiomi, Daniel Araújo Lima, Rogério Oliveira Pinho, Jhonata Vieira Tavares do Nascimento Pereira, Denise Silva Okano, Karine Assis Costa, José Domingos Guimarães
In view of the importance of the genetic material of local breeds in the swine industry and the lack of information about reproductive performance of Piau females, two experiments were conducted to evaluate puberty and sexual maturity as well as the morphometry of embryos/fetuses, placenta and uterus during the first 90 days of gestation in Piau breed and Commercial line gilts. In experiment I, 37 Piau and 25 commercial line gilts were used. From the 120 days of age, detection of estrus was performed using mature boars from the first to third estrus of each gilt...
September 12, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#18
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929598/levels-of-serum-circulating-angiogenic-factors-within-1-week-prior-to-delivery-are-closely-related-to-conditions-of-pregnant-women-with-pre-eclampsia-gestational-hypertension-and-or-fetal-growth-restriction
#19
Sakiko Nanjo, Sawako Minami, Mika Mizoguchi, Madoka Yamamoto, Tamaki Yahata, Saori Toujima, Michihisa Shiro, Aya Kobayashi, Yasuteru Muragaki, Kazuhiko Ino
AIM: We aimed to investigate maternal serum angiogenic marker profiles within 1 week prior to delivery in cases of gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR) with different clinical conditions. METHODS: We enrolled 165 women with singleton pregnancy. The participants were classified based on three characteristics: (i) proteinuria (GH and PE); (ii) FGR (PE with FGR [PE + FGR], PE alone, and FGR alone); and (iii) onset (early onset PE [EO PE] and late-onset PE [LO PE])...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929283/expanding-the-field-of-acute-care-surgery-a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-reboa-in-cases-of-morbidly-adherent-placenta
#20
R Manzano-Nunez, M F Escobar-Vidarte, M P Naranjo, F Rodriguez, P Ferrada, J D Casallas, C A Ordoñez
PURPOSE: Prophylactic placement of endovascular balloon occlusion catheters has grown to be part of the surgical plans to control intraoperative hemorrhage in cases of abnormal placentation. We performed a systematic literature review to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the use of REBOA during cesarean delivery in pregnant woman with morbidly adherent placenta. METHODS: A systematic review was performed. Relevant case reports and nonrandomized studies were identified by the literature search in MEDLINE...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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