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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342094/telomeric-repeat-containing-rnas-terra-decrease-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-is-associated-with-worsened-clinical-outcome
#1
Valerio Vitelli, Paolo Falvo, Solomon G Nergadze, Marco Santagostino, Lela Khoriauli, Paola Pellanda, Giulia Bertino, Antonio Occhini, Marco Benazzo, Patrizia Morbini, Marco Paulli, Camillo Porta, Elena Giulotto
Telomeres are transcribed into noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA), which are essential for telomere maintenance. Deregulation of TERRA transcription impairs telomere metabolism and a role in tumorigenesis has been proposed. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide, with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) being the predominant type. Since HNSCC patients are characterized by altered telomere maintenance, a dysfunction in telomere transcription can be hypothesized...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339748/dot1-regulates-nucleosome-dynamics-by-its-inherent-histone-chaperone-activity-in-yeast
#2
Soyun Lee, Seunghee Oh, Kwiwan Jeong, Hyelim Jo, Yoonjung Choi, Hogyu David Seo, Minhoo Kim, Joonho Choe, Chang Seob Kwon, Daeyoup Lee
Dot1 (disruptor of telomeric silencing-1, DOT1L in humans) is the only known enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 79 methylation (H3K79me) and is evolutionarily conserved in most eukaryotes. Yeast Dot1p lacks a SET domain and does not methylate free histones and thus may have different actions with respect to other histone methyltransferases. Here we show that Dot1p displays histone chaperone activity and regulates nucleosome dynamics via histone exchange in yeast. We show that a methylation-independent function of Dot1p is required for the cryptic transcription within transcribed regions seen following disruption of the Set2-Rpd3S pathway...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339662/cytogenetic-characterization-of-eight-odonata-species-originating-from-the-curonian-spit-the-baltic-sea-russia-using-c-banding-and-fish-with-18s-rdna-and-telomeric-ttagg-n-probes
#3
Valentina G Kuznetsova, Anna Maryańska-Nadachowska, Nazar A Shapoval, Boris A Anokhin, Anatoly P Shapoval
We studied the karyotypes of 8 dragonfly species originating from the Curonian Spit (the Baltic Sea, Russia) using C-banding and FISH with 18S rDNA and "insect" telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Our results show that Leucorrhinia rubicunda, Libellula depressa, L. quadrimaculata, Orthetrum cancellatum, Sympetrum danae, and S. vulgatum from the family Libellulidae, as well as Cordulia aenea and Epitheca bimaculata from the family Corduliidae share 2n = 25 (24 + X) in males, with a minute pair of m-chromosomes being present in every karyotype except for that of C...
January 17, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337080/smc1%C3%AE-substitutes-for-many-meiotic-functions-of-smc1%C3%AE-but-cannot-protect-telomeres-from-damage
#4
Uddipta Biswas, Michelle Stevense, Rolf Jessberger
The cohesin complex is built upon the SMC1/SMC3 heterodimer, and mammalian meiocytes feature two variants of SMC1 named SMC1α and SMC1β. It is unclear why these two SMC1 variants have evolved. To determine unique versus redundant functions of SMC1β, we asked which of the known functions of SMC1β can be fulfilled by SMC1α. Smc1α was expressed under control of the Smc1β promoter in either wild-type or SMC1β-deficient mice. No effect was seen in the former. However, several major phenotypes of SMC1β-deficient spermatocytes were rescued by SMC1α...
January 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335872/disruptor-of-telomeric-silencing-1-like-dot1l-disclosing-a-new-class-of-non-nucleoside-inhibitors-by-means-of-ligand-based-and-structure-based-approaches
#5
Manuela Sabatino, Dante Rotili, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Mariantonietta Forgione, Daniela Tomaselli, Fréderic Alby, Paola B Arimondo, Antonello Mai, Rino Ragno
Chemical inhibition of chromatin-mediated signaling involved proteins is an established strategy to drive expression networks and alter disease progression. Protein methyltransferases are among the most studied proteins in epigenetics and, in particular, disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1L) lysine methyltransferase plays a key role in MLL-rearranged acute leukemia Selective inhibition of DOT1L is an established attractive strategy to breakdown aberrant H3K79 methylation and thus overexpression of leukemia genes, and leukemogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335816/organ-reserve-excess-metabolic-capacity-and-aging
#6
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e.g., bioenergetics pathway, antioxidants system, plasticity)...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335812/sperm-telomere-length-in-donor-samples-is-not-related-to-icsi-outcome
#7
Marc Torra-Massana, Montserrat Barragán, Emanuela Bellu, Rafael Oliva, Amelia Rodríguez, Rita Vassena
PURPOSE: Variations in sperm telomere length (STL) have been associated with altered sperm parameters, poor embryo quality, and lower pregnancy rates, but for normozoospermic men, STL relevance in IVF/ICSI is still uncertain. Moreover, in all studies reported so far, each man's STL was linked to the corresponding female partner characteristics. Here, we study STL in sperm donor samples, each used for up to 12 women, in order to isolate and determine the relationship between STL and reproductive outcomes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335382/the-mitochondrial-genome-paternal-age-and-telomere-length-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Abraham Aviv
Telomere length (TL) in humans is highly heritable and undergoes progressive age-dependent shortening in somatic cells. By contrast, sperm donated by older men display comparatively long telomeres, presumably because in the male germline, telomeres become longer with age. This puzzling phenomenon might explain why TL in the offspring correlates positively with paternal age. The present communication proposes that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and heteroplasmy cause variation in the production of reactive oxygen species, which, in turn, mediate age-dependent selection of germ stem cells with long telomeres and hence sperm with long telomeres...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335381/the-fetal-programming-of-telomere-biology-hypothesis-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Sonja Entringer, Karin de Punder, Claudia Buss, Pathik D Wadhwa
Research on mechanisms underlying fetal programming of health and disease risk has focused primarily on processes that are specific to cell types, organs or phenotypes of interest. However, the observation that developmental conditions concomitantly influence a diverse set of phenotypes, the majority of which are implicated in age-related disorders, raises the possibility that such developmental conditions may additionally exert effects via a common underlying mechanism that involves cellular/molecular ageing-related processes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335379/the-role-of-telomeres-in-the-mechanisms-and-evolution-of-life-history-trade-offs-and-ageing
#10
REVIEW
Andrew J Young
Evolutionary biology and biomedicine have seen a surge of recent interest in the possibility that telomeres play a role in life-history trade-offs and ageing. Here, I evaluate alternative hypotheses for the role of telomeres in the mechanisms and evolution of life-history trade-offs and ageing, and highlight outstanding challenges. First, while recent findings underscore the possibility of a proximate causal role for telomeres in current-future trade-offs and ageing, it is currently unclear (i) whether telomeres ever play a causal role in either and (ii) whether any causal role for telomeres arises via shortening or length-independent mechanisms...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335378/comparison-of-telomere-length-measurement-methods
#11
REVIEW
Tsung-Po Lai, Woodring E Wright, Jerry W Shay
The strengths and limitations of the major methods developed to measure telomere lengths (TLs) in cells and tissues are presented in this review. These include Q-PCR (Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction), TRF (Terminal Restriction Fragment) analysis, a variety of Q-FISH (Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) methods, STELA (Single TElomere Length Analysis) and TeSLA (Telomere Shortest Length Assay). For each method, we will cover information about validation studies, including reproducibility in independent laboratories, accuracy, reliability and sensitivity for measuring not only the average but also the shortest telomeres...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335377/heritability-of-telomere-variation-it-is-all-about-the-environment
#12
REVIEW
Hannah L Dugdale, David S Richardson
Individual differences in telomere length have been linked to survival and senescence. Understanding the heritability of telomere length can provide important insight into individual differences and facilitate our understanding of the evolution of telomeres. However, to gain accurate and meaningful estimates of telomere heritability it is vital that the impact of the environment, and how this may vary, is understood and accounted for. The aim of this review is to raise awareness of this important, but much under-appreciated point...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335376/telomeres-and-genomic-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Duncan M Baird
The terminal regions of eukaryotic chromosomes, composed of telomere repeat sequences and sub-telomeric sequences, represent some of the most variable and rapidly evolving regions of the genome. The sub-telomeric regions are characterized by segmentally duplicated repetitive DNA elements, interstitial telomere repeat sequences and families of variable genes. Sub-telomeric repeat sequence families are shared among multiple chromosome ends, often rendering detailed sequence characterization difficult. These regions are composed of constitutive heterochromatin and are subjected to high levels of meiotic recombination...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335375/reflections-on-telomere-dynamics-and-ageing-related-diseases-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Abraham Aviv, Jerry W Shay
Epidemiological studies have principally relied on measurements of telomere length (TL) in leucocytes, which reflects TL in other somatic cells. Leucocyte TL (LTL) displays vast variation across individuals-a phenomenon already observed in newborns. It is highly heritable, longer in females than males and in individuals of African ancestry than European ancestry. LTL is also longer in offspring conceived by older men. The traditional view regards LTL as a passive biomarker of human ageing. However, new evidence suggests that a dynamic interplay between selective evolutionary forces and TL might result in trade-offs for specific health outcomes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335374/understanding-diversity-in-telomere-dynamics
#15
Pat Monaghan, Dan T A Eisenberg, Lea Harrington, Dan Nussey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335373/ectothermic-telomeres-it-s-time-they-came-in-from-the-cold
#16
REVIEW
Mats Olsson, Erik Wapstra, Christopher Friesen
We review the evolutionary ecology and genetics of telomeres in taxa that cannot elevate their body temperature to a preferred level through metabolism but do so by basking or seeking out a warm environment. This group of organisms contains all living things on earth, apart from birds and mammals. One reason for our interest in this synthetic group is the argument that high, stable body temperature increases the risk of malignant tumours if long, telomerase-restored telomeres make cells 'live forever'. If this holds true, ectotherms should have significantly lower cancer frequencies...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335372/all-s-well-that-ends-well-why-large-species-have-short-telomeres
#17
Rosa Ana Risques, Daniel E L Promislow
Among mammal species, almost all life-history traits are strongly size dependent. This size dependence even occurs at a molecular level. For example, both telomere length and telomerase expression show a size-dependent threshold. With some exceptions, species smaller than approximately 2 kg express telomerase, while species larger than that do not. Among species greater than approximately 5 kg, telomeres tend to be short-less than 25 kb-while among smaller species, some species have short and some have long telomeres...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335371/the-relationship-between-telomere-length-and-mortality-risk-in-non-model-vertebrate-systems-a-meta-analysis
#18
Rachael V Wilbourn, Joshua P Moatt, Hannah Froy, Craig A Walling, Daniel H Nussey, Jelle J Boonekamp
Telomere length (TL) has become a biomarker of increasing interest within ecology and evolutionary biology, and has been found to predict subsequent survival in some recent avian studies but not others. Here, we undertake the first formal meta-analysis to test whether there is an overall association between TL and subsequent mortality risk in vertebrates other than humans and model laboratory rodents. We identified 27 suitable studies and obtained standardized estimates of the hazard ratio associated with TL from each...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335370/somatic-growth-and-telomere-dynamics-in-vertebrates-relationships-mechanisms-and-consequences
#19
REVIEW
Pat Monaghan, Susan E Ozanne
Much telomere loss takes place during the period of most rapid growth when cell proliferation and potentially energy expenditure are high. Fast growth is linked to reduced longevity. Therefore, the effects of somatic cell proliferation on telomere loss and cell senescence might play a significant role in driving the growth-lifespan trade-off. While different species will have evolved a growth strategy that maximizes lifetime fitness, environmental conditions encountered during periods of growth will influence individual optima...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335369/the-rate-of-telomere-loss-is-related-to-maximum-lifespan-in-birds
#20
Gianna M Tricola, Mirre J P Simons, Els Atema, Raoul K Boughton, J L Brown, Donald C Dearborn, G Divoky, John A Eimes, Charles E Huntington, Alexander S Kitaysky, Frans A Juola, David B Lank, Hannah P Litwa, Ellis G A Mulder, Ian C T Nisbet, Kazuo Okanoya, Rebecca J Safran, Stephan J Schoech, Elizabeth A Schreiber, Paul M Thompson, Simon Verhulst, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, David W Winkler, Rebecca Young, Carol M Vleck, Mark F Haussmann
Telomeres are highly conserved regions of DNA that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can signal an irreversible change to a cell's state, including cellular senescence. Senescent cells no longer divide and can damage nearby healthy cells, thus potentially placing them at the crossroads of cancer and ageing. While the epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology of telomeres are well studied, a newer field exploring telomere biology in the context of ecology and evolution is just emerging...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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