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salt and progression of renal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929450/intrarenal-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-the-old-and-the-new
#1
REVIEW
Silas Culver, Caixia Li, Helmy M Siragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) is an independent paracrine hormonal system with an increasingly prominent role in hypertension and renal disease. Two enzyme components of this system are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and more recently discovered ACE2. The purpose of this review is to describe recent discoveries regarding the roles of intrarenal ACE and ACE2 and their interaction. RECENT FINDINGS: Renal tubular ACE contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873450/bromide-supplementation-exacerbated-the-renal-dysfunction-injury-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-alport-syndrome
#2
Tsubasa Yokota, Kohei Omachi, Mary Ann Suico, Haruka Kojima, Misato Kamura, Keisuke Teramoto, Shota Kaseda, Jun Kuwazuru, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Hirofumi Kai
A seminal study recently demonstrated that bromide (Br-) has a critical function in the assembly of type IV collagen in basement membrane (BM), and suggested that Br- supplementation has therapeutic potential for BM diseases. Because salts of bromide (KBr and NaBr) have been used as antiepileptic drugs for several decades, repositioning of Br- for BM diseases is probable. However, the effects of Br- on glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease such as Alport syndrome (AS) and its impact on the kidney are still unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862701/deletion-of-nedd4-2-results-in-progressive-kidney-disease-in-mice
#3
Tanya L Henshall, Jantina A Manning, Omri S Alfassy, Pranay Goel, Natasha A Boase, Hiroshi Kawabe, Sharad Kumar
NEDD4-2 (NEDD4L), a ubiquitin protein ligase of the Nedd4 family, is a key regulator of cell surface expression and activity of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). While hypomorphic alleles of Nedd4-2 in mice show salt-sensitive hypertension, complete knockout results in pulmonary distress and perinatal lethality due to increased cell surface levels of ENaC. We now show that Nedd4-2 deficiency in mice also results in an unexpected progressive kidney injury phenotype associated with elevated ENaC and Na(+)Cl(-) cotransporter expression, increased Na(+) reabsorption, hypertension and markedly reduced levels of aldosterone...
September 1, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682025/-hypertension-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Antonio De Pascalis, Alessandro Balducci
The progression of chronic kidney disease CKD is largely independent of the underlying kidney disorder once renal function has fallen below a critical level. Hypertension is an independent risk factor for disease progression in both adult and pediatric patients with kidney disorders. Optimal blood pressure control (130 /80mm Hg) represents a main goal of conservative therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease CKD but it is rarely achieved in clinical practice. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are more effective than other drugs in slowing progression of proteinuric CKD...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656379/physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-plasminogen-system-in-the-kidney
#5
REVIEW
Per Svenningsen, Gitte Rye Hinrichs, Rikke Zachar, Rikke Ydegaard, Boye L Jensen
The plasminogen system is important for fibrinolysis in addition to tissue remodeling and inflammation with significance for kidney disease. The system consists of the circulating zymogen plasminogen (Plg) and the tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, tPA and uPA, expressed in the glomeruli, endothelium and tubular epithelium, respectively, and the inhibitors α2-antiplasmin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-type1, PAI-1. Plasminogen is activated by surface receptors, some with renal expression: urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), plasminogen receptor KT (Plg-RKT), and tPA, most evident in the endothelium...
June 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577072/regulation-of-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-by-vasopressin
#6
REVIEW
Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Vasopressin (AVP) induces antidiuresis, thus playing an essential role in body water and electrolyte homeostasis. Its antidiuretic effects are mediated chiefly by V2 vasopressin receptors (V2R) expressed along the distal nephron and collecting duct epithelia. NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron, which includes the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT), largely depends on the activity of two structurally related Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters, NKCC2 in TAL and NCC in DCT. AVP-induced activation of these transporters contributes to urine concentration and renal electrolyte reabsorption...
August 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560105/the-metabolic-profile-of-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Yohei Tanada, Junji Okuda, Takao Kato, Eri Minamino-Muta, Ichijiro Murata, Tomoyoshi Soga, Tetsuo Shioi, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: The kidney is always subjected to high metabolic demand. The aim of this study was to characterize metabolic profiles of a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) induced by prolonged hypertension. METHODS: We used inbred male Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats fed an 8% NaCl diet from six weeks of age (high-salt; HS group) or a 0.3% NaCl diet as controls (low-salt; LS group). We analyzed function, pathology, metabolome, and the gene expression related to energy metabolism of the kidney...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555299/life-with-one-kidney
#8
Michiel F Schreuder
Life with a solitary functioning kidney (SFK) may be different from that when born with two kidneys. Based on the hyperfiltration hypothesis, a SFK may lead to glomerular damage with hypertension, albuminuria and progression towards end-stage renal disease. As the prognosis of kidney donors was considered to be very good, having a SFK has been considered to be a benign condition. In contrast, our research group has demonstrated that being born with or acquiring a SFK in childhood results in renal injury before adulthood in over 50% of those affected...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551015/salt-induced-phosphoproteomic-changes-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#9
Lanying Li, Jiawen Li, Lishan Tan, Minzi Qiu, Mengbi Zhang, Aiqing Li
Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a cardiovascular regulating center within the brain, which plays a critical role in high salt-induced progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). However, the phosphoproteomic changes in the PVN caused by CRF remain unclear. This study aimed to perform large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis of PVN induced by CRF and high salt intake. In this study, eight weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF model) or sham operation, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-salt (4%) or normal-salt (0...
May 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468519/atrasentan-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#10
REVIEW
Jesus Egido, Jorge Rojas-Rivera, Sebastian Mas, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Ana Belen Sanz, Emilio Gonzalez Parra, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most potent vasoconstrictor, and is involved in the renal regulation of salt and water homeostasis. When produced in excess in the kidney, ET-1 promotes proteinuria and tubulointerstitial injury. There is great interest in the clinical use of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD), mainly in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Areas covered: Physiopathological actions of ET-1 on the kidney. Both dual ETAR/ETBR (bosentan) or ETAR specific endothelin antagonists (avosentan and atrasentan, among others), which have progressed to early clinical development, with particular emphasis on atrasentan...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412019/renal-function-in-relation-to-sodium-intake-a%C3%A2-quantitative-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Kyoko Nomura, Kei Asayama, Lotte Jacobs, Lutgarde Thijs, Jan A Staessen
We undertook a quantitative literature review to search for evidence underpinning current guidelines proposing a reduction of sodium intake to less than 2.4 g/d for the management of chronic kidney disease. We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published from January 1980 through May 2016. Two investigators screened 5072 publications and extracted data from 36, including 11 cross-sectional and 5 longitudinal observational studies and 20 intervention trials. Within-study effect sizes were pooled and standardized to a sodium gradient of 100 mmol/d by using inverse-variance weighted random effects models...
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404591/intravital-imaging-of-the-kidney-in-a-rat-model-of-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#12
Bradley T Endres, Ruben M Sandoval, George J Rhodes, Silvia B Campos-Bilderback, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Christopher McDermott-Roe, Alexander Staruschenko, Bruce A Molitoris, Aron M Geurts, Oleg Palygin
Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and a major risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. The role of albuminuria, a common feature of hypertension and robust predictor of cardiorenal disorders, remains incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms leading to albuminuria in the kidney of a rat model of hypertension, the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. To determine the relative contributions of the glomerulus and proximal tubule (PT) to albuminuria, we applied intravital two-photon-based imaging to investigate the complex renal physiological changes that occur during salt-induced hypertension...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397867/oxidative-stress-causes-hypertension-and-activation-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-after-high-fructose-and-salt-treatments
#13
Waleska C Dornas, Leonardo M Cardoso, Maísa Silva, Natália L S Machado, Deoclécio A Chianca-Jr, Andréia C Alzamora, Wanderson G Lima, Vincent Lagente, Marcelo E Silva
There is evidence that diets rich in salt or simple sugars as fructose are associated with abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt- and fructose-induced kidney damage and/or consequent hypertension yet remain largely unexplored. Here, we tested the role of oxidative state as an essential factor along with high salt and fructose treatment in causing hypertension. Fischer male rats were supplemented with a high-fructose diet (20% in water) for 20 weeks and maintained on high-salt diet (8%) associate in the last 10 weeks...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216890/evaluate-the-antigenotoxicity-and-anticancer-role-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-by-determining-oxidative-dna-damage-and-the-expression-of-phosphorylated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-c-fos-c-jun-and-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor
#14
Ramalingam Sharmila, Ganapathy Sindhu
BACKGROUND: Plant sterols are the major source of micronutrients and have not shown any obvious side effects in human. β-sitosterol is one of the most prevalent phytosterols which have been recorded in ancient medicinal history for its use in the treatment of many chronic diseases, especially cancer. The modulations of mitogen-activated protein kinases' (MAPKs') play a crucial role in the development of human renal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the antigenotoxic and anticancer role of β-sitosterol against renal carcinogen...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190873/the-role-of-uric-acid-in-hypertension-of-adolescents-prehypertension-and-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure
#15
REVIEW
Yang Wang, Jia-Wen Hu, Yong-Bo Lv, Chao Chu, Ke-Ke Wang, Wen-Ling Zheng, Yu-Meng Cao, Zu-Yi Yuan, Jian-Jun Mu
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Metabolic disorders of uric acid are associated with many disease states. Substantial evidence suggests the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in adolescents and prehypertension; and urate-lowering agents can significantly improve these early stages of hypertension. Uric acid also influences salt sensitivity of blood pressure through two phases. Local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation initiates renal damage, arteriolopathy, and endothelium dysfunction, which is followed by the dysregulation of sodium homeostasis, thereby leading to increased salt sensitivity...
February 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143892/activation-of-trpv4-by-dietary-apigenin-antagonizes-renal-fibrosis-in-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-doca-salt-induced-hypertension
#16
Xing Wei, Peng Gao, Yunfei Pu, Qiang Li, Tao Yang, Hexuan Zhang, Shiqiang Xiong, Yuanting Cui, Li Li, Xin Ma, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
Hypertension-induced renal fibrosis contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease, and apigenin, an anti-hypertensive flavone that is abundant in celery, acts as an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). However, whether apigenin reduces hypertension-induced renal fibrosis, as well as the underlying mechanism, remains elusive. In the present study, the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats that were treated with apigenin or vehicle for 4 weeks...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126237/kidney-disease-and-the-westernization-and-industrialization-of-food
#17
REVIEW
Holly Kramer
The industrialization of food in the United States has led to lower prices, and families now spend a smaller percentage of their total income on food compared with past generations. The decline in prices for food commodities has led to sharp increases in food consumption, with average caloric intake in the United States now more than 500 calories higher per day compared to the 1970s. This increase in total food consumption has fueled the ongoing obesity epidemic, which in turn has likely played a role in the epidemic of end-stage renal disease during the last 2 decades...
July 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114891/diet-in-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-mediterranean-african-country
#18
Khawla Kammoun, Hanen Chaker, Hichem Mahfoudh, Nouha Makhlouf, Faical Jarraya, Jamil Hachicha
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. DISCUSSION: Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expenditures...
January 23, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106712/very-low-protein-diet-vlpd-reduces-metabolic-acidosis-in-subjects-with-chronic-kidney-disease-the-nutritional-light-signal-of-the-renal-acid-load
#19
Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Stefania Marzocco, Emanuele De Simone, Antonietta De Blasio, Maria Luisa Sirico, Luca Nardone, On Behalf Of Ubi Study Group
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069662/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inhibition-limits-the-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-rat
#20
Victoria Yum, Rachel E Carlisle, Chao Lu, Elise Brimble, Jasmine Chahal, Chandak Upagupta, Kjetil Ask, Jeffrey G Dickhout
Proteinuria is one of the primary risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been implicated in the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We hypothesized that the suppression of ER stress with a low molecular weight chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), would reduce the severity of CKD and proteinuria in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rat. To induce hypertension and CKD, 12-wk-old male rats were placed on a high-salt (HS) diet for 4 wk with or without 4-PBA treatment...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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